← 107 108 109 →
Cardinalone hundred eight
Ordinal108th
(one hundred eighth)
Factorization22 × 33
Divisors1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 9, 12, 18, 27, 36, 54, 108
Greek numeralΡΗ´
Roman numeralCVIII
Binary11011002
Ternary110003
Octal1548
Duodecimal9012
Hexadecimal6C16

108 (one hundred [and] eight) is the natural number following 107 and preceding 109.

In mathematics

108 is:

There are 108 free polyominoes of order 7.

The equation results in the golden ratio.

This could be restated as saying that the "chord" of 108 degrees is , the golden ratio.

Religion and the arts

The number 108 is considered sacred by the Dharmic Religions, such as Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism.

Hinduism

In Hindu tradition, the Mukhya Shivaganas (attendants of Shiva) are 108 in number and hence Shaiva religions, particularly Lingayats, use malas of 108 beads for prayer and meditation.

Similarly, in Gaudiya Vaishnavism, Lord Krishna in Brindavan had 108 followers known as gopis. Recital of their names, often accompanied by the counting of a 108-beaded mala, is often done during religious ceremonies.

The Sri Vaishnavite Tradition has 108 Divya Desams (temples of Vishnu) that are revered by the 12 Alvars in the Divya Prabandha, a collection of 4,000 Tamil verses. There are also 18 pithas (sacred places).[citation needed]

Jainism

In Jainism, the total number of ways of Karma influx (Aasrav). 4 Kashays (anger, pride, conceit, greed) x 3 karanas (mind, speech, bodily action) x 3 stages of planning (planning, procurement, commencement) x 3 ways of execution (own action, getting it done, supporting or approval of action).[citation needed]

Buddhism

In Buddhism, according to Bhante Gunaratana[3] this number is reached by multiplying the senses smell, touch, taste, hearing, sight, and consciousness by whether they are painful, pleasant or neutral, and then again by whether these are internally generated or externally occurring, and yet again by past, present and future, finally we get 108 feelings. 6 × 3 × 2 × 3 = 108.

Tibetan Buddhist malas or rosaries (Tib. ཕྲེང་བ Wyl. phreng ba, "Trengwa") are usually 108 beads;[4] sometimes 111 including the guru bead(s), reflecting the words of the Buddha called in Tibetan the Kangyur (Wylie: Bka'-'gyur) in 108 volumes. Zen priests wear juzu (a ring of prayer beads) around their wrists, which consists of 108 beads.[5]

Japa mala, or japa beads, made from tulasi wood, consisting of 108 beads plus the head bead.
Japa mala, or japa beads, made from tulasi wood, consisting of 108 beads plus the head bead.

The Lankavatara Sutra has a section where the Bodhisattva Mahamati asks Buddha 108 questions[6] and another section where Buddha lists 108 statements of negation in the form of "A statement concerning X is not a statement concerning X."[7] In a footnote, D.T. Suzuki explains that the Sanskrit word translated as "statement" is pada which can also mean "foot-step" or "a position." This confusion over the word "pada" explains why some have mistakenly held that the reference to 108 statements in the Lankavatara refer to the 108 steps that many temples have.[8]

In Japan, at the end of the year, a bell is chimed 108 times in Buddhist temples to finish the old year and welcome the new one. Each ring represents one of 108 earthly temptations (Bonnō) a person must overcome to achieve nirvana.

Other references

In the neo-Gnostic teachings of Samael Aun Weor, an individual has 108 chances (lifetimes) to eliminate his egos and transcend the material world before "devolving" and having the egos forcefully removed in the infradimensions.[9]

Martial arts

Many East Asian martial arts trace their roots back to Buddhism, specifically, to the Buddhist Shaolin Temple. Because of their ties to Buddhism, 108 has become an important symbolic number in a number of martial arts styles.

In literature

In science

In technology

In sports

In card games

In other fields

See also

Notes

  1. ^ "Sloane's A000078 : Tetranacci numbers". The On-Line Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences. OEIS Foundation. Retrieved 2016-05-27.
  2. ^ "Sloane's A003052 : Self numbers or Colombian numbers". The On-Line Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences. OEIS Foundation. Retrieved 2016-05-27.
  3. ^ Bhante Gunaratana, Four Foundations of Mindfulness in Plain English 2012, Wisdom Publications page 86
  4. ^ Chapter 5 of 'Generating the Deity' ISBN 1-55939-055-7
  5. ^ a b "Hyaku Hachi No Bonno: The Influence of The 108 Defilements and Other Buddhist Concepts on Karate Thought and Practice By Charles C. Goodin. The article has appeared in Issue #7, Winter 1996-97 of Furyu: The Budo Journal". Archived from the original on 2007-06-01. Retrieved 2007-04-27.
  6. ^ The Lankavatara Sutra translated by Daisetz Teitaro Suzuki, Chapter Two, Section II,[1]
  7. ^ The Lankavatara Sutra translated by Daisetz Teitaro Suzuki, Chapter Two, Section III,[2]
  8. ^ a b "108 STEPS: The Sino-Indian Connection in the Martial Arts by Joyotpaul Chaudhuri..." (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2009-03-05. Retrieved 2009-01-10.
  9. ^ Samael Aun Weor (2005) [1983]. The Pistis Sophia Unveiled. Glorian Publishing. pp. 211–214. ISBN 0-9745916-8-8.
  10. ^ A Western Journalist on India: The Ferengi's Columns By François Gautier. pg 158. ISBN 81-241-0795-5
  11. ^ Subramaniam Phd., P., (general editors) Dr. Shu Hikosaka, Asst. Prof. Norinaga Shimizu, & Dr. G. John Samuel, (translator) Dr. M. Radhika (1994). Varma Cuttiram வர்ம சுத்திரம்: A Tamil Text on Martial Art from Palm-Leaf Manuscript. Madras: Institute of Asian Studies. pp. 90 & 91.
  12. ^ Reid Phd., Howard, Michael Croucher (1991). The Way of the Warrior: The Paradox of the Martial Arts. New York: Outlook Press. pp. 58–85. ISBN 0-87951-433-7.
  13. ^ a b Leung, Shum and Jeanne Chin. The Secrets of Eagle Claw Kung Fu: Ying Jow Pai. Tuttle martial arts. Boston: Tuttle Pub, 2001, p. 15
  14. ^ "The Combinations". kempoinfo.com. 2008-02-11. Retrieved 2020-10-31.
  15. ^ Official Major League Baseball by Rawlings

References