Second voyage of James CookUnited States Declaration of IndependenceBoston Tea PartyRusso-Turkish War (1768–1774)Company rule in IndiaCarl Wilhelm ScheeleAmazing GraceDaniel Rutherford
From top left, clockwise: Englishmen and sailor James Cook concludes his inaugural and embarks on his second voyage, leaving a trail of significant milestones along its way such as the discovery of New Caledonia, Australia, Tahiti, the Antarctic Circle, and becoming the first humans to witness Antarctic waters as pictured; The United States Declaration of Independence was unanimously signed and adopted by the Second Continental Congress, announcing the colonies' intention to separate from Great Britain; Company rule in India establishes governance over India for the first time at Calcutta, giving way for British colonialism over the Indian subcontinent, and eventually Western imperialism in Asia; Nitrogen gas was isolated from air by Scottish scientist Daniel Rutherford; Amazing Grace was sung for the first time as a hymn in Buckinghamshire, England at 1773; Chemist Carl Wilhelm Scheele made several breakthroughs in chemistry by discovering five chemical elements, namely oxygen (1771), barium (1772), chlorine (1774), manganese (1774), and molybdenum (1778); The Boston Tea Party protest precipitates anti-British sentiment in the Thirteen Colonies, and subsequently the American Revolutionary War; A Russo-Turkish War lead to now-Russia's first occupation of Crimea; initiating Russia's influence over Crimea that has since persisted today.
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The 1770s (pronounced "seventeen-seventies") was a decade of the Gregorian calendar that began on January 1, 1770, and ended on December 31, 1779. A period full of discoveries, breakthroughs happened in all walks of life, as what emerged at this period brought life to most innovations we know today.

From nations such as the United States, birthed through hardships such as the American Revolutionary War and altercations akin to the Boston Tea Party, spheres of influence such as the Russian Empire's sphere from its victorious Crimean claims at the Russo-Turkish War, the Industrial Revolution, and populism, their influence remains omnipresent to this day.

New lands south of the Equator were discovered and settled by Europeans like James Cook, expanding the horizons of a New World to new reaches such as Australia and French Polynesia. Deepened philosophical studies led to the publication of works such as Adam Smith's "The Wealth of Nations", whose concepts influence much of modern socio-economic thought, and sowed the seeds to the global incumbent neoliberal world order. Studies on chemistry and politics deepen to forge the Age of Reason for centuries to come.

Events

1770

This section is transcluded from 1770. (edit | history)

January– March

April–June

July– September

October–December

Date unknown

1771

This section is transcluded from 1771. (edit | history)

January– March

April–June

July–September

October–December

Date unknown

1772

This section is transcluded from 1772. (edit | history)

January– March

April –June

July–September

October–December

Date unknown

1773

This section is transcluded from 1773. (edit | history)

January–March

April–June

July–September

October–December

Date unknown

1774

This section is transcluded from 1774. (edit | history)

Chesma Column in Tsarskoe Selo, commemorating the end of the Russo-Turkish War.
Chesma Column in Tsarskoe Selo, commemorating the end of the Russo-Turkish War.

January–March

April–June

July–September

October–December

Date unknown

1775

This section is transcluded from 1775. (edit | history)

Summary

The American Revolutionary War began this year, with the first military engagement being the April 19 Battles of Lexington and Concord on the day after Paul Revere's now-legendary ride. The Second Continental Congress takes various steps toward organizing an American government, appointing George Washington commander-in-chief (June 14), Benjamin Franklin postmaster general (July 26) and creating a Continental Navy (October 13) and a Marine force (November 10) as landing troops for it, but as yet the 13 colonies have not declared independence, and both the British (June 12) and American (July 15) governments make laws. On July 6, Congress issues the Declaration of the Causes and Necessity of Taking Up Arms and on August 23, King George III of Great Britain declares the American colonies in rebellion, announcing it to Parliament on November 10. On June 17, two months into the colonial siege of Boston, at the Battle of Bunker Hill, just north of Boston, British forces are victorious, but only after suffering severe casualties and after Colonial forces run out of ammunition, Fort Ticonderoga is taken by American forces in New York Colony's northern frontier, and American forces unsuccessfully invade Canada, with an attack on Montreal defeated by British forces on November 13 and an attack on Quebec repulsed December 31.

Human knowledge and mastery over nature advances when James Watt builds a successful prototype of a steam engine, and a scientific expedition continues as Captain James Cook claims the South Georgia and South Sandwich Islands in the south Atlantic Ocean for Britain. Nature's power over humanity is dramatically demonstrated when the Independence Hurricane (August 29 – September 13) devastates the east coast of North America, killing 4,173, and when, on the western side of the North American continent, Tseax Cone erupts in the future British Columbia, as well as when a smallpox epidemic begins in New England. Smallpox was then cured by Edward Jenner.

January–June

July–December

August 18: Tucson is founded.
August 18: Tucson is founded.

Date unknown

1776

This section is transcluded from 1776. (edit | history)

January–February

March–April

May–June

July–August

September–October

September 22: British hang spy Nathan Hale in New York City.
September 22: British hang spy Nathan Hale in New York City.

November–December

December 26: Capture of the Hessians at Trenton

Date unknown

1777

This section is transcluded from 1777. (edit | history)

January–March

April–June

June 14: US Flag (had various star patterns)
June 14: US Flag (had various star patterns)

July–December

Date unknown

1778

This section is transcluded from 1778. (edit | history)

January–March

April–June

July–September

October–December

November 26: Captain Cook lands on Maui.

Undated

1779

This section is transcluded from 1779. (edit | history)

January–March

April–June

July–September

October–December

Date unknown

Births

Transcluded articles: 1770, 1771, 1772, 1773, 1774, 1775, 1776, 1777, 1778, 1779

1770

Manuel Belgrano
Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel
Ludwig van Beethoven

1771

Robert Owen
Ernest Augustus, King of Hanover

1772

William I of the Netherlands
Samuel Taylor Coleridge

1773

Robert Fullerton
William Henry Harrison
Klemens von Metternich
Louis Philippe I

1774

André Marie Constant Duméril born 1 January
Pietro Giordani born 1 January
Anna Bunina born 7 January
William Stewart born 10 January
Tryphosa Jane Wallis born 11 January
Marie-Thérèse Figueur born 17 January
William Blake (economist) born 31 January
Thomas Veazey born 31 January
Edward Cross (zoo proprietor) born 3 February
Valentin Stanič born 12 February
Roswell Weston born 24 February
William Farquhar born 26 February
Magdalene of Canossa born 1 March
David Semyonovich Abamelik born 10 March
Johann Caspar Horner born 12 March
Rose Fortune born 13 March
Matthew Flinders born 16 March
Sophie Thalbitzer born 15 April
Franz Hegi born 16 April
Madhavrao II born 18 April
Jean-Baptiste Biot born 21 April
Anna Gottlieb born 29 April
Samuel Owen (engineer) born 12 May
Friederike von Reden born 12 May
Joseph Bouchette born 14 May
Johann Nepomuk von Fuchs born 15 May
Francis Beaufort born 27 May
Robert Tannahill born 3 June
Henry Philip Hope born 8 June
Carl Haller von Hallerstein born 10 June
Pavel Alexandrovich Stroganov born 18 June
Princess Amalie of Hesse-Homburg born 29 June
Marcia Arbuthnot born 9 July
Robert Jameson born 11 July
Axel Otto Mörner born 11 July
Charles de Graimberg born 30 July
Diodata Saluzzo Roero born 31 July
Robert Southey born 12 August
Meriwether Lewis born 18 August
Ludvig Frederik Brock born 20 August
Anton Ludwig Ernst Horn born 24 August
Elizabeth Ann Seton born 28 August
Caspar David Friedrich born 5 September
Anne Catherine Emmerich born 8 September
Johnny Appleseed born 26 September
Adolf Müllner born 18 October
Sarah Thompson, Countess Rumford born 18 October
Ignaz Heinrich von Wessenberg born 4 November
Charles Bell born 12 November
Wilhelmine of Prussia, Queen of the Netherlands born 18 November
Vasile Moga born 19 November
Elisabeth Canori Mora born 21 November
Peter Frederik Wulff born 26 November
Princess Maria Antonia of Parma born 28 November
William Henry (chemist) born 12 December
Eline Heger born 13 December
Claudine Thévenet born 30 March

1775

Stanisław Kostka Zamoyski born 13 January
Walter Savage Landor born 30 January
Gurun Princess Hexiao born 2 February
Charles Lamb born 10 February
William Hall (governor) born 11 February
Louisa Adams born 12 February
Miguel Ramos Arizpe born 15 February
Simmons Jones Baker born 15 February
Jean-Baptiste Girard (soldier) born 21 February
Adolf Stieler born 26 February
Sophie Tieck born 28 February
Adam Elias von Siebold born 5 March
Constance Mayer born 9 March
Pauline Auzou born 24 March
Adam Albert von Neipperg born 8 April
J. M. W. Turner born 23 April
Alexander Johnston (1775–1849) born 25 April
George Kinloch (politician) born 30 April
Angélique Mongez born 1 May
Alexander McNair born 5 May
Pablo Morillo born 5 May
Jacob Brown born 9 May
Antoine Charles Louis de Lasalle born 10 May
Micah Brooks born 14 May
Johann Baptist Malfatti von Monteregio born 12 June
Judah Touro born 16 June
Lucy Mack Smith born 8 July
Matthew Lewis (writer) born 9 July
Richard Westmacott born 15 July
John Andrew Shulze born 19 July
Anna Harrison born 25 July
Emmanuel Dupaty born 31 July
George Tucker (politician) born 20 August
Vasily Orlov-Denisov born 8 September
Guillaume Capelle born 9 September
Murray Maxwell born 10 September
John Henry Hobart born 14 September
Giuseppe Rosaroll born 16 September
Philip Milledoler born 22 September
Robert Adrain born 30 September
Bahadur Shah Zafar born 24 October
Pierre Capelle born 4 November
Achille Fontanelli born 8 November
Paul Johann Anselm Ritter von Feuerbach born 14 November
James Carnahan born 15 November
Philander Chase born 14 December
Phineas Riall born 15 December

1776

E. T. A. Hoffmann
Ioannis Kapodistrias
Louise of Mecklenburg-Strelitz
John Constable
Amedeo Avogadro
Yashwantrao Holkar
Johann Wilhelm Ritter

1777

Roger B. Taney
Carl Friedrich Gauss
Paavo Ruotsalainen
Hans Christian Ørsted
Heinrich von Kleist
Alexander I of Russia

1778

Thomas Lincoln
José de San Martín
William Hazlitt
Harry Croswell
Friedrich Ludwig Jahn
Friedrich Ludwig Jahn
Bernardo O'Higgins
Clemens Brentano
Giovanni Battista Belzoni
Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac
Humphry Davy
Joseph Grimaldi

1779

Stephen Decatur
Francis Scott Key


Deaths

Transcluded articles: 1770, 1771, 1772, 1773, 1774, 1775, 1776, 1777, 1778, 1779

1770

Giovanni Battista Tiepolo
George Whitefield

1771

Rev. Samuel Phillips
Christopher Smart
Giovanni Battista Morgagni

1772

Emanuel Swedenborg
Jean-Joseph de Mondonville

1773

Philip Stanhope, 4th Earl of Chesterfield
Friedrich Wilhelm von Seydlitz

1774

Mustafa III died 21 January
Countess Palatine Caroline of Zweibrücken died 30 March
Oliver Goldsmith died 4 April
Christian Wilhelm Ernst Dietrich died 23 April
Maria Machteld van Sypesteyn died 26 April
William Hewson died 1 May
Louis XV died 10 May
Joseph Gerrish died 3 June
Joshua Kirby died 20 June
Anna Morandi Manzolini died 9 July
Caroline Fox, 1st Baroness Holland died 24 July
Johann Jakob Reiske died 14 August
Imperial Noble Consort Qinggong died 21 August
Johann Friedrich Meckel, the Elder died 18 September
Pope Clement XIV died 22 September
Robert Fergusson died 16 October
Ferdinand Augustin Hallerstein died 29 October
Abraham Tucker died 20 November
Johann Siegmund Popowitsch died 21 November
Henry Baker died 25 November
Deborah Read died 19 December
Paul Whitehead (satirist) died 20 December

1775

Prithvi Narayan Shah
Peter Boehler
Peter Harrison
Caroline Matilda of Great Britain
Szymon Czechowicz
Zahir al-Umar
Robert Livingston

1776

James Gabriel Montresor
John Harrison
Jacques Saly
Duchess Maria Anna Josepha of Bavaria
Countess Palatine Francisca Christina of Sulzbach
David Hume