From left, clockwise: Union workers at a Carnegie Steel plant go on a strike later known as the Homestead Strike in 1892; Plessy v. Ferguson establishes the doctrine of racial segregation and leads to Jim Crow laws; USS Maine sinks in Havana Harbor in 1898 sparking the Spanish-American War; U.S. pays $20 million to get the Philippines from Spain in the Treaty of Paris; a cartoon mocks the Cross of Gold speech given by William Jennings Bryan who argues against the gold standard; Panic of 1893 instigates an economic depression which lasts for most of the 1890s; Thomas Edison invents the kinetograph, an early example of motion-picture technology; US Marines hoist a US flag during the land campaign of Cuba in the Spanish-American War.
From left, clockwise: Union workers at a Carnegie Steel plant go on a strike later known as the Homestead Strike in 1892; Plessy v. Ferguson establishes the doctrine of racial segregation and leads to Jim Crow laws; USS Maine sinks in Havana Harbor in 1898 sparking the Spanish-American War; U.S. pays $20 million to get the Philippines from Spain in the Treaty of Paris; a cartoon mocks the Cross of Gold speech given by William Jennings Bryan who argues against the gold standard; Panic of 1893 instigates an economic depression which lasts for most of the 1890s; Thomas Edison invents the kinetograph, an early example of motion-picture technology; US Marines hoist a US flag during the land campaign of Cuba in the Spanish-American War.
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The 1890s (pronounced "eighteen-nineties") was a decade of the Gregorian calendar that began on January 1, 1890, and ended on December 31, 1899.

In the United States, the 1890s were marked by a severe economic depression sparked by the Panic of 1893. This economic crisis would help bring about the end of the so-called "Gilded Age", and coincided with numerous industrial strikes in the industrial workforce. The period was sometimes referred to as the "Mauve Decade", because William Henry Perkin's aniline dye allowed the widespread use of that color in fashion.[1]

Map

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (July 2018)
World empires and colonies in 1898 (just before the Spanish–American War, Boxer Rebellion and Boer War)     .mw-parser-output .legend{page-break-inside:avoid;break-inside:avoid-column}.mw-parser-output .legend-color{display:inline-block;min-width:1.25em;height:1.25em;line-height:1.25;margin:1px 0;text-align:center;border:1px solid black;background-color:transparent;color:black}.mw-parser-output .legend-text{}  Britain   French   Spain   Portugal     Netherlands   Germany   Ottoman Empire   Belgium     Russia   Japan   Qing Empire (China)   Austro-Hungarian Empire     Denmark   Sweden-Norway   United States   Italy     Other nations
World empires and colonies in 1898 (just before the Spanish–American War, Boxer Rebellion and Boer War)
  Britain
  French
  Spain
  Portugal
  Netherlands
  Germany
  Ottoman Empire
  Belgium
  Russia
  Japan
  Qing Empire (China)
  Austro-Hungarian Empire
  Denmark
  Sweden-Norway
  United States
  Italy
  Other nations

Politics and wars

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (January 2010)

Wars

Spanish–American War

Wars and Conflicts

This section is in list format but may read better as prose. You can help by converting this section, if appropriate. Editing help is available. (April 2022)

Prominent political events

Dreyfus affair – Alfred Dreyfus being dishonorably discharged, 5 January 1895.
Dreyfus affair – Alfred Dreyfus being dishonorably discharged, 5 January 1895.

Economics in the United States

A typical gold mining operation, on Bonanza Creek.
A typical gold mining operation, on Bonanza Creek.

Other significant international events

World's Columbian Exposition, 1893

Science and technology

Technology

1895 Benz Velo. Along with its contemporary Duryea Motor Wagon, those vehicles were considered the earliest standardized cars. The 1890s also saw further developments in the history of the automobile.
1895 Benz Velo. Along with its contemporary Duryea Motor Wagon, those vehicles were considered the earliest standardized cars. The 1890s also saw further developments in the history of the automobile.
Panhard-Levassor (1890–1895). This model was the first automobile to circulate in Portugal
Panhard-Levassor (1890–1895). This model was the first automobile to circulate in Portugal
Charles Kayser of the Edison lab seated behind the Kinetograph. Portability was not among the camera's virtues.
Charles Kayser of the Edison lab seated behind the Kinetograph. Portability was not among the camera's virtues.

Science

Popular culture

Literature and arts

First edition cover of The Time Machine (1895)
First edition cover of The Time Machine (1895)

Film

Music

See also: Timeline of musical events § 1890s

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (January 2010)

Sports

The 1896 Summer Olympics officially known as the Games of the I Olympiad, was the first international Olympic Games held in modern history

Fashion

See also: 1890s in fashion

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (January 2010)

Other

People

Politics

Entertainers

Authors

Sports figures

Other people

See also

References

  1. ^ Thomas Beer (1926). The Mauve Decade: American Life At The End Of The Nineteenth Century. A. A. Knopf. Archived from the original on 2016-03-03. Retrieved 5 February 2012.
  2. ^ Liggett, Lorie (1998). "Wounded Knee Massacre – An Introduction". Bowling Green State University. Archived from the original on 26 February 2007. Retrieved 2007-03-02.
  3. ^ "Bold Tongue's Native American Links: "Wounded Knee, Lakota, December 29, 1890"". Archived from the original on 2010-01-06. Retrieved 2010-01-07.
  4. ^ Strom, Karen (1995). "The Massacre at Wounded Knee". Karen Strom. Retrieved 25 May 2010.
  5. ^ Republic of Lakotah: "158 Year Struggle for Legal Justice"
  6. ^ Armed Conflict Events Database (ACED):"Chilean Civil War 1891"
  7. ^ Burt, Nathaniel 1991 Wyoming Compass American Guides, Inc p.157
  8. ^ Burt, Nathaniel 1991 Wyoming Compass American Guides, Inc p.159
  9. ^ a b Inventory of the Johnson County War Collection Texas A&M UniversityCushing Memorial Library"
  10. ^ The New York Times Troops Came Just In Time April 15, 1892
  11. ^ Wyoming Tails and Trails Johnson County War January 6, 2004
  12. ^ "Outcast Earth: Kaua'i, Hawaii". Archived from the original on 2009-09-25. Retrieved 2010-01-06.
  13. ^ "Frances N. Frazier, "The True Story of Kaluaikoolau"" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2009-09-18. Retrieved 2010-01-06.
  14. ^ Stagner, Lloyd (editor). "Historian Recalls Enid, OK. Railroad Wars" Archived 2006-09-24 at the Wayback Machine. Great Plains Dispatcher 4:11 November 2005 3.
  15. ^ Chapman, Berlin B. "The Enid 'Railroad War': An Archival Study". Chronicles of Oklahoma 43:2 Summer 1965 126.
  16. ^ Zélia Roelofse-Campbell, "The Canudos Massacre: reinterpreting history after 100 years"
  17. ^ Kim Hyungyoon, "Jangheung, Where Korean Literature Is Deeply Rooted"
  18. ^ Sarah Paine, "The Sino-Japanese War of 1894–1895"
  19. ^ "Élisabeth Campos. Les Doukhobors, «Lutteurs de l'esprit». 2005". Archived from the original on 2019-12-27. Retrieved 2010-01-06.
  20. ^ a b Hedwig Lohm, "Dukhobors in Georgia: A Study of the Issue of Land Ownership and Inter-Ethnic Relations in Ninotsminda rayon (Samtskhe-Javakheti)". November 2006. Archived 2010-06-02 at the Wayback Machine
  21. ^ John Ashworth, Doukhobortsy and Religious Persecution in Russia Archived 2010-11-13 at the Wayback Machine, 1900 (Doukhobor Genealogy Website)
  22. ^ Guererro, Milagros; Encarnacion, Emmanuel; Villegas, Ramon (1996). "Andres Bonifacio and the 1896 Revolution". Sulyap Kultura. National Commission for Culture and the Arts. 1 (2): 3–12. Archived from the original on 15 November 2010. Retrieved 25 May 2010.
  23. ^ a b *Guererro, Milagros (1998). Reform and Revolution. Kasaysayan: The History of the Filipino People. Vol. 5. Asia Publishing Company Limited. ISBN 978-962-258-228-6. Retrieved 25 May 2010.
  24. ^ Anderson, John W. Transitions: From Eastern Europe to Anthracite Community to College Classroom. Bloomington, Ind.: iUniverse, 2005. ISBN 978-0-595-33732-3
  25. ^ Miller, Randall M. and Pencak, William. Pennsylvania: A History of the Commonwealth. State College, Penn.: Penn State Press, 2003. ISBN 978-0-271-02214-7
  26. ^ Estimates of the number of wounded are inexact. They range from a low of 17 wounded (Duwe, Grant. Mass Murder in the United States: A History. Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland, 2007. ISBN 978-0-7864-3150-2) to a high of 49 (DeLeon, Clark. Pennsylvania Curiosities: Quirky Characters, Roadside Oddities & Other Offbeat Stuff. 3rd rev. ed. Guilford, Conn.: Globe Pequot, 2008. ISBN 978-0-7627-4588-3). Other estimates include 30 wounded (Lewis, Ronald L. Welsh Americans: A History of Assimilation in the Coalfields. Chapel Hill, N.C.: University of North Carolina Press, 2008. ISBN 978-0-8078-3220-2), 32 wounded (Anderson, Transitions: From Eastern Europe to Anthracite Community to College Classroom, 2005; Berger, Stefan; Croll, Andy; and Laporte, Norman. Towards A Comparative History of Coalfield Societies. Aldershot, Hampshire, UK: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd., 2005. ISBN 978-0-7546-3777-6; Campion, Joan. Smokestacks and Black Diamonds: A History of Carbon County, Pennsylvania. Easton, Penn.: Canal History and Technology Press, 1997. ISBN 978-0-930973-19-3), 35 wounded (Foner, Philip S. First Facts of American Labor: A Comprehensive Collection of Labor Firsts in the United States. New York: Holmes & Meier, 1984. ISBN 978-0-8419-0742-3; Miller and Pencak, Pennsylvania: A History of the Commonwealth, 2003; Derks, Scott. Working Americans, 1880–2006: Volume VII: Social Movements. Amenia, N.Y.: Grey House Publishing, 2006. ISBN 978-1-59237-101-3), 38 wounded (Weir, Robert E. and Hanlan, James P. Historical Encyclopedia of American Labor, Vol. 1. Santa Barbara, Calif.: Greenwood Press, 2004. ISBN 978-0-313-32863-3), 39 wounded (Long, Priscilla. Where the Sun Never Shines: A History of America's Bloody Coal Industry. Minneapolis: Paragon House, 1989. ISBN 978-1-55778-224-3; Novak, Michael. The Guns of Lattimer. Reprint ed. New York: Transaction Publishers, 1996. ISBN 978-1-56000-764-7), and 40 wounded (Beers, Paul B. The Pennsylvania Sampler: A Biography of the Keystone State and Its People. Mechanicsburg, Penn.: Stackpole Books, 1970).
  27. ^ Blatz, Perry K. Democratic Miners: Work and Labor Relations in the Anthracite Coal Industry, 1875–1925. Albany, N.Y.: SUNY Press, 1994. ISBN 978-0-7914-1819-2
  28. ^ Alex Aspden, "Bresci, Gaetano, 1869–1901"
  29. ^ "Bresci comes from America to avenge his countrymen" Chapter of Living My Life (1931) by Emma Goldman, page 272
  30. ^ "Leech Lake Tourism Bureau:History of the Leech Lake Area". Archived from the original on 2008-05-09. Retrieved 2010-01-06.
  31. ^ "Trond Knudegaard, "The Battle of Sugar Point"". Archived from the original on 2012-03-02. Retrieved 2019-02-14.
  32. ^ "Battle Point (Sugar Point" A chapter of "Minnesota treasures: stories behind the state's historic places" (2004) by Denis Gardner, pages 16–20
  33. ^ 1893 - New Zealand first in women’s vote, history.com
  34. ^ Propaganda by Deed – the Greenwich Observatory Bomb of 1894 Archived 2007-09-30 at the Wayback Machine
  35. ^ "Eternal Sorrow over Ying'Tai"
  36. ^ Brody, David. Steelworkers in America: The Nonunion Era, p. 50 New York: Harper Torchbooks, 1969. ISBN 978-0-252-06713-6
  37. ^ Letter from Carnegie to Frick dated April 4, 1892, quoted in Foner, Philip. History of the Labor Movement in the United States. Vol. 2: From the Founding of the A.F. of L. to the Emergence of American Imperialism., p. 207. New York: International Publishers, 1955. ISBN 978-0-7178-0092-6
  38. ^ Foner, Philip. History of the Labor Movement in the United States. Vol. 2: From the Founding of the A.F. of L. to the Emergence of American Imperialism., p. 207–208.
  39. ^ Krause, Paul. The Battle for Homestead, 1890–1892: Politics, Culture, and Steel, p. 302, 310. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1992. ISBN 978-0-8229-5466-8
  40. ^ a b Foner, Philip S. History of the Labor Movement in the United States: From the Founding of the A.F. of L. to the Emergence of American Imperialism, p. 253. 2nd ed. New York: International Publishers, Co., 1975. ISBN 978-0-7178-0388-0
  41. ^ Voorhees, Theodore. 'The Buffalo strike.' North American Review. 155(431): October 1892, pp. 407–418. Cornell University Library
  42. ^ a b Rosenberg, New Orleans Dockworkers: Race, Labor, and Unionism, 1892–1923, 1988.
  43. ^ Brown and Allen, Strong In the Struggle: My Life As a Black Labor Activist, 2001.
  44. ^ Quoted in Foner, History of the Labor Movement in the United States, Vol. 2: From the Founding of the American Federation of Labor to the Emergence of American Imperialism, 1955, p. 202.
  45. ^ Foner, History of the Labor Movement in the United States, Vol. 2: From the Founding of the American Federation of Labor to the Emergence of American Imperialism, 1955.
  46. ^ "New Orleans' Big Strike," Washington Post, November 8, 1892.
  47. ^ James L. Holton, The Reading Railroad: History of a Coal Age Empire, Vol. I: The Nineteenth Century, pp. 323–325, citing Vincent Corasso, The Morgans.
  48. ^ The History Box, The Panic of 1893 – Financial World Archived 2015-05-02 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved 2009.04.08.
  49. ^ The Encyclopedia of Arkansas History and Culture, "The Panic of 1893". Retrieved 2009.04.08.
  50. ^ a b Whitten, David O. "EH.Net Encyclopedia: Depression of 1893". eh.net. Archived from the original on 27 April 2009. Retrieved 2009-04-20.
  51. ^ Hoffman, Charles. The Depression of the Nineties: An Economic History. Westport, CT: Greenwood Publishing, 1970. Page 109.
  52. ^ a b c Holbrook, Stewart. The Rocky Mountain Revolution. New York: Henry Holt and Company, 1956. p.73–74
  53. ^ Philpott, William. The Lessons of Leadville, Or, Why the Western Federation of Miners Turned Left, p. 73. Monograph 10. Denver: Colorado Historical Society, 1994. ISSN 1046-3100
  54. ^ Suggs, Jr., George G. Colorado's War on Militant Unionism: James H. Peabody and the Western Federation of Miners, p. 17. 2nd ed. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press, 1991. ISBN 978-0-8061-2396-7
  55. ^ "In Dreams He Sees An Army" (PDF). New York Times (March 25). 1894. Retrieved 2008-11-12.
  56. ^ "Coxey has a new commissary" (PDF). New York Times (April 6). 1894. Retrieved 2008-11-12.
  57. ^ Gigantic Miners' Strike Ordered.; Over 200,000 Men in Eleven States May Quit Work April 21, New York Times, Wednesday, April 12, 1894; page 8.
  58. ^ The Coal Miners Strike – 1894, Coal in Illinois, 13th Annual Report of the State Bureau of Labor Statistics, 1894, Springfield, 1895; Appendix pages 5–26, see particularly Table III.
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  60. ^ Cleveland: A Concise History, 1796–1996 by Carol Poh Miller and Robert Anthony Wheeler ISBN 978-0-253-21147-7
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  62. ^ Bernstein, David E. Only One Place of Redress, 2001, page 54
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  64. ^ Rebecca Edwards, "Republican Party Platform. Adopted at St. Louis, June 16, 1896." Reproducing primary text with minor editing
  65. ^ Michael Streich, "Election of 1896 Candidates and Issues: The Gold Standard, Protective Tariffs, and Law and Order"
  66. ^ Muncy, Robin. "Women in the Progressive Era". National Park Service. Archived from the original on 15 February 2008. Retrieved 2008-02-06.
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  68. ^ William Philpott, The Lessons of Leadville, Colorado Historical Society, 1995, pages 2.
  69. ^ Anthony Lukas, Big Trouble, 1997, page 211.
  70. ^ William Philpott, The Lessons of Leadville, Colorado Historical Society, 1995, pages 30,105.
  71. ^ William Philpott, The Lessons of Leadville, Colorado Historical Society, 1995, page 105 (quoting Blair, Leadville: Colorado's Magic City, 189).
  72. ^ William Philpott, The Lessons of Leadville, Colorado Historical Society, 1995, pages 6–7, 75–79.
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  102. ^ The machines were modified so that they did not operate by nickel slot. According to Hendricks (1966), in each row "attendants switched the instruments on and off for customers who had paid their twenty-five cents" (p. 13). For more on the Hollands, see Peter Morris, Embattled Shadows: A History of Canadian Cinema, 1895–1939 (Montreal and Kingston, Canada; London; and Buffalo, New York: McGill-Queen's University Press, 1978), pp. 6–7. Morris states that Edison wholesaled the Kinetoscope at $200 per machine; in fact, as described below, $250 seems to have been the most common figure at first.
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Further reading