16th National Congress of the Chinese Communist Party
CCP flag
The flag of the Chinese Communist Party
Date8–14 November 2002 (6 days)
LocationGreat Hall of the People, Beijing, China
Participants2,114 delegates
OutcomeElection of the 16th Central Committee and 16th Central Commission for Discipline Inspection
16th National Congress of the Chinese Communist Party
Traditional Chinese中國共產黨第十六次全國代表大會
Simplified Chinese中国共产党第十六次全国代表大会
Abbreviated name

The 16th National Congress of the Chinese Communist Party was held in Beijing between November 8 and 14, 2002. It was preceded by the 15th National Congress and was succeeded by the 17th National Congress. 2,114 delegates and 40 specially invited delegates represented the party's estimated 66 million members.

The Party National Congress examined and adopted the amendment to the Constitution of the Chinese Communist Party proposed by the 15th CCP Central Committee, and decided to come into force as from the date of its adoption. An amendment to the Constitution was approved the Party National Congress, with Jiang Zemin's signature ideology of "Three Represents" written into it. The Congress and elected a 356-member 16th CCP Central Committee, as well as a 121-member Central Commission for Discipline Inspection (CCDI). The Congress marked the nominal transition of power between Jiang Zemin and Hu Jintao, who replaced Jiang as General Secretary, and a newly expanded Politburo Standing Committee line-up. The institutional transition would be completed in state organs by the 1st session of the 10th National People's Congress in March 2003. Jiang, however, remained head of the Central Military Commission, therefore in practice, the power transition was not complete.

Members of the Party Central Committee

The 16th CCP Central Committee is composed of 198 full members and 158 alternate members, as well as a 121-member Central Commission for Discipline Inspection.

Inner party democracy

Out of the nearly 200 Central Committee that was elected by the Congress, it is possible to judge from the number of votes cast in favour the delegates who lacked support in the party. Huang Ju, who was made Vice-Premier in 2003, had the fewest votes in favour, with more than 300 delegates voting against him. Others in the bottom seven, in order from least popular, were Li Changchun (CCP propaganda chief), Zhang Gaoli (then Shandong Party Chief), Jia Qinglin (CPPCC Chairman), Xi Jinping (then Zhejiang Party chief), Li Yizhong, and Chen Zhili (made State Councilor). Shanghai party chief Chen Liangyu ranked tenth from last, while Beijing party chief Liu Qi ranked twelfth from last.[1]

Policy changes

Jiang Zemin's Go Out policy was incorporated into the report of the 16th National Congress.[2]

Construction of a social credit system was announced during the 16th National Congress.[3]: 71  The central government did have a specific vision for what a finished system might look like and local governments would be allowed to develop pilot programs that could inform the larger policy approach.[3]: 71 

See also


  1. ^ Inner Party Democracy: BBC
  2. ^ Meng, Wenting (2024). Developmental Peace: Theorizing China's Approach to International Peacebuilding. Ibidem. Columbia University Press. p. 77. ISBN 9783838219073.
  3. ^ a b Brussee, Vincent (2023). Social Credit: The Warring States of China's Emerging Data Empire. Singapore: Palgrave MacMillan. ISBN 9789819921881.