1967 Hong Kong riots
1967-08 1967年 香港电车工人罢工.jpg
Clash between striking tram workers and police officers on 30 August 1967
DateMay – December 1967
Location
MethodsDemonstrations, strikes, assassinations, planting of bombs
Resulted inRiots quelled
  • British Hong Kong government retains control of Hong Kong until 1997
  • Government crackdown on left-wing groups
  • Ban on communist publications
Parties to the civil conflict
Lead figures
David Trench Yeung Kwong
Casualties
Death(s)51
Injuries802[1]
Arrested1,936[1]
1967 Hong Kong riots
Traditional Chinese六七暴動
Simplified Chinese六七暴动
Literal meaning'67 riots

The 1967 Hong Kong riots (Chinese: 六七暴動) were large-scale anti-government riots that occurred in Hong Kong during British colonial rule. Beginning as a minor labour dispute, the demonstrations eventually escalated into protests against the British colonial government. The protests were also partially inspired by riots that had occurred just a few months prior in Portuguese Macau, known as the 12-3 incident, which were ultimately much more successful on the side of the protesters.

The use of roadside bombs and petrol bombs by protesters prompted the Hong Kong Police Force to raid the demonstrators' strongholds and arrest their leaders. Several demonstrators, as well as a few police officers, were killed in the subsequent violence. As many of the bombs were made in communist-leaning schools, then Governor David Trench decided to close those schools and banned communist publications in the colony.[2]

The protests happened in the backdrop of the Cultural Revolution taking place in mainland China (PRC), with many of the protesters harbouring leftist views or sympathies to the Chinese Communist Party (CCP). It was the first series of riots since the 1956 and 1966 Hong Kong riots. After the riots, the British Hong Kong government publicly reflected on its failure to address certain social grievances and carried out major social reforms. However, another riot would occur in 1981.

Tensions

The initial demonstrations and riots were labour disputes that began as early as May 1967 in shipping, taxi, textile, cement companies and in particular the Hong Kong Artificial Flower Works, where there were 174 pro-CCP trade unionists.[3] The unions that took up the cause were all members of the Hong Kong and Kowloon Federation of Trade Unions with strong ties to Beijing.[4]

The political climate was tense in Hong Kong in the spring of 1967. To the north of the British colony's border, the PRC was in turmoil. Red Guards carried out purges and engaged in infighting, while the 12-3 incident sponsored by pro-CCP demonstrators erupted in the Portuguese colony of Macau, to the west of Hong Kong, in December 1966.

Despite the intervention of the Portuguese army, order was not restored to Macau; and after a general strike in January 1967, the Portuguese government agreed to meet many of the left-wing demands, placing the colony under the de facto control of the PRC.[5] The tension in Hong Kong was heightened by the ongoing Cultural Revolution to the north. Up to 31 protests were held.[6]

Outbreak of violence

Police officers preparing to confront rioters on 21 May 1967. The rioters are out of the picture, below the balcony and to the right of where the photographer is standing.
Police officers preparing to confront rioters on 21 May 1967. The rioters are out of the picture, below the balcony and to the right of where the photographer is standing.

In May, a labour dispute broke out in a factory producing artificial flowers in San Po Kong.[7][8]

Picketing workers clashed with management, and riot police were called in on 6 May. In violent clashes between the police and the picketing workers, 21 workers were arrested; many more were injured. Representatives from the union protested at police stations, but were themselves also arrested.[citation needed]

The next day, large-scale demonstrations erupted on the streets of Hong Kong. Many of the pro-CCP demonstrators carried Little Red Books in their left hands and shouted communist slogans. The Hong Kong Police Force engaged with the demonstrators and arrested another 127 people.[9] A curfew was imposed and all police forces were called into duty.[10]

In the PRC, newspapers praised the demonstrators' activities, calling the British colonial government's actions "fascist atrocities". In Hong Kong, pro-Beijing newspapers Ta Kung Pao and Wen Wei Po similarly voiced their support for the demonstrators and opposition to the British colonial government.[11]

In Hong Kong's Central District, large loudspeakers were placed on the roof of the Bank of China Building, broadcasting pro-CCP rhetoric and propaganda, prompting the British authorities to retaliate by putting larger speakers blaring out Cantonese opera.[10] Posters were put up on walls with slogans like "Blood for Blood", "Stew the White-Skinned Pig", "Fry The Yellow Running Dogs", "Down With British Imperialism" and "Hang David Trench", a reference to the then Governor.[12] Students distributed newspapers carrying information about the disturbances and pro-CCP rhetoric to the public.[citation needed]

Meeting of the Committee of Hong Kong and Kowloon Compatriots from All Circles for Struggle Against British Hong Kong Persecution
Meeting of the Committee of Hong Kong and Kowloon Compatriots from All Circles for Struggle Against British Hong Kong Persecution

On 16 May, the activists formed the Committee of Hong Kong and Kowloon Compatriots from All Circles for Struggle Against British Hong Kong Persecution or "Anti-British Struggle Committee" for short.[13] Yeung Kwong of the Hong Kong and Kowloon Federation of Trade Unions was appointed as its chairman. The committee organised and coordinated a series of large demonstrations. Hundreds of supporters from 17 different leftist organisations demonstrated outside Government House, chanting communist slogans.[14] At the same time, many workers took strike action, with Hong Kong's transport services being particularly badly disrupted.[citation needed]

More violence erupted on 22 May, with another 167 people being arrested. The rioters began to adopt more sophisticated tactics, such as throwing stones at police or vehicles passing by, before retreating into left-wing "strongholds" such as newspaper offices, banks or department stores once the police arrived.[citation needed] Casualties began soon after. At least eight deaths of the protestors were recorded before 1 July, mostly shot or beaten to death by the police (see the incomplete list of deceased below).

The height of the violence

In the afternoon of the Sha Tau Kok incident, police officers stood guard at the cordon outpost. A military helicopter arrived at the scene to conduct low-altitude reconnaissance.
In the afternoon of the Sha Tau Kok incident, police officers stood guard at the cordon outpost. A military helicopter arrived at the scene to conduct low-altitude reconnaissance.

On 8 July, several hundred demonstrators from the PRC, including members of the People's Militia, crossed the frontier at Sha Tau Kok and attacked the Hong Kong Police, of whom five were shot dead and eleven injured in the brief exchange of fire.[15] The People's Daily in Beijing ran editorials supporting the left-wing struggle in Hong Kong; rumours that the PRC was preparing to take over control of the colony began to circulate. The leftists tried in vain to organise a general strike; attempts to persuade the ethnic Chinese serving in the police to join the pro-CCP movement were equally unsuccessful.[citation needed]

The left-wing retaliated by planting bombs, as well as decoys, throughout the city. Normal life was severely disrupted and casualties began to rise. An eight-year-old girl, Wong Yee Man, and her two-year-old brother, Wong Siu Fan, were killed by a bomb wrapped like a gift placed outside their residence.[16] Bomb disposal experts from the police and the British forces defused as many as 8,000 home-made bombs, of which 1,100 were found to be real.[17] These were known as "pineapple bombs".[18][1] Most police stations across Hong Kong were fortified with sandbags as police facilities were the target of numerous attacks using bombs, homemade fragmentation explosives, and various projectiles.[19][20][21][22]

The Hong Kong Government imposed emergency regulations, granting the police special powers in an attempt to quell the unrest. Left-wing newspapers were banned from publishing; left-wing schools alleged to be bomb-making factories, such as Chung Wah Middle School, were shut down; many activist leaders were arrested and detained; and some of them were later deported to mainland China.[17]

On 19 July, demonstrators set up barbed wire defences on the 20-storey Bank of China Building (owned by the PRC government).[23]

In response, police raided activist strongholds, including Kiu Kwan Mansion.[18] In one of the raids, helicopters from HMS Hermes – a Royal Navy aircraft carrier – landed police on the roof of the building.[24] Upon entering the building, the police discovered bombs and weapons, as well as a leftist "hospital" complete with dispensary and an operating theatre.[9]

The public outcry against the violence was widely reported in the media, and the activists again switched tactics. On 24 August, Lam Bun, a popular anti-leftist radio commentator, was murdered by a death squad posing as road maintenance workers as he drove to work with his cousin. Lam's assailants prevented him from getting out of his car, and he was burned alive.[25]

Other prominent figures of the media who had voiced opposition against the riots were also threatened, including Louis Cha, then chairman of the Ming Pao newspaper, who left Hong Kong for almost a year before returning.[citation needed]

The waves of bombings did not subside until October 1967. In December, Chinese Premier Zhou Enlai ordered the left-wing groups in Hong Kong to stop all bombings; and the riots in Hong Kong finally came to an end. The disputes in total lasted 18 months.[26]

It became known much later that, during the riots, the commander of PLA's Guangzhou Military Region Huang Yongsheng (one of Lin Biao's top allies) secretly suggested invading and occupying Hong Kong, but his plan was vetoed by Zhou Enlai.[27]

Aftermath

Casualties

By the time the rioting subsided at the end of the year, 51 people had been killed, of whom at least 22 were killed by the police, and 15 died in bomb attacks, with 832 people sustaining injuries, while 4979 people were arrested and 1936 convicted.[9] Millions of dollars in property damage resulted from the rioting, far in excess of that reported during the 1956 riot.[26] Confidence in the colony's future declined among some sections of Hong Kong's populace, and many wealthy residents sold their properties and migrated overseas, particularly to places such as Australia, Singapore and Canada.

List of deceased (partial)
Name Age Date of Death Comment
Chan Kong-sang[28] 14 1967-05-12 An apprentice hairdresser, died in the course of riot at Wong Tai Sin Resettlement Area.
Tsui Tin-po[29] (徐田波) 42 1967-06-08 A worker in the Mechanics Division of the Public Works Department, died in custody at Wong Tai Sin Police Station after arrest.
Lai Chung (黎松) 52 1967-06-08 A Towngas worker, shot by police in a raid, then killed by drowning.
Tsang Ming (曾明) 29 1967-06-08 A Towngas worker, beaten to death by police in a raid.
Tang Chi-keung (鄧自強) 30 1967-06-23 A plastics factory worker, shot by police in a raid against a trade union.
Chau Chung-shing (鄒松勝) 34 1967-06-24 A plastics factory worker, beaten to death by police after arrest.
Law Chun-kau (羅進苟) 30 1967-06-24 A plastics factory worker, beaten to death by police after arrest.
Lee On (李安) 45 1967-06-26 A worker at Shaw Brothers, died while being admitted to hospital from a law court.
Fung Yin-ping (馮燕平)[30] 40 1967-07-08 A police corporal, killed by militia from Mainland China at Sha Tau Kok border.
Kong Shing-kay (江承基)[30] 19 1967-07-08 A police constable, killed by militia from Mainland China at Sha Tau Kok border.
Mohamed Nawaz Malik[30] 28 1967-07-08 A police constable, killed by militia from Mainland China at Sha Tau Kok border.
Khurshid Ahmed[30] 27 1967-07-08 A police constable, killed by militia from Mainland China at Sha Tau Kok border.
Wong Loi-hing (黃來興)[30] 27 1967-07-08 A police constable, killed by militia from Mainland China at Sha Tau Kok border.
Zhang Tiansheng (張天生) 41 1967-07-08 A militiaman from Mainland China, shot to death by Hong Kong Police at Sha Tau Kok border.
Cheung Chi-kong (鄭浙波) 32 1967-07-09 A porter working in Western District, shot to death during a riot
Ma Lit (馬烈) 43 1967-07-09 A porter working in Western District, shot to death during a riot
Lam Po-wah (林寶華)[30] 21 1967-07-09 A police constable, killed by a stray bullet during a riot
Choi Wai Nam (蔡惠南) 27 1967-07-10 A rioter, shot to death by police in Johnston Road, Wan Chai.
Lee Chun-hing 35 1967-07-10 A furniture worker, beaten to death by protesters in Johnston Road, Wan Chai.
Li Sze (李四) 48 1967-07-11 A rioter, shot to death by police at Johnston Road, Wan Chai.
Mak Chi-wah (麥志華) 1967-07-12 A rioter, shot to death by police at Un Chau Street, Sham Shui Po.
(unknown) 1967-07-12 A rioter, shot to death by police at Soy Street, Mong Kok.
Ho Fung (何楓) 34 1967-07-14 A worker at Kowloon Dockyard, killed in police action against the Kowloon Dock Workers Amalgamated Union.
(unknown) 1967-07-14 A rioter, shot to death by police at Reclamation Street, Yau Ma Tei.
Yu Sau-man (余秀文) 1967-07-15 A rioting employee of Wheelock Spinners, shot to death by police.
So Chuen (蘇全) 28 1967-07-26 A worker from a textile factory, shot to death by police at Mong Kok while attacking a bus in service.
Ho Chuen-tim (何傳添) 1967-08-09 A fisherman from Sha Tau Kok, arrested during a police raid against memorial meeting for killed workers on 24 June. Died on 9 August.
Wong Yee-man (黃綺文)[16] 8 1967-08-20 An 8-year-old girl, killed, along with her younger brother, by a homemade bomb wrapped like a gift at Ching Wah Street, North Point.
Wong Siu-fan (黃兆勳)[16] 2 1967-08-20 Younger brother of Wong Yee Man.
Lam Bun (林彬) 37 1967-08-25 A radio commentator at Commercial Radio Hong Kong, killed by incendiary attack of a group of men posing as road maintenance workers during his way to office on 24 August. Died on 25 August.
Charles Workman 26 1967-08-28 A sergeant in the Royal Army Ordnance Corps, killed when a homemade bomb he was defusing at Lion Rock exploded.
Ho Shui-kei (何瑞麒) 21 1967-08-29 A rioting mechanical worker, shot to death by police at Tung Tau Village, Wong Tai Sin.
Lam Kwong-hoi (林光海) 1967-08-29 A technician at Commercial Radio Hong Kong, killed by incendiary attack with his elder cousin Lam Bun during his way to office on 24 August. Died on 29 August.
Aslam Khan 22 1967-09-03 A firefighter, killed by a homemade bomb during defusing.
Cheung Chak (章集) 38 1967-09-03 A rioting bus driver, wounded in police shooting on 30 August. Died of pneumonia on 3 September.
Yau Chun-yau (邱進友) 1967-09-20 A Royal Hong Kong Jockey Club worker, killed by explosion of his own bomb near barracks at Kam Tsin, Sheung Shui.
Lo Hon-bun (盧漢彬) 1967-10-01 A rioter, killed by police shooting.
To Hung-kwong (杜雄光) 19 1967-10-13 A police constable, killed by bomb in Wanchai[31]
Tong Tak-ming Peter (唐德明) 18 1967-10-14 A middle school student, killed by bomb in Wanchai.
Ronald J. McEwen 37 1967-11-05 A senior police inspector, killed by bomb in Causeway Bay while trying to clear area. Many injured.[31]
PC Sit Chun-hung 1967-11-28 Stabbed to death by in Shek Kip Mei[31]
PC Lee Koon-san 1967-12-9 Shot to death by in Kam Tin[31]
List of confrontation convicts who died in custody
Name Prisoner no. Date of Death Comment
Tsang Tin-sung 27381 1968-01-27 A 32-year-old worker who took part in Mong Kok Riot on 15 July 1967, sentenced to 14 months in jail. Found dead after hanging himself in the morning of 27 January 1968.
Tang Chuen 28017 1969-12-29 Chairman of a pro-CCP workers union who initiated a riot in Taikoo Dockyard on 6 June 1967, sentenced to 6 years in jail. Died from liver diseases in Queen Mary Hospital on 29 December 1969.

Reactions

The funeral of PC Lee Koon Sang on 13 December 1967
The funeral of PC Lee Koon Sang on 13 December 1967

On 22 August, in Beijing, thousands of people demonstrated outside the office of the British chargé d'affaires, before Red Guards attacked and ransacked the main building, and then burned it down.[32]

New left-wing groups and legacy

Many left-wing groups with close ties to the PRC were dissolved during and after the 1967 riots. The murder of radio host Lam Bun, in particular, outraged many Hong Kong residents and discredited the leftist movement in Hong Kong as a whole. The credibility of the PRC and its local sympathisers among Hong Kong residents was severely damaged for more than a generation.[33]

Some of the members who participated in the 1967 riot have since regained a foothold in Hong Kong politics during the early 1990s. Tsang Tak-sing, a CCP supporter and riot participant, later became the founder of the pro-Beijing Democratic Alliance for the Betterment and Progress of Hong Kong. Along with his brother Tsang Yok-sing, they continued to promote Marxism in Hong Kong.[34]

In 2001, Yeung Kwong, a pro-CCP party activist of the 1960s, was awarded the Grand Bauhinia Medal under Tung Chee-hwa, a symbolic gesture that raised controversy as to whether the post-1997 Hong Kong government of the time was approving the riot.[35]

In 2017, hundreds of protesters who took part in the 1967 riots were hailed as heroes in a memorial ceremony at Wo Hop Shek public cemetery to mark the 50th anniversary of the uprising. Former finance sector lawmaker Ng Leung-sing and the Federation of Trade Unions' Michael Luk Chung-hung, along with Chan Shi-yuen, head of 67 Synergy Group were some of the prominent attendees. They called for Beijing to vindicate the protests, which they have continued to refer to as a "patriotic act against British colonial tyranny".[36]

Social reforms

The 1966 and 1967 riots in Hong Kong served as a catalyst for social reforms in Hong Kong, with the implementation of positive non-interventionism in 1971, while David Trench grudgingly introduced some social reforms, it was not until Murray MacLehose greatly expanded the scope of reforms which transformed lives of residents in Hong Kong, thus becoming one of the Four Asian Tigers.[2] The 1970s marked starting of the Lion Rock Spirit.

Legacy

The Hong Kong Police Force was applauded for its behaviour during the riots by the British Government. In 1969, Queen Elizabeth granted the force the privilege of the "Royal" title. This remained in use until the end of British rule in 1997.[37]

Hong Kong tycoon Li Ka-shing went on to become Hong Kong's most important Chinese real estate developer.[38][relevant?] Chinese philosopher and educator Chien Mu, founder of the New Asia College (now part of the Chinese University of Hong Kong), left for Taiwan.[39] He was appointed to the Council for Chinese Cultural Renaissance by President Chiang Kai-shek.[40]

Police website revisionism controversy

In mid-September 2015, media reported that the Hong Kong Police Force had made material deletions from its website concerning "police history", in particular, the political cause and the identity of the groups responsible for the 1967 riots, with mention of communists being expunged.

For example, "Bombs were made in classrooms of left-wing schools and planted indiscriminately on the streets" became "Bombs were planted indiscriminately on the streets"; the fragment "waving aloft the Little Red Book and shouting slogans" disappeared, and an entire sentence criticising the hypocrisy of wealthy pro-Beijing businessmen, the so-called "red fat cats" was deleted.[41]

The editing gave rise to criticisms that it was being sanitised, to make it appear that the British colonial government, rather than activists, were responsible. Stephen Lo, the new Commissioner of Police, said the content change of the official website was to simplify it for easier reading; Lo denied that there were any political motives, but his denials left critics unconvinced.[42] The changes were subsequently reversed.

Depictions in media

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c "Police rewrite history of 1967 Red Guard riots". Hong Kong Free Press. 14 September 2015. Archived from the original on 25 September 2015. Retrieved 24 September 2015.
  2. ^ a b Dewolf, Christopher (8 August 2018). "1967: When the Bank of China Building Became a Giant Propaganda Machine". Archived from the original on 23 July 2019. Retrieved 23 July 2019.
  3. ^ Fire on the rim: a study in contradictions in left-wing political mobilization in Hong Kong, 1967, Stephen Edward Waldron, Syracuse University, 1976, page 65
  4. ^ Political Change and the Crisis of Legitimacy in Hong Kong, Ian Scott, University of Hawaii Press, 1989, page 99
  5. ^ Portugal, China and the Macau Negotiations, 1986–1999, Carmen Amado Mendes, Hong Kong University Press, 2013, page 34
  6. ^ Hong Kong, C.W Lam and Cecilia L.W Chan, Professional Ideologies and Preferences in Social Work: A Global Study, Idit Weiss, John Gal, John Dixon, Praeger Greenwood Publishing, 2003, page 107
  7. ^ Colony in Conflict: The Hong Kong Disturbances, May 1967 – January 1968, John Cooper, Swindon Book Company, 1970, page iii
  8. ^ Hong Kong Artificial Flower Works, San Po Kong, location of the start of the 1967 riots Archived 12 September 2017 at the Wayback Machine, industrialhistoryhk.org. Retrieved 16 June 2018.
  9. ^ a b c Gary Ka-wai Cheung, Hong Kong's Watershed: The 1967 Riots, Hong Kong University Press, 2009, page 32, page 86, page 123
  10. ^ a b Yoshiko Nakano (2009). Where There Are Asians, There Are Rice Cookers: How "National" Went Global via Hong Kong. Hong Kong University Press. p. 4. ISBN 978-988-8028-08-5.
  11. ^ Survey of People's Republic of China Press, Issues 4032–4051, US Consulate General, 1967, pages 23–25.
  12. ^ Robert Bickers; Ray Yep (2009). May Days in Hong Kong: Riot and Emergency in 1967. Hong Kong University Press. p. 72. ISBN 978-962-209-999-9.
  13. ^ May Upheaval in Hong Kong, Committee of Hong Kong and Kowloon Compatriots from All Circles for Struggle Against British Hong Kong Persecution, p. 8 (1967).
  14. ^ Asian Recorder, Volume 13, 1967, page 7832.
  15. ^ Hong Kong (Border Incidents) Archived 14 April 2016 at the Wayback Machine, Hansard, HC Deb 10 July 1967 vol 750 cc93-7
  16. ^ a b c Then & now: these were our children Archived 5 May 2016 at the Wayback Machine, South China Morning Post, 19 August 2012
  17. ^ a b Underground Front: The Chinese Communist Party in Hong Kong. Hong Kong University Press. 2010. p. 113. ISBN 9789888028948.
  18. ^ a b North Point tour takes participants back to the 1967 Hong Kong riots Archived 7 May 2016 at the Wayback Machine, South China Morning Post, 6 October 2013,
  19. ^ "Leftists Adopt New Tactics: Hit-and-run Attacks On Police Stations". South China Morning Post. 14 July 1967. p. 1.
  20. ^ "Bomb Thrown Into Police Station". South China Morning Post. 12 August 1967. p. 1.
  21. ^ "Bombs Thrown At Police Station". South China Morning Post. 3 November 1967. p. 1.
  22. ^ "BOMB BLAST IN SHAMSHUIPO: Explosion Damages Door Of Police Station". South China Morning Post. 8 November 1967. p. 1.
  23. ^ Bonavia, David (19 July 1967). "No Need for More Hong Kong Troops". The Times. London. p. 4. ISSN 0140-0460.
  24. ^ Jones, Carol A. G. (2007). Justice in Hong Kong. Routledge-Cavendish. p. 402. ISBN 9781845680381.
  25. ^ Chuh, Kandice; Shimakawa, Karen (2001). Orientations: Mapping Studies in the Asian Diaspora. Duke University Press. p. 205. ISBN 9780822327295.
  26. ^ a b Chu, Yingchi (2003). Hong Kong Cinema: Coloniser, Motherland and Self. Routledge Publishing. ISBN 0-7007-1746-3.
  27. ^ Revealed: the Hong Kong invasion plan Archived 15 May 2009 at the Wayback Machine, Michael Sheridan, The Sunday Times, 24 June 2007
  28. ^ HKRS152-1-389 CHAN KONG SANG
  29. ^ HKRS152-1-372 TSUI TIN PO
  30. ^ a b c d e f In Memory of Those Members of the Royal Hong Kong Police Force and the Hong Kong Police Force Who Lost Their Lives in the Course of Duty Archived 10 October 2017 at the Wayback Machine, Hong Kong Police Force
  31. ^ a b c d Asia's Finest Marches On. p145 Roll of Honour
  32. ^ Colin Mackerras, The New Cambridge Handbook of Contemporary China, Cambridge University Press, 2001, page 10.
  33. ^ Carroll, John M. (2007). A Concise History of Hong Kong. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield. pp. 157–158. ISBN 0-7425-3422-7.
  34. ^ Hong Kong and the Reconstruction of China's Political Order, Suzanne Pepper in Crisis and Transformation in China's Hong Kong, Ming K. Chan, Alvin Y. So, M.E. Sharpe, 2002, page 64
  35. ^ Introduction: The Hong Kong SAR in Flux, Ming K. Chan in Crisis and Transformation in China's Hong Kong, Ming K. Chan, Alvin Y. So, M.E. Sharpe, 2002, page 15
  36. ^ "Why leftists should stop seeking vindication on 1967 riots". EJ Insight. 12 May 2017. Archived from the original on 22 January 2018. Retrieved 21 January 2018.
  37. ^ A Battle Royal Rocks Imperial Yacht Club Archived 8 April 2016 at the Wayback Machine, The Christian Science Monitor, 10 June 1996
  38. ^ Entrepreneurship and Economic Development of Hong Kong, Routledge, Tony Fu-Lai Yu, 1997 page 64.
  39. ^ Asiaweek, Volume 16, Issues 27–39, 1990, page 58
  40. ^ Religion in Modern Taiwan: Tradition and Innovation in a Changing Society, Philip Clart, Charles Brewer Jones, University of Hawaii Press, 2003, page 56
  41. ^ "Why are the police tampering with 1967 riots history?". EJ Insight. Archived from the original on 30 January 2016. Retrieved 1 February 2016.
  42. ^ "Police chief defends editing of '1967 riots' history on website". EJ Insight. 16 September 2015. Archived from the original on 30 January 2016. Retrieved 1 February 2016.

Further reading