Wright FlyerAtrocities in the Congo Free State1908 Messina earthquakePhilippine–American WarPanama CanalRusso-Japanese War1905 Russian Revolution
From left, clockwise: The Wright brothers achieve the first manned flight with a motorized airplane, in Kitty Hawk in 1903; A missionary points to the severed hand of a Congolese villager, symbolic of Belgian atrocities in the Congo Free State; The 1908 Messina earthquake kills 75,000–82,000 people and becomes the most destructive earthquake ever to strike Europe; America gains control over the Philippines in 1902, after the Philippine–American War; Rock being moved to construct the Panama Canal; Admiral Togo before the Battle of Tsushima in 1905, part of the Russo-Japanese War, leading to Japanese victory and their establishment as a great power, while Russia's defeat eventually led to the 1905 Revolution.
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The 1900s (pronounced "nineteen-hundreds") was a decade that began on January 1, 1900, and ended on December 31, 1909. The Edwardian era (1901–1910) covers a similar span of time. The term "nineteen-hundreds" is sometimes also used to mean the entire century from January 1, 1900 to December 31, 1999 (the years beginning with "19").

The decade saw the widespread application of the internal combustion engine including mass production of the automobile, as well as the introduction of the typewriter. The Wright Flyer performed the first recorded controlled, powered, sustained heavier than air flight on December 17, 1903. Reginald Fessenden of East Bolton, Quebec, Canada made what appeared to be[clarification needed] the first audio radio broadcasts of entertainment and music ever made to a general audience.

First-wave feminism saw progress, with universities being opened for women in Japan, Bulgaria, Cuba, Russia, and Peru. In 1906, Finland granted women the right to vote,[1] the first European country to do so.[2] The foundation of the Women's Social and Political Union by Emmeline Pankhurst in 1903 led to the rise of the Suffragettes in Great Britain and Ireland. Cuba, Bulgaria, and Norway became independent. The First Moroccan and Bosnian crises led to worsened tensions in Europe that would ultimately lead to the First World War in the next decade.

Wars of this decade included the Philippine–American War, the Second Boer War, the Thousand Days' War, the Anglo-Somali War, the Kuwaiti–Rashidi war, the Saudi–Rashidi War, the Russo-Japanese War, and the Honduran-Nicaraguan War. The Scramble for Africa continued, with the Orange Free State, South African Republic, Ashanti Empire, Aro Confederacy, Sokoto Caliphate and Kano Emirate being conquered by the British Empire, alongside the French Empire conquering Borno, the German Empire conquering the Adamawa Emirate, and the Portuguese Empire conquering the Ovambo. Atrocities in the Congo Free State were committed by private companies and the Force Publique, with a resultant population decline[note 1] of 1 to 15 million. The Herero and Namaqua genocide saw 24,000 to 100,000 Hereros and 10,000 Namaqua killed by German colonial forces. The Adana massacre of 1909 saw up to 30,000 mainly Armenian civilians being massacred by local Ottoman Muslims.

Failed uprisings and revolutions that took place included the Boxer Rebellion, the Bailundo revolt, the Ilinden–Preobrazhenie Uprising, the 1904 Sasun uprising, the Uruguayan Revolution of 1904, an uprising in French Madagascar, the Russian Revolution of 1905, the Argentine Revolution of 1905, the Persian Constitutional Revolution, the Maji Maji Rebellion, and the 1907 Romanian Peasants' revolt. A more successful revolution took place in the Ottoman Empire, where the Young Turks movement restored the Ottoman constitution of 1876, establishing the Second Constitutional Era.

Major disasters in this decade included the Chinese famine of 1907, the 1908 Messina earthquake, the San Francisco earthquake and fire and the Great Baltimore Fire. The first huge success of American cinema, as well as the largest experimental achievement to this point, was the 1903 film The Great Train Robbery, directed by Edwin S. Porter, while the world's first feature film, The Story of the Kelly Gang, was released on 26 December 1906 in Melbourne, Australia. Popular books of this decade included The Tale of Peter Rabbit (1902) and Anne of Green Gables (1908), which sold 45 million and 50 million copies respectively. Popular songs of this decade include "Lift Every Voice and Sing" and "What Are They Doing in Heaven?", which have been featured in 42 and 16 hymnals respectively.

During the decade, the world population increased from 1.60 to 1.75 billion, with approximately 580 million births and 450 million deaths in total.

Pronunciation varieties

See also: Aughts

There are several main varieties of how individual years of the decade are pronounced. Using 1906 as an example, they are "nineteen-oh-six", "nineteen-six", and "nineteen-aught-six". Which variety is most prominent depends somewhat on global region and generation. "Nineteen-oh-six" is the most common; "nineteen-six" is less common. In American English, "nineteen-aught-six" is also recognized but not much used.[citation needed]

Demographics

Main article: Estimates of historical world population

Estimates for the world population by 1900 vary from 1.563 to 1.710 billion.

PRB

(1973–2016)[4]

UN

(2015)[5]

Maddison

(2008)[6]

HYDE

(2010)[7]

Tanton

(1994)[8]

Biraben

(1980)[9]

McEvedy &

Jones (1978)[10]

Thomlinson

(1975)[11]

Durand

(1974)[12]

Clark

(1967)[13]

1,656M 1,650M 1,563M 1,654M[14] 1,600M 1,633M 1,625M 1,600M 1,650–1,710M 1,668M

Politics and wars

See also: List of sovereign states in the 1900s

A shocked mandarin in Manchu robe in the back, with Queen Victoria (British Empire), Wilhelm II (German Empire), Nicholas II (Imperial Russia), Marianne (French Third Republic), and a samurai (Empire of Japan) stabbing into a king cake with Chine ("China" in French) written on it. A portrayal of New Imperialism and its effects on China.
A shocked mandarin in Manchu robe in the back, with Queen Victoria (British Empire), Wilhelm II (German Empire), Nicholas II (Imperial Russia), Marianne (French Third Republic), and a samurai (Empire of Japan) stabbing into a king cake with Chine ("China" in French) written on it. A portrayal of New Imperialism and its effects on China.

Major political changes

Wars

Main article: List of wars: 1900–1944 § 1900–1919

Internal conflicts

Colonization

Decolonization

Prominent political events

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (July 2018)

Disasters

Natural disasters

June 30, 1908: The Tunguska event
June 30, 1908: The Tunguska event
Ruins from the 1906 San Francisco earthquake, remembered as one of the worst natural disasters in United States history
Ruins from the 1906 San Francisco earthquake, remembered as one of the worst natural disasters in United States history

Non-natural disasters

Assassinations and attempts

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (July 2018)

Prominent assassinations, targeted killings, and assassination attempts include:

A sketch of Leon Czolgosz shooting U.S. President William McKinley.
A sketch of Leon Czolgosz shooting U.S. President William McKinley.

Economics

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (October 2021)

The cost of an American postage stamp was worth 1 cent.[18]

Science and technology

Science

During 1905 the physicist Albert Einstein published four articles – each revolutionary and groundbreaking in its field.
During 1905 the physicist Albert Einstein published four articles – each revolutionary and groundbreaking in its field.

Technology

The first ascent of LZ1 over Lake Constance (the Bodensee) in 1900.
The first ascent of LZ1 over Lake Constance (the Bodensee) in 1900.
A diesel engine built by MAN AG in 1906
A diesel engine built by MAN AG in 1906
Gilmore's second, larger plane
Gilmore's second, larger plane
Ford Model A was the first car produced by Ford Motor Company beginning production in 1903.
Ford Model A was the first car produced by Ford Motor Company beginning production in 1903.
A replica of Pearse's monoplane
A replica of Pearse's monoplane
The first flight by Orville Wright made on December 17, 1903.
The first flight by Orville Wright made on December 17, 1903.
Construction work on the Gaillard Cut is shown in this photograph from 1907
Construction work on the Gaillard Cut is shown in this photograph from 1907
Alberto Santos-Dumont realizes the first official flight, 23 October 1906, Bagatelle field.
Alberto Santos-Dumont realizes the first official flight, 23 October 1906, Bagatelle field.
The Autochrome Lumière becomes the first commercial color photography process.
The Autochrome Lumière becomes the first commercial color photography process.
Ford Model T set 1908 as the historic year that the automobile came into popular usage as it is generally regarded as the first affordable automobile.
Ford Model T set 1908 as the historic year that the automobile came into popular usage as it is generally regarded as the first affordable automobile.

Popular culture

Literature

See also: List of years in literature § 1900s, and Publishers Weekly list of bestselling novels in the United States in the 1900s

4 out of 10 best-selling American books in the 1900s were written by Winston Churchill (1871 – 1947)
4 out of 10 best-selling American books in the 1900s were written by Winston Churchill (1871 – 1947)

The best selling books of the decade were Anne of Green Gables (1908) and The Tale of Peter Rabbit (1902), which sold 50 million[101] and 45 million[102] copies respectively. Serbian writers used the Belgrade literary style, an Ekavian writing form which set basis for the later standardization of the Serbian language. Theodor Herzl, the founder of political Zionism, published The Old New Land in 1902, outlining Herzl's vision for a Jewish state in the Land of Israel.

Below are the best-selling books in the United States of each year, as determined by Publishers Weekly.[103]

Art

Pablo Picasso in 1908, who, along with Henri Matisse, was considered a leader in modern art
Pablo Picasso in 1908, who, along with Henri Matisse, was considered a leader in modern art

Film

See also: 1900s in film

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (January 2010)
Justus D. Barnes in Edwin Porter's film The Great Train Robbery, 1903

Music

Popular songs of the 1900s include "Lift Every Voice and Sing" and "What Are They Doing in Heaven?", which have been featured in 42[104] and 16[105][106] hymnals respectively.

Fashion

See also: 1900s in fashion

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (January 2010)

Sports

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (July 2018)

The Tour de France starts for the first time in 1903.[107]

Food

People

Modern artists

Other notable people

Sports figures

Baseball[edit]

Boxing[edit]

Cricket[edit]

See also

Timeline

The following articles contain brief timelines which list the most prominent events of the decade:

1900190119021903190419051906190719081909

Further reading

References

  1. ^ "Finnish women won the right to vote a hundred years ago – Embassy of Finland, The Hague : Current Affairs". Finlande.nl. Retrieved 2012-10-31.
  2. ^ "BBC Radio 4 – Woman's Hour – Women's History Timeline: 1900 – 1909". Bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 2012-11-07.
  3. ^ Ascherson, Neal (1999). The King Incorporated: Leopold the Second and the Congo (New ed.). London: Granta. p. 9. ISBN 1-86207-290-6.
  4. ^ Data from Population Reference Bureau Archived 2008-05-20 at the Wayback Machine. 2016 estimate: (a) "2016 World Population Data Sheet" 2015 estimate: (b) Toshiko Kaneda, 2015, "2015 World Population Data Sheet". 2014 estimate: (c) Carl Haub, 2014, "2014 World Population Data Sheet". 2013 estimate: (d) Carl Haub, 2013, "2013 World Population Data Sheet". 2012 estimate: (e) Carl Haub, 2012, "2012 World Population Data Sheet". 2011 estimate: (f) Carl Haub, 2011, "2011 World Population Data Sheet". 2010 estimate: (g) Carl Haub, 2010, "2010 World Population Data Sheet". 2009 estimate: (h) Carl Haub, 2009, "2009 World Population Data Sheet". 2008 estimate: (i) Carl Haub, 2008, "2008 World Population Data Sheet". 2007 estimate: (j) Carl Haub, 2007, "2007 World Population Data Sheet" Archived 2011-02-24 at the Wayback Machine. 2006 estimate: (k) Carl Haub, 2006, "2006 World Population Data Sheet" Archived 2010-12-22 at the Wayback Machine. 2005 estimate: (l) Carl Haub, 2005, "2005 World Population Data Sheet" Archived 2011-04-14 at the Wayback Machine. 2004 estimate: (m) Carl Haub, 2004, "2004 World Population Data Sheet". 2003 estimate: (n) Carl Haub, 2003, "2003 World Population Data Sheet" Archived 2019-08-19 at the Wayback Machine. 2002 estimate: (o) Carl Haub, 2002, "2002 World Population Data Sheet" Archived 2017-12-09 at the Wayback Machine. 2001 estimate: (p) Carl Haub, 2001, "2001 World Population Data Sheet". 2000 estimate: (q) 2000, "9 Billion World Population by 2050" Archived 2018-02-01 at the Wayback Machine. 1997 estimate: (r) 1997, "Studying Populations". Estimates for 1995 and prior: (s) Carl Haub, 1995, "How Many People Have Ever Lived on Earth?" Population Today, Vol. 23 (no. 2), pp. 5–6.
  5. ^ Data from United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. 1950–2100 estimates (only medium variants shown): (a) World Population Prospects: The 2008 Revision. Archived 2011-05-11 at the Wayback Machine Estimates prior to 1950: (b) "The World at Six Billion", 1999. Estimates from 1950 to 2100: (c) "Population of the entire world, yearly, 1950 - 2100", 2013. Archived November 19, 2016, at the Wayback Machine 2014: (d) http://esa.un.org/unpd/wup/Highlights/WUP2014-Highlights.pdf "2014 World Urbanization Prospects", 2014.] 2015: (e) http://esa.un.org/unpd/wpp/Publications/Files/Key_Findings_WPP_2015.pdf"2015 World Urbanization Prospects", 2015.] Archived March 20, 2014, at the Wayback Machine
  6. ^ Angus Maddison, 2003, The World Economy: Historical Statistics, Vol. 2, OECD, Paris Archived May 13, 2008, at the Wayback Machine ISBN 92-64-10412-7. "Statistical Appendix" (2008, ggdc.net) "The historical data were originally developed in three books: Monitoring the World Economy 1820-1992, OECD, Paris 1995; The World Economy: A Millennial Perspective, OECD Development Centre, Paris 2001; The World Economy: Historical Statistics, OECD Development Centre, Paris 2003. All these contain detailed source notes. Figures for 1820 onwards are annual, wherever possible. For earlier years, benchmark figures are shown for 1 AD, 1000 AD, 1500, 1600 and 1700." "OECD countries GDP revised and updated 1991-2003 from National Accounts for OECD Countries, vol. I, 2006. Norway 1820-1990 GDP from Ola Grytten (2004), "The Gross Domestic Product for Norway, 1830-2003" in Eitrheim, Klovland and Qvigstad (eds), Historical Monetary Statistics for Norway, 1819-2003, Norges Bank, Oslo. Latin American GDP 2000-2003 revised and updated from ECLAC, Statistical Yearbook 2004 and preliminary version of the 2005 Yearbook supplied by Andre Hofman. For Chile, GDP 1820-2003 from Rolf Lűders (1998), "The Comparative Economic Performance of Chile 1810-1995", Estudios de Economia, vol. 25, no. 2, with revised population estimates from Diaz, J., R. Lűders, and G. Wagner (2005) Chili 1810-2000: la Republica en Cifras, mimeo, Instituto de Economia, Universidad Católica de Chile. For Peru, GDP 1896-1990 and population 1896-1949 from Bruno Seminario and Arlette Beltran, Crecimiento Economico en el Peru 1896-1995, Universidad del Pacifico, 1998. " "For Asia there are amendments to the GDP estimates for South and North Korea, 1911-74, to correct an error in Maddison (2003). Estimates for the Philippines, 1902-1940 were amended in line with Richard Hooley (2005), 'American Economic Policy in the Philippines, 1902-1940', Journal of Asian Economics, 16. 1820 estimates were amended for Hong Kong, the Philippines, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Taiwan and Thailand." "Asian countries GDP revised and updated 1998-2003 from AsianOutlook, April 2005. Population estimates for all countries except China and Indonesia revised and updated 1950-2008 and 2030 from International Data Base, International Programs Center, Population Division, US Bureau of the Census, April 2005 version. China's population 1990-2003 from China Statistical Yearbook 2005, China Statistics Press, Beijing. Indonesian population 1950-2003 kindly supplied by Pierre van der Eng. The figures now include three countries previously omitted: Cook Islands, Nauru and Tuvalu."
  7. ^ Klein Goldewijk, K., A. Beusen, M. de Vos and G. van Drecht (2011). The HYDE 3.1 spatially explicit database of human induced land use change over the past 12,000 years, Global Ecology and Biogeography20(1): 73-86. doi:10.1111/j.1466-8238.2010.00587.x (pbl.nl). HYDE (History Database of the Global Environment), 2010. HYDE 3.1 gives estimates for 5000 BC, 1000 BC and "AD 0". HYDE estimates are higher than those by Colin McEvedy (1978) but lower than those by Massimo Livi Bacci (1989, 2012). (graphs (itbulk.org)).
  8. ^ John H. Tanton, 1994, "End of the Migration Epoch? Time For a New Paradigm", The Social Contract, Vol. 4 (no 3), pp. 162–173.
  9. ^ Slightly updated data from original paper in French: (a) Jean-Noël Biraben, 1980, "An Essay Concerning Mankind's Evolution", Population, Selected Papers, Vol. 4, pp. 1–13. Original paper in French: (b) Jean-Noël Biraben, 1979, "Essai sur l'évolution du nombre des hommes", Population, Vol. 34 (no. 1), pp. 13–25.
  10. ^ Colin McEvedy and Richard Jones, 1978, Atlas of World Population History, Facts on File, New York, ISBN 0-7139-1031-3.
  11. ^ Ralph Thomlinson, 1975, Demographic Problems: Controversy over population control, 2nd Ed., Dickenson Publishing Company, Ecino, CA, ISBN 0-8221-0166-1.
  12. ^ John D. Durand, 1974, "Historical Estimates of World Population: An Evaluation", University of Pennsylvania, Population Center, Analytical and Technical Reports, Number 10.
  13. ^ Colin Clark, 1967, Population Growth and Land Use, St. Martin's Press, New York, ISBN 0-333-01126-0.
  14. ^ Data from History Database of the Global Environment. K. Klein Goldewijk, A. Beusen and P. Janssen, "HYDE 3.1: Long-term dynamic modeling of global population and built-up area in a spatially explicit way", from table on pg. 2, Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency (MNP), Bilthoven, The Netherlands.
  15. ^ Pasechnik, I. P. (1986). "Refinement of the moment of explosion of the Tunguska meteorite from the seismic data". Cosmic Matter and the Earth (in Russian). Novosibirsk: Nauka. p. 66.
  16. ^ Farinella, Paolo; Foschini, L.; Froeschlé, Christiane; Gonczi, R.; Jopek, T. J.; Longo, G.; Michel, Patrick (2001). "Probable asteroidal origin of the Tunguska Cosmic Body" (PDF). Astronomy & Astrophysics. 377 (3): 1081–1097. Bibcode:2001A&A...377.1081F. doi:10.1051/0004-6361:20011054. Retrieved 2011-08-23.
  17. ^ Trayner, Chris (1994). "Perplexities of the Tunguska Meteorite". The Observatory. 114: 227–231. Bibcode:1994Obs...114..227T.
  18. ^ "1909 Postcard sent from Northern Pacific Train Conductor back home". Archived from the original on 2013-09-27. Retrieved 2013-09-23.
  19. ^ "How did science and technology change in the 1900s?". eNotes.
  20. ^ http://blog.modernmachanix.com/2008/06/16/invented-earlier-than-youd-think-pt-2-answering-machines[permanent dead link]
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  24. ^ Martin Leduc, "Biography of Rudolph Diesel" Archived 2010-06-11 at the Wayback Machine
  25. ^ The history behind the Mercedes-Benz brand and the three-pointed star Archived 2010-10-25 at the Wayback Machine. eMercedesBenz.com. April 17, 2008.
  26. ^ "The most thorough account of the history of the phonograph is still Oliver Read and Walter L. Welch, Tin Foil to Stereo: Evolution of the Phonograph, 2nd ed. (Indianapolis, IN: Howard W. Sams & Co., 1976). For a recent version of the story see Leonard DeGraaf, "Thomas Edison and the Origins of the Entertainment Phonograph" NARAS Journal 8 (Winter/Spring 1997/8) 43–69, as well as William Howland Kenney's recent and welcome Recorded Music in American Life: The Phonograph and Popular Memory, 1890–1945 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1999). Much of the technocentric focus of literature on the phonograph (a focus Kenney's cultural history finally shifts) may derive from the interests of collectors, for whom I have the utmost respect. In the interest of simplicity, I am going to use the eventual American generic, "phonograph," for the graphophone and gramophone as well as the phonograph. Of course in Britain and much of the postcolonial world, the generic is "gramophone.""
  27. ^ "How Users Define New Media: A History of the Amusement Phonograph". mit.edu.
  28. ^ Linehan, Andrew. "Soundcarrier". Continuum Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World. pp. 359–366."
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  36. ^ "MFN – Metal Finishing News". mfn.li. Archived from the original on 2017-08-27. Retrieved 2010-01-03.
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  43. ^ Mary Bellis. "History of the Lie Detector or Polygraph Machine". About.com Money.
  44. ^ "10. Neon – Elementymology & Elements Multidict". vanderkrogt.net.
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Notes

  1. ^ "I suggest that it is impossible to separate deaths caused by massacre and starvation from those due to the pandemic of sleeping sickness (trypanosomiasis) which decimated central Africa at the time." - Neal Ascherson (1999)[3]