Games of the XIV Olympiad
The Palace of Westminster, a Gothic architecture building with two towers, sits behind the Olympic rings. The words "XIVth Olympiad" is written across the top in a semi-circular shape, while the words "London 1948" is written at the bottom of the logo.
Emblem of the 1948 Summer Olympics
Host cityLondon, United Kingdom
Athletes4,104 (3,714 men, 390 women)
Events136 in 17 sports (23 disciplines)
Opening29 July 1948
Closing14 August 1948
Opened by
StadiumWembley Stadium

The 1948 Summer Olympics, officially the Games of the XIV Olympiad and officially branded as London 1948, were an international multi-sport event held from 29 July to 14 August 1948 in London, United Kingdom. Following a twelve-year hiatus caused by the outbreak of World War II, these were the first Summer Olympics held since the 1936 Games in Berlin. The 1940 Olympic Games had been scheduled for Tokyo and then for Helsinki, while the 1944 Olympic Games had been provisionally planned for London. This was the second time London hosted the Olympic Games, having previously hosted them in 1908, forty years earlier. The Olympics would return again to London 64 years later in 2012, making London the first city to host the games thrice, and the only such city until Paris and Los Angeles host their third games in 2024 and 2028, respectively. The 1948 Olympic Games were also the first of two summer Games held under the IOC presidency of Sigfrid Edström.

The 1948 Olympics came to be known as the "Austerity Games" due to the difficult economic climate and rationing imposed in the aftermath of World War II.[2] No new venues were built for the games (with events taking place mainly at Wembley Stadium, also known as Empire Stadium, and the Empire Pool at Wembley Park), and athletes were housed in existing accommodation at the Wembley area instead of an Olympic Village, as were the 1936 Games and the subsequent 1952 Games in Helsinki. A record 59 nations were represented by 4,104 athletes, 3,714 men, and 390 women in 19 sport disciplines. Germany and Japan were not invited to participate in the games; the Soviet Union was invited but chose not to send any athletes, sending observers instead to prepare for the 1952 Olympics. Israel requested to participate (symbolically represented by Raya Bronstein and Frieda Berson-Lichtblau [he]) but was denied as the International Olympic Committee did not yet recognize the country, while the Olympic mandate of Palestine expired. This in turn shifted the view of the Arab countries who had intended to boycott the event and now decided to take part.

One of the star performers at the 1948 Games was Dutch sprinter Fanny Blankers-Koen. Dubbed the "Flying Housewife", the thirty-year-old mother of two won four gold medals in athletics. In the decathlon, Bob Mathias of the United States became the youngest male ever to win an Olympic track and field gold medal at the age of seventeen. The most individual medals were won by Veikko Huhtanen of Finland, who took three golds, a silver and a bronze in men's gymnastics. The United States won the most gold and overall medals, having 300 athletes compared to the United Kingdom's 404. France fielded the second largest team, with 316 athletes and finished third in the medal standings. The host nation ended up twelfth.

Election as host city

In June 1939, the International Olympic Committee (IOC) awarded the 1944 Olympic Summer Games to London, ahead of Rome, Detroit, Budapest, Lausanne, Helsinki, Montreal and Athens.[3] World War II stopped the plans and the Games were cancelled so London again stood as a candidate for 1948. Great Britain almost handed the 1948 games to the United States due to post-war financial and rationing problems, but King George VI said that this could be the chance to restore Britain from World War II. The official report of the London Olympics shows that there was no case of London being pressed to run the Games against its will. It says:

The Games of 1944 had been allocated to London and so it was that in November 1945, the Chairman of the British Olympic Council, Lord Burghley, went to Stockholm and saw the president of the International Olympic Committee to discuss the question of London being chosen for this great event. As a result, an investigating committee was set up by the British Olympic Council to work out in some detail the possibility of holding the Games. After several meetings they recommended to the council that the Lord Mayor of London should be invited to apply for the allocation of the Games in 1948.[4]

In June 1946 the IOC, through a postal vote, gave the summer Games to London and the winter competition to St Moritz. London was selected ahead of Baltimore, Minneapolis, Lausanne, Los Angeles, and Philadelphia.[5]

London, which had previously hosted the 1908 Summer Olympics, became the second city to host the Olympics twice; Paris hosted the event in 1900 and 1924. London later became the first city to host the Olympics for a third time when the city hosted the 2012 Summer Olympics.


1948 London Olympic medals being minted at the works of John Pinches in Clapham

Lord Burghley, a gold medal winner at the 1928 Olympics, member of the International Olympic Committee (IOC), and president of the Amateur Athletics Association was named Chairman of the Organising and Executive Committees.[6] The other members of the committees were: Colonel Evan Hunter, General Secretary of the British Olympic Association, and Chief de mission for Great Britain; Lord Aberdare, the other British member of the IOC; Sir Noel Curtis-Bennett; Alderman H.E. Fern; E.J. Holt; J. Emrys Lloyd, who became the committee's legal advisor; C.B. Cowley of the London Press and Advertising; R.B. Studdert, Managing Director of the Army & Navy Stores; A.E. Porritt, a member of the IOC for New Zealand who resided in London; S.F. Rous, Secretary of The Football Association; and Jack Beresford.[7]

Olympic pictograms were introduced for the first time.[improper synthesis?] There were twenty of them—one for each Olympic sport and three separate pictograms for the arts competition, the opening ceremony and the closing ceremony. They were called "Olympic symbols" and intended for use on tickets. The background of each pictogram resembled an escutcheon.[8][9] Olympic pictograms appeared again 16 years later, and were used at all subsequent Summer Olympics.

At the time of the Games, food, petrol and building were still subject to the rationing imposed during the war in Britain; because of this the 1948 Olympics came to be known as the "Austerity Games".[10] Athletes were given the same increased rations as dockers and miners, 5,467 calories a day instead of the normal 2,600. Building an Olympic Village was deemed too expensive, and athletes were housed in existing accommodation. Male competitors stayed at RAF camps in Uxbridge and West Drayton, and an Army camp in Richmond Park; female competitors in London colleges.[11] Lord Burghley unfurled the Olympic Flag at the Richmond Park camp at an opening ceremony in July as Minister of Works, Charles Key, declared the camp open.[12]

These were the first games to be held following the death of Pierre de Coubertin, founder of the International Olympic Committee, in 1937. They were also the last to include an arts competition, which took place at the Victoria and Albert Museum.[13]

Torch relay

Main article: 1948 Summer Olympics torch relay

Nicknamed "relay of peace" due to crossing through several countries in Europe to represent their union after the Second World War, the torch relay for these games took place from 17 to 29 July 1948, with a distance of 3,160 kilometres (1,960 mi) and 1,416 torchbearers.[14]

The torch was designed by Ralph Lavers. There were three types of torches: the standard one made of aluminum and powered by solid fuel, a special one powered by butane gas (used aboard HMS Whitesand Bay) and a third one used in the Wembley stadium, made of stainless steel and powered by a magnesium candle.[14]

The journey began with the lighting of the flame in Olympia. Due to the civil war in Greek soil, the Greek part of the relay went directly to Corfu, where HMS Whitesand Bay picked the flame to transport it to Bari. From there, the flame crossed Italy, Switzerland, France, Luxembourg and Belgium. After a boat trip from Calais to Dover (aboard of HMS Bicester), the flame traveled to several towns in Southeast England until the arrival at Wembley for the Opening ceremony.[14]

The cities and towns visited by the Olympic flame were as follows:[15]

Nation Cities and towns
 Greece Olympia, Katakolon, Corfu.
 Italy Bari, Foggia, Pescara, Ancona, Rimini, Bologna, Parma, Piacenza, Milan, Domodossola, the Simplon Pass.
  Switzerland Brig, Martigny, Montreux, Lausanne, Geneva, Perly.
 France St. Julien en Genevois, Belgarde, Nantua, Lons-le-Saulnier, Poligny, Besancon, Vesoul, Epinal, Nancy, Metz, Thionville, Evrange.
 Luxembourg Frisange, Esch, Luxembourg City, Ettelbruck, Wiltz.
 Belgium Bras, Bastogne, Marche, Namur, Brussels, Renaix, Tournai, Hertain.
 France Lille, Armentieres, St. Omer, Calais.
 England,  United Kingdom Dover, Canterbury, Charing, Maidstone, Westerham, Redhill, Reigate, Dorking, Guildford, Bagshot, Ascot, Windsor, Slough, Uxbridge, London.

Opening ceremony

The XIV Olympic Games opens in London, 1948

The Games opened on 29 July. Army bands began playing at 2 pm for the 85,000 spectators in Empire Stadium at Wembley Park. The international and national organisers arrived at 2.35 pm and King George VI and Queen Elizabeth, with Queen Mary and other members of the Royal Family, at 2.45 pm. Fifteen minutes later the competitors entered the stadium in a procession that took 50 minutes. The last team was that of the United Kingdom. When it had passed the saluting base, Lord Burghley began his welcome:

Your Majesty: The hour has struck. A visionary dream has today become a glorious reality. At the end of the worldwide struggle in 1945, many institutions and associations were found to have withered and only the strongest had survived. How, many wondered, had the great Olympic Movement prospered?

After welcoming the athletes to two weeks of "keen but friendly rivalry", he said London represented a "warm flame of hope for a better understanding in the world which has burned so low."[16]

At 4 pm, the time shown on the clock tower on the London Games symbol, the King declared the Games open, 2,500 pigeons were set free and the Olympic Flag raised to its 35 ft (11 m) flagpole at the end of the stadium. The Royal Horse Artillery sounded a 21-gun salute to welcome the last runner in the Torch Relay: John Mark, a British track and field sprinter and student at the University of Cambridge with impressive Olympian good looks. Mark ran a lap of the track – created with cinders from the domestic coal fires of Leicester – and climbed the steps to the Olympic cauldron. After saluting the crowd, he turned and lit the flame. After more speeches, Donald Finlay of the British team (given his RAF rank of Wing Commander) took the Olympic Oath on behalf of all competitors. The National Anthem was sung and the massed athletes turned and marched out of the stadium, led by Greece, tailed by Britain.

The 580-page official report concluded:

Thus were launched the Olympic Games of London, under the most happy auspices. The smooth-running Ceremony, which profoundly moved not only all who saw it but also the millions who were listening-in on the radio throughout the world, and the glorious weather in which it took place, combined to give birth to a spirit which was to permeate the whole of the following two weeks of thrilling and intensive sport.[17]

Television coverage

The opening ceremony and over 60 hours of Games coverage was broadcast live on BBC television, which was then officially available only in the London area.[18] However, the BBC's transmissions could be received much further away in the right conditions, and some of the Games was watched by at least one viewer in the Channel Islands.[19] The BBC's official report on the coverage estimated that an average of half a million viewers watched each of their Olympic broadcasts.[19] The BBC paid £1,000 for the broadcasting rights.[20]

Of the live television coverage, only a small section of the opening ceremony broadcast still exists in the archives.[19] However, various filmed reports shot for the BBC's Television Newsreel programme do also still exist.[19]


The 1948 Summer Olympics featured 136 medal events, covering 23 disciplines in 17 different sports and in arts.

In the list below, the number of events in each discipline is noted in parentheses.

These Games also included Lacrosse and Swedish (Ling) gymnastics as demonstration sports.[21]


Main article: Athletics at the 1948 Summer Olympics

Start of the 50 km walk
Delfo Cabrera crossing the finish line to take gold in the marathon

Empire Stadium was the venue for 33 athletics events at the Games; 24 for men and nine for women. Of these, four were making their Olympic debut – the men's 10 km walk, and the women's 200 metres, long jump and shot put. A total of 754 athletes from 53 countries participated in athletics.[22] Fanny Blankers-Koen of the Netherlands, a 30-year-old mother of two children[citation needed] nicknamed "The Flying Housewife", won four gold medals, in the 100 metres, 200 metres, 80 metre high hurdles, and 4 x 100 metre relay. As world record holder in the long jump and high jump Blankers-Koen may have been able to win further medals but, at this time, female athletes were limited to three individual events.[23] Duncan White won the first medal of any kind for Sri Lanka (then Ceylon) when he finished second in the 400 metre hurdles. Arthur Wint became the first Jamaican to win an Olympic gold medal, in the men's 400 metres; he also won silver in the men's 800 metres.[24][25] Audrey Patterson became the first African-American woman to win a medal, winning bronze in a track and field event. A few days later Alice Coachman became the first woman of colour in the world and the first African-American woman to win a gold medal in track and field in the history of the modern Olympics with a jump of 1.68 m (5' 614"). She also was the only American woman to win an athletics gold medal during the 1948 Olympics.[26]

The marathon saw a dramatic finish with the first man to enter the stadium, Etienne Gailly of Belgium, exhausted and nearly unable to run. While he was struggling, Argentinian athlete Delfo Cabrera and Tom Richards of Great Britain passed him, with Cabrera winning the gold medal and Richards obtaining the silver. Gailly managed to recover enough to cross the line for the bronze.[27]

The decathlon was won by 17-year-old Bob Mathias of the United States. He became the youngest ever Olympic gold medallist in athletics and when asked how he would celebrate he replied: "I'll start shaving, I guess."[28][29]


Main article: Art competitions at the 1948 Summer Olympics

Categories: sports-related architecture, literature, music, painting, and sculpture. These Olympics were the last time art competitions were considered Olympic events.


Main article: Basketball at the 1948 Summer Olympics

Basketball made its second appearance as a medal sport, appearing as an indoor competition for the first time after poor weather disrupted the matches at the 1936 Berlin Games. The event, for men only, was contested by 23 nations split into four pools for the preliminary round; the top two in each pool advanced to the quarterfinals with the other teams entering playoffs for the minor placings. The United States and France reached the final which was won by the Americans 65–21 to claim the gold medal. This was the second of the United States' seven consecutive gold medals in Olympic men's and women's basketball.[30] Brazil defeated Mexico 52–47 to claim bronze.[31]


Main article: Boxing at the 1948 Summer Olympics

Eight different classifications were contested ranging from flyweight, for boxers weighing less than 51 kg, to heavyweight, for boxers over 80 kg. South Africa, Argentina and Hungary each won two gold medals.


Main article: Canoeing at the 1948 Summer Olympics

Nine events were contested, eight for men and one for women. This marked the first time that a women's canoeing event had been contested in the Olympics. Sweden won four gold medals (two by Gert Fredriksson) and Czechoslovakia three.


Main article: Cycling at the 1948 Summer Olympics

Six events were contested – two road bicycle racing events and four track cycling events. No women's cycling events were contested. France won three gold medals and Italy two, while Great Britain captured five medals overall, but none were gold.


Main article: Diving at the 1948 Summer Olympics

Four diving events were contested, two for men, and two for women. The events are labelled as 3  metre springboard and 10  metre platform by the International Olympic Committee but appeared on the 1948 Official Report as springboard diving and highboard diving, respectively.[32] All four gold medals, and 10 out of 12 awarded in total, were won by the United States. Victoria Manalo Draves, who won both gold medals in the women's events, and Sammy Lee, who took a gold and a bronze in the men's events, became the first Asian Americans to win gold medals at an Olympic Games.[33]


Main article: Equestrian at the 1948 Summer Olympics

Six gold medals were awarded in equestrian, individual and team dressage, individual and team eventing and individual and team show jumping. Harry Llewellyn and Foxhunter, who would claim a gold medal in Helsinki, won bronze in the team jumping event.


Main article: Fencing at the 1948 Summer Olympics

Seven events were contested, six for men and one for women. Ilona Elek, who had won the women's foil competition in Berlin, was one of only two competitors to successfully defend an Olympic title in London.[13] Elek's sister, Margit, placed sixth in the same event.[34] Edoardo Mangiarotti won three medals, two silver and a bronze, having previously won a gold medal in the 1936 Games. Throughout his career the Italian won 13 Olympic fencing medals and 27 world championship medals, both of which remain records.[35][36]

Field hockey

Main article: Field hockey at the 1948 Summer Olympics

Thirteen nations participated in the field hockey competition. The tournament was ultimately won by India, who defeated Great Britain to claim the country's first gold medal as an independent nation under captain Kishan Lal and Vice-Captain Kunwar Digvijay Singh.


Main article: Football at the 1948 Summer Olympics

Eighteen teams entered the football competition at these Olympics. Due to the rise of the professional game during the 12 years since the Berlin Olympics the number of talented amateurs for teams to select from was reduced. The gold medal was won by Sweden, who defeated Yugoslavia 3–1 in the final. Denmark defeated hosts Great Britain, managed by Matt Busby of Manchester United, 5–3 to win the bronze medal. In the tournament's 18 matches a total of 102 goals were scored; an average 5.66 goals per match. The joint top scorers with seven goals each were Gunnar Nordahl of Sweden and Denmark's John Hansen. Nordahl and Swedish teammates Gunnar Gren and Nils Liedholm went on to play for A.C. Milan and together were nicknamed Gre-No-Li.[37]

This was the first international football tournament ever to be broadcast on television, with the two semi-finals, the bronze medal match and the final all being shown live in full by the BBC.[19]


Main article: Gymnastics at the 1948 Summer Olympics

Nine events were contested, eight for men, and one for women. In the men's pommel horse, a tie was declared between three competitors, all Finns, and no medals other than gold were awarded in this event. Finland won six gold medals overall, and Switzerland three.


Main article: Lacrosse at the Summer Olympics

Lacrosse was an exhibition sport at these Olympics. An English team composed of players from various universities played a U.S. team represented by Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute at the Empire Stadium.

Modern pentathlon

Main article: Modern pentathlon at the 1948 Summer Olympics

Gold medalist William Grut of Sweden (foreground) competing in the running component of the modern pentathlon.

Only one modern pentathlon event was contested, the five component sports– riding, fencing, shooting, swimming, and running- being held over six days. Scoring was by point-for-place system across the five phases with the winner being the athlete with the lowest combined ranking. The sport's international federation, the Union Internationale de Pentathlon Moderne was founded during the Games, on 3 August 1948. Sweden won two medals in the event; William Grut won the gold, with a final points total of 16, and Gösta Gärdin took bronze. American George Moore won the silver medal.[38]


Main article: Rowing at the 1948 Summer Olympics

Seven rowing events were contested, all open to men only. Great Britain and the United States each claimed two gold medals. The events were held on the River Thames at Henley, over the same course as the Henley Royal Regatta.


Main article: Sailing at the 1948 Summer Olympics

The sailing events at the Games took place in Torquay, in the southwest of Great Britain.[39] Five events were contested, with the United States winning four total medals.[40] One of host nation Great Britain's three gold medals at the Games came in the Swallow class from Stewart Morris and David Bond. In the Firefly class Danish sailor Paul Elvstrøm won gold the despite the Danish Olympic Committee having misgivings about sending him to compete as the 18-year-old could speak no English. This was the first of four consecutive Olympics with a gold medal for Elvstrøm.[39]


Main article: Shooting at the 1948 Summer Olympics

Four events were contested, all open to both men and women, although all medals were won by men. In the 50 metre rifle, prone position, only two points separated the top three competitors. Károly Takács had been a member of the Hungary's world champion pistol shooting team in 1938 when a grenade shattered his right hand – his pistol hand. Takács taught himself to shoot with his left hand and, 10 years after his injury, he won an Olympic gold medal in the rapid-fire pistol event.[41]


Main article: Swimming at the 1948 Summer Olympics

Eleven events were contested, six for men and five for women. The United States won eight gold medals, including all six men's events, and 15 medals in total.

Water polo

Main article: Water polo at the 1948 Summer Olympics

Eighteen nations fielded a team in these games, which were ultimately won by Italy, who were undefeated throughout. The tournament was conducted in a mult-tier bracket, with the best four teams from the group stages participating in a final round-robin bracket. Silver was claimed by Hungary, and bronze by the Netherlands.


Main article: Weightlifting at the 1948 Summer Olympics

Six events were contested, all for men only. These games marked the addition of the bantamweight class to the Olympic programme, the first change to the programme since 1920. The United States won four gold medals, and eight overall; the remaining two gold medals were claimed by Egypt.[42] Rodney Wilkes won the first medal for Trinidad and Tobago in an Olympic games, winning silver in the featherweight division; the featherweight gold medal was won by Egyptian Mahmoud Fayad, with a new Olympic and World record of 332.5 kg.[43][44]


Main article: Wrestling at the 1948 Summer Olympics

Sixteen wrestling events were held, eight Greco-Roman and eight freestyle. All were open to men only. Both categories were dominated by two nations. Turkey was the most successful nation with six gold medals followed by Sweden receiving 5 gold medals. These two teams claimed 24 total medals, in other words half of the total medals given.

Political defection

London was the first Olympics to have a political defection. Marie Provazníková, the 57-year-old Czechoslovak President of the International Gymnastics Federation, refused to return home, citing "lack of freedom" after the Czechoslovak coup in February led to the country's inclusion in the Soviet Bloc.[45][46]


For the 1948 Olympics, the Technicolor Corporation devised a bipack colour filming process – dubbed "Technichrome" – whereby hundreds of hours of film documented the events in colour, without having to use expensive and heavy Technicolor cameras.[47]

Slightly over 2,000 journalists attended the 1948 Games.[48]


Poster promoting the 1948 Olympics

Main article: Venues of the 1948 Summer Olympics

No new venues were built for the Games. A cinder track was laid inside Empire Stadium and all other venues were adapted.[10] For the first time at the Olympics swimming events were held undercover, at the 8000 capacity Empire Pool. As the pool was longer than the standard Olympic length of 50 metres a platform was constructed across the pool which both shortened it and housed officials.[41] In 2010 one of the last remaining venues from the Games, the Herne Hill Velodrome where cycling events were staged, was saved when a new 15-year lease was agreed meaning that repairs could take place. Campaigners and users of the track had feared that it would be forced to close as it was in desperate need of refurbishment.[49]

Participating National Olympic Committees

1948 Summer Olympics Poster map showing with the flags of the nations expected to be in the Summer Olympics of that year.
Number of athletes per country

A total of 59 nations sent athletes. Fourteen made their first official appearance: British Guiana (now Guyana), Burma (now Myanmar), Ceylon (now Sri Lanka), Iran, Iraq, Jamaica, Korea, Lebanon, Pakistan, Puerto Rico, Singapore, Syria, Trinidad and Tobago, and Venezuela.[50] It was the first time that the Philippines, India and Pakistan competed as fully independent nations at the Olympic Games. Germany, and Japan, under Allied military occupations, were not allowed to send athletes to the games. Due to continuing labour shortages, German prisoners of war were used for the construction of the facilities for the games, in particular Olympic Way.[51] Italy, although originally an Axis power, defected to the Allies in 1943 following Benito Mussolini being deposed, and was allowed to send athletes. The Soviet Union was invited but they chose not to send any athletes, sending observers instead to prepare for the 1952 Olympics.[52]

Participating National Olympic Committees

Number of athletes by National Olympic Committees (by highest to lowest)

Medal count

Main article: 1948 Summer Olympics medal table

Further information: Olympic medal table

These are the top ten nations that won medals at the 1948 Summer Games, ranked by number of gold medals won. The host nation was 12th, with 23 medals, including three golds.[53]

1 United States38271984
2 Sweden16111744
3 France1061329
4 Hungary1051227
5 Italy811827
6 Finland87520
7 Turkey64212
8 Czechoslovakia62311
9 Switzerland510520
10 Denmark57820
Totals (10 entries)1129092294

See also


  1. ^ a b "Factsheet – Opening Ceremony of the Games f the Olympiad" (PDF) (Press release). International Olympic Committee. 13 September 2013. Archived (PDF) from the original on 14 August 2016. Retrieved 22 December 2018.
  2. ^ McDowell, Linda (2013). Working Lives: Gender, Migration and Employment in Britain, 1945-2007. Chichester. p. 53.((cite book)): CS1 maint: location missing publisher (link)
  3. ^ "Past Olympic Host City Election Results". Archived from the original on 13 May 2009. Retrieved 29 April 2010.
  4. ^ Organising Committee for the XIV Olympiad London 1948(1951), p. 17
  5. ^ "Olympic Games Fonds" (PDF). International Olympic Committee Historical Archives. 6 November 2007. Archived (PDF) from the original on 9 October 2022. Retrieved 29 April 2010.
  6. ^ "David George Burghley – lord of the hurdles (photos attached)". The official website of the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games. Archived from the original on 29 April 2009. Retrieved 27 April 2010.
  7. ^ Organising Committee for the XIV Olympiad London 1948(1951), p. 18
  8. ^ Organising Committee for the XIV Olympiad London 1948(1951), pp. 131, 135
  9. ^ Two sample tickets from 1948 Summer Olympics Archived 23 May 2008 at the Wayback Machine at the Official Website of the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games
  10. ^ a b "British Olympic Movement". British Olympic Association. Archived from the original on 8 April 2008. Retrieved 26 April 2010.
  11. ^ Mike Rowbotham (7 July 2005). "1948 Olympics: 'We had much more fun and a greater sense of achievement than modern athletes do'". The Independent. Archived from the original on 28 February 2014. Retrieved 26 April 2010.
  12. ^ Opening Of Olympic Centre In London 1948 (Motion picture, black and white). Gaumont British Newsree. Reuters. 5 July 1948. film id:VLVA354L6FHKU412LLQ9JN7WB90IO.
  13. ^ a b "London 1948". British Olympic Association. Archived from the original on 8 April 2009. Retrieved 26 April 2010.
  14. ^ a b c "Torch Relay 1948". Olympic Museum. Archived from the original on 30 October 2013. Retrieved 10 September 2023.
  15. ^ "Torch Relay". Official Report of the Organising Committee for the XIV Olympiad. London: Organising Committee for the XIV Olympiad. 1951. p. 210. OCLC 220789552. Retrieved 8 September 2023.
  16. ^ Organising Committee for the XIV Olympiad London 1948(1951), p. 221
  17. ^ Organising Committee for the XIV Olympiad London 1948(1951), p. 225
  18. ^ "Broadcasting the 1948 Olympic Games". History of the BBC. Retrieved 29 March 2020.
  19. ^ a b c d e Hayes, Paul (8 June 2021). "International Football at the 1948 Olympics". BBC Genome Project. BBC Online. Retrieved 14 June 2021.
  20. ^ "Landmarks in the history of the media and the Olympics" (PDF). The British Library. Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 October 2012. Retrieved 28 April 2010.
  21. ^ "Demonstration sports : history at the Olympic Summer Games / The Olympic Studies Centre". Olympic World Library. 19 January 2024. Archived from the original on 19 January 2024. Retrieved 27 January 2024.
  22. ^ "Athletics at the 1948 London Summer Games". Archived from the original on 23 March 2010. Retrieved 27 April 2010.
  23. ^ "1948 London Summer Games". Archived from the original on 11 May 2010. Retrieved 27 April 2010.
  24. ^ Chris Dhambarage (4 February 2010). "Sports striving for greater heights after Independence". Daily News. Archived from the original on 9 February 2010. Retrieved 27 April 2010.
  25. ^ Donald McRae (1 April 2010). "Cradle of champions where Jamaican sprinters earn their spurs". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 30 April 2010. Retrieved 27 April 2010.
  26. ^ "Alice Coachman – First African American Gold Medallist". Archived from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 27 April 2010.
  27. ^ Martin, David E.; Roger W. H. Gynn (2000). The Olympic marathon. Human Kinetics. p. 188. ISBN 978-0-88011-969-6.
  28. ^ "Former congressman Bob Mathias dies at 75". USA Today. Associated Press. 3 September 2006. Retrieved 29 April 2010.
  29. ^ Martin Weil (3 September 2006). "Bob Mathias; Congressman, Twice Olympic Champion". The Washington Post. Retrieved 29 April 2010.
  30. ^ "Basketball Men's Basketball Medalists". Archived from the original on 4 April 2010. Retrieved 27 April 2010.
  31. ^ "Basketball at the 1948 London Summer Games: Men's Basketball Final Round". Archived from the original on 17 April 2020. Retrieved 27 April 2010.
  32. ^ Organising Committee for the XIV Olympiad London 1948(1951), p. 637
  33. ^ Melody Merin (30 May 2008). "Asian Americans First Won Olympic Gold 60 Years Ago". Archived from the original on 22 March 2010. Retrieved 27 April 2010.
  34. ^ "Ilona Elek". The Official Website of the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games. Archived from the original on 6 January 2011. Retrieved 27 April 2010.
  35. ^ "Portraits: The Great "Edoardo Mangiarotti"". Archived from the original on 8 March 2010. Retrieved 27 April 2010.
  36. ^ "Edoardo Mangiarotti". Archived from the original on 17 April 2020. Retrieved 27 April 2010.
  37. ^ "London, 1948". FIFA. Archived from the original on 23 October 2007. Retrieved 28 April 2010.
  38. ^ "Modern Pentathlon at the 1948 London Summer Games". Archived from the original on 28 April 2020. Retrieved 27 April 2010.
  39. ^ a b "1948 London Olympic Sailing Competition". The International Sailing Federation. Archived from the original on 25 April 2010. Retrieved 4 May 2010.
  40. ^ "Sailing at the 1948 London Summer Games". Archived from the original on 17 April 2020. Retrieved 4 May 2010.
  41. ^ a b "London 1948". Archived from the original on 4 October 2009. Retrieved 28 April 2010.
  42. ^ "Weightlifting at the 1948 London Summer Games". Archived from the original on 17 April 2020. Retrieved 29 April 2010.
  43. ^ Patrick Watson (27 November 2008). "Help Wilkes now". Trinidad and Tobago Express. Retrieved 29 April 2010.
  44. ^ "Weightlifting at the 1948 London Summer Games: Men's Featherweight". Archived from the original on 18 April 2020. Retrieved 29 April 2010.
  45. ^ Alan Hubbard (17 February 2008). "London 1948 to London 2012: Rags to riches for the 'high-class Del Boy' who dreamt of gold, not money". The Independent. Archived from the original on 1 May 2022. Retrieved 4 May 2010.
  46. ^ "A Political Refugee". The Guardian. 19 August 1948. Retrieved 4 May 2010.
  47. ^ "The History and Technology of Technicolor". The American Widescreen Museum. 2003.
  48. ^ Toney, James (20 December 2012). Sports Journalism: The Inside Track. Bloomsbury Publishing. p. 8. ISBN 9781408178348.
  49. ^ "Last remaining 1948 Olympic Games venue is saved". BBC Sport. 21 April 2011. Archived from the original on 29 April 2011. Retrieved 26 April 2011.
  50. ^ Christopher Lyles (14 July 2008). "Countdown to the Beijing Olympics". The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on 12 January 2022. Retrieved 28 April 2010.
  51. ^ "'Wembley Way' built by German Prisoners of War". BBC News. 15 March 2010. Retrieved 22 May 2010.
  52. ^ "'A very British Olympics'". BBC Sport. 18 October 2005. Archived from the original on 4 October 2008. Retrieved 28 April 2010.
  53. ^ "Medal Table". British Olympic Association. Archived from the original on 18 September 2007. Retrieved 27 April 2010.
Summer Olympics Preceded byLondon (1944) cancelled due to World War II XIV OlympiadLondon 1948 Succeeded byHelsinki