1968 Democratic Party presidential primaries

← 1964 March 12 to June 11, 1968 1972 →

2,607 delegates to the 1968 Democratic National Convention
1,304 (majority) votes needed to win
 
Candidate Eugene McCarthy Robert F. Kennedy Hubert Humphrey
Home state Minnesota New York Minnesota
Contests won 6 5 0
Popular vote 2,914,933 2,305,148 166,463
Percentage 38.7% 30.6% 2.2%

     Humphrey      McCarthy      Kennedy      Johnson
     McGovern      Phillips      Favorite Sons[a]      Uncommitted

Previous Democratic nominee

Lyndon B. Johnson

Democratic nominee

Hubert Humphrey

From March to July 1968, Democratic Party voters elected delegates to the 1968 Democratic National Convention for the purpose of selecting the party's nominee for president in the upcoming election. After an inconclusive and tumultuous campaign focused on the Vietnam War and marred by the June assassination of Robert F. Kennedy, incumbent Vice President Hubert Humphrey was nominated at the 1968 Democratic National Convention held from August 26 to August 29, 1968, in Chicago, Illinois.

The campaign for the nomination began with incumbent President Lyndon B. Johnson expected to win re-nomination for a second consecutive election, despite low approval ratings following the Tet Offensive in January 1968. His only significant challenger was Eugene McCarthy, an anti-war Senator from Minnesota. After McCarthy nearly won the New Hampshire primary, Senator Robert F. Kennedy, another critic of the war and the brother of the late President John F. Kennedy, entered the race. Johnson soon announced that he would not campaign for re-election. In April, Vice President Hubert H. Humphrey joined the race as the establishment candidate; he did not criticize the administration's conduct of the war and avoided the popular contests for delegates.

McCarthy and Kennedy traded primary victories while Humphrey collected delegates through the closed caucus and convention systems in place in most states. Many other delegates were selected without a formal commitment to support any particular candidate. The race was upended on June 5, the night of the California and South Dakota primaries. Both races went for Kennedy, but he was assassinated after his victory speech at the Ambassador Hotel. At the moment of his assassination, Kennedy trailed Humphrey in the pledged delegate count with McCarthy third. Without any obligation to vote for any candidate, most Kennedy delegates backed Humphrey over McCarthy or fell behind Kennedy supporter George McGovern.

At the convention, Humphrey secured the nomination easily despite anti-war protests outside the convention center; he went on to lose the presidential election narrowly to Richard Nixon. Partly in reaction to Humphrey's victory without entering most state primaries, George McGovern led the McGovern–Fraser Commission, dramatically reforming the nomination process to expand the use of popular primaries rather than caucuses.

Background

1960 and 1964 presidential elections

In 1960, John F. Kennedy won the Democratic nomination over Lyndon B. Johnson. After he secured the nomination at the party convention, Kennedy offered Johnson the vice presidential nomination; the offer was a surprise, and some Kennedy supporters claimed that the nominee expected Johnson to decline. Robert F. Kennedy, the nominee's brother and campaign manager, reportedly went to Johnson's hotel suite to dissuade Johnson from accepting.[1] Johnson accepted, and the Kennedy-Johnson ticket was narrowly elected, but the 1960 campaign intensified the personal enmity between Robert F. Kennedy and Lyndon B. Johnson, which dated to as early as 1953. President Kennedy named his brother to his cabinet as United States Attorney General.

President Kennedy was assassinated on November 22, 1963; Johnson succeeded him with tremendous national popularity amid a wave of mourning and sympathy. Robert Kennedy remained in the cabinet for several months, creating what Johnson staffers began to refer to as "the Bobby problem": despite the personal hatred between the two, Democratic voters overwhelmingly favored Kennedy as Johnson's running mate in the 1964 election.[2] Kennedy began to plan for a nationwide campaign,[3] and in the informal New Hampshire vice-presidential primary, Kennedy defeated Hubert H. Humphrey in a landslide.[4]

In July 1964, Johnson issued an official statement ruling out any cabinet member for the vice presidency.[5] In search of a way out of the dilemma, Kennedy asked speechwriter Milton Gwirtzman to write a memo comparing two offices: 1) governor of Massachusetts and 2) U.S. senator from New York, and "which would be a better place from which to make a run for the presidency in future years?"[6] In September, Kennedy resigned as attorney general, and ran for and won election to the U.S. Senate.[7] Johnson was elected in a landslide.

Vietnam War

See also: United States in the Vietnam War and List of protests against the Vietnam War

United States involvement in the Vietnam War began shortly after the end of World War II. Beginning in 1964, President Johnson dramatically escalated American military presence after the Gulf of Tonkin incident. On the recommendation of General William C. Westmoreland, whom Johnson had appointed to command American troops in Vietnam, U.S. manpower in Southeast Asia expanded from 16,000 in 1964 to more than 553,000 by 1969.

As U.S. involvement escalated throughout 1964 to 1966, protests against the war escalated in proportion. Several anti-war groups were founded or expanded during the period.

1966 midterms and "Dump Johnson" movement

Anti-war Senator Eugene McCarthy agreed to challenge President Johnson in October 1967, after several better-known candidates (including Robert Kennedy) declined to run.

Amid criticism of U.S. handling of the war from both parties, President Johnson's approval rating sank from a high above 70 percent to below 40 percent by the 1966 midterm elections. The Democratic Party had already begun to split between anti-war "doves" and pro-war "hawks," and the Republican Party gained dozens of seats in Congress.

As opposition grew in 1967, anti-war Democrats led by Allard Lowenstein and Curtis Gans formed the Dump Johnson movement, which sought to challenge the President's re-election. Their first choice was Robert Kennedy, who had sufficiently established himself as a critic of the war and an effective popular campaigner. He declined, as did a series of lesser-known candidates, including Senator George McGovern. Lowenstein finally found a candidate in October 1967, when Minnesota Senator Eugene McCarthy agreed to challenge the President. At first, McCarthy merely expressed his interest, telling Lowenstein, "Somebody has to raise the flag."[8][9] On November 30, 1967, McCarthy publicly announced his campaign for the nomination.

Kennedy continued to demur, despite pressure from his aides to enter the race and worry that anti-war allies, like George McGovern, would begin to make commitments to McCarthy.[10] On January 30, he again indicated to the press that he had no plans to campaign against Johnson.[11]

In early February 1968, after the Tet Offensive in Vietnam, Kennedy received an anguished letter from writer Pete Hamill, noting that poor people in the Watts area of Los Angeles had hung pictures of Kennedy's brother, President John F. Kennedy, in their homes. Hamill's letter reminded Robert Kennedy that he had an "obligation of staying true to whatever it was that put those pictures on those walls."[12] There were other factors that influenced Kennedy's decision to enter the presidential primary race. On February 29, 1968, the Kerner Commission issued a report on the racial unrest that had affected American cities during the previous summer. The Kerner Commission blamed "white racism" for the violence, but its findings were largely dismissed by the Johnson administration.[12]

On March 10, Kennedy told his aide, Peter Edelman, that he had decided to run and had to "figure out how to get McCarthy out of it."[13][14] However, Kennedy hesitated to enter the race with McCarthy still in and agreed to McCarthy's request to delay an announcement of his intentions until after the New Hampshire primary.[13]

Candidates

The following political leaders were candidates for the 1968 Democratic presidential nomination:

Nominee

Candidate Born Most recent office Home state Campaign

Withdrawal date

Popular vote Contests won Running mate
Hubert Humphrey May 27, 1911
(age 57)
Wallace, South Dakota
Vice President of the United States
(1965–1969)
Minnesota
Minnesota

(Campaign)
Secured nomination: August 29, 1968
166,463
(2.2%)
0 Edmund Muskie

Other major candidates

These candidates participated in multiple state primaries or were included in multiple major national polls.

Candidate Born Most recent office Home state Campaign

Withdrawal date

Lyndon B. Johnson August 27, 1908
(age 59)
Stonewall, Texas
President of the United States
(1963–1969)

Texas
(Campaign)
Declined: March 31, 1968
Robert F. Kennedy November 20, 1925
(age 42)
Brookline, Massachusetts
U.S. Senator
from New York
(1965–1968)
New York
New York

(Campaign)
Declared: March 16, 1968
Assassinated: June 5, 1968
Eugene McCarthy March 29, 1916
(age 52)
Watkins, Minnesota
U.S. Senator
from Minnesota
(1959–1971)

Minnesota

(Campaign)
Declared: November 30, 1967
Defeated at convention: August 29, 1968
George McGovern July 19, 1922
(age 45)
Avon, South Dakota
U.S. Senator
from South Dakota
(1963–1981)

South Dakota
(Campaign)
Announced: July 23, 1968[b]
Defeated at convention: August 29, 1968
  1. ^ Favorite sons received the support of Ohio (Stephen Young), Florida (George Smathers), New Jersey (Richard Hughes), South Carolina (Robert McNair), North Carolina (Dan Moore), Maine (Edmund Muskie), Texas (John Connally), Louisiana (John McKeithen), Tennessee (Buford Ellington) and Virginia (Mills Godwin).
  2. ^ McGovern entered the race following Robert Kennedy's assassination.
George McGovernEugene McCarthy 1968 presidential campaignRobert F. Kennedy 1968 presidential campaignHubert Humphrey 1968 presidential campaign

Favorite sons

Further information: Favorite son

The following candidates ran only in their home state or district's primary or caucuses for the purpose of controlling its delegate slate at the convention and did not appear to be considered national candidates by the media.

Declined to run

The following persons were listed in two or more major national polls or were the subject of media speculation surrounding their potential candidacy, but declined to actively seek the nomination.

Polling

Graphs are unavailable due to technical issues. There is more info on Phabricator and on MediaWiki.org.

Nationwide polling

Poll source Publication
Hubert Humphrey
Lyndon B. Johnson
Robert F. Kennedy
Eugene McCarthy
Gallup[15] Feb. 1966 5% 52% 27%
Gallup[15] Aug. 1966 6% 38% 40%
Gallup[15] Jan. 1967 8% 34% 43%
Gallup[15] Sep. 1967 6% 37% 39%
Newsweek[15] Jan. 7, 1968 74.3% 16.7%
Theodore H. White[15] Jan. 10, 1968 79% 12%
Newsweek[15] Jan. 21, 1968 73% 18%
U.S. News & World Report[15] Jan. 22, 1968 66.7% 24.3%
Newsweek[15] Jan. 28, 1968 80% 11%
New York Times/CBS[15] Feb. 1, 1968 71% 20%
Theodore H. White[15] Feb. 10, 1968 73% 18%
Newsweek[15] Feb. 25, 1968 76.7% 14.3%
U.S. News & World Report[15] Feb. 26, 1968 76.2% 14.8%
New York Times/CBS[15] Feb. 29, 1968 77% 14%
Newsweek[15] Mar. 3, 1968 69% 20%
U.S. News & World Report[15] Mar. 5, 1968 65% 30%
Theodore H. White[15] Mar. 10, 1968 65.5% 26.5%
March 12: New Hampshire primary
March 16: Robert F. Kennedy enters the race
New York Times/CBS[15] Mar. 21, 1968 50% 41%
U.S. News & World Report[15] Mar. 24, 1968 39% 52%
March 31: Johnson withdraws
New York Times/CBS[15] Apr. 4, 1968 12% 79%
Gallup[15] Apr. 9, 1968 31% 35% 23%
Gallup[15] Apr. 23, 1968 25% 28% 33%
April 27: Hubert Humphrey enters the race
Gallup[15] May 7, 1968 40% 31% 19%
June 5: Robert F. Kennedy is assassinated
Gallup[15] July 23, 1968 53% 39%

Campaign

March: New Hampshire, Kennedy enters, Johnson declines

Running as an antiwar candidate in the New Hampshire primary, McCarthy hoped to pressure the Democrats into publicly opposing the Vietnam War. Trailing badly in national polls and with little chance to influence delegate selection absent primary wins, McCarthy decided to pour most of his resources into New Hampshire, the first state to hold a primary election. He was boosted by thousands of young college students who volunteered throughout the state, who shaved their beards and cut their hair to "Get Clean for Gene."

On March 12, McCarthy was the only person on the ballot, as Johnson had not filed, and was only a write in candidate. McCarthy won 42% of the primary vote to Johnson's 50%, an extremely strong showing for such a challenger which gave McCarthy's campaign legitimacy and momentum.[16] In addition, McCarthy's superior coordination led to a near sweep of the state's twenty-four pledged delegates; since Johnson had no formal campaign organization in the state, a number of competing pro-Johnson delegate candidates split his vote, allowing McCarthy to take twenty delegates.

Despite his desire to oppose Johnson directly and the fear that McCarthy would split the anti-war vote, Kennedy pushed forward with his planned campaign. On March 16, Kennedy declared, "I am today announcing my candidacy for the presidency of the United States. I do not run for the presidency merely to oppose any man, but to propose new policies. I run because I am convinced that this country is on a perilous course and because I have such strong feelings about what must be done, and I feel that I'm obliged to do all I can."[17] However, due to his late entry, Kennedy's name would not appear on a state ballot until the Indiana primary on May 7.

President Lyndon B. Johnson delivers a speech announcing he will not run for re-election on March 31.

Johnson now had two strong challengers, sitting members of the Senate with demonstrated popularity. To make matters worse, polling in Wisconsin showed McCarthy beating Johnson badly, with the latter getting only 12% of the vote.[18] Facing declining health and bleak political forecasts in the upcoming primaries,[19] Johnson concluded that he could not win the nomination without a major political and personal struggle. On March 31, 1968, at the end of a televised address on Vietnam, he shocked the nation by announcing that he would not seek re-election. By withdrawing, he could avoid the stigma of defeat and could keep control of the party machinery to support Vice President Hubert Humphrey. As the year developed, it also became clear that Johnson believed he could secure his place in the history books by ending the war before the election in November, which would give Humphrey the boost he would need to win.[20][21][22]

April: McCarthy triumphant, Humphrey enters

After Johnson's withdrawal, Vice President Hubert Humphrey announced his candidacy on April 27.[23] Humphrey's campaign concentrated on winning the delegates in non-primary states, where party leaders controlled the delegate votes. Humphrey did not compete in the primaries, leaving favorite sons to win delegates as surrogates, notably Senator George A. Smathers from Florida, Senator Stephen M. Young from Ohio, and Indiana Governor Roger D. Branigin.

The Wisconsin primary on April 2 was effectively uncontested. McCarthy received 56% of the vote. Kennedy received 6% as a write-in candidate. Kennedy was ineligible for the ballot because he entered the race following the filing deadline.[24] The Pennsylvania primary on April 23 was similarly a rout for McCarthy, who took 71% of the vote.[25]

In the Massachusetts primary on April 30 neither Humphrey nor Kennedy were formally listed on the ballot. As a result, McCarthy won the popular vote easily, and by the rules in place at the time, all 72 of the commonwealth's delegates were pledged to him on the first ballot. Some analysts viewed Humphrey's unexpectedly strong showing (44,156 write-in votes, or 18% of the total) as a clear victory over Kennedy, a Brookline, Massachusetts native, who polled a meager 28% write-in vote in his family's home state.[26]

May: Kennedy momentum, McCarthy in Oregon

On March 27, 1968, Kennedy announced his intention to run against McCarthy in the Indiana primary, although aides told him that a race in Indiana would be extremely tight and advised him against it.[27] At the Indiana Statehouse, Kennedy told a cheering crowd that the state was important to his campaign: "If we can win in Indiana, we can win in every other state, and win when we go to the convention in August."[28] The Indiana primary thus marked the first open entry of Kennedy into the field and pitted him against McCarthy and Governor Roger Branigin, a favorite son who had backed Johnson and now impliedly supported Humphrey.

During his first campaign stop in Indiana, Kennedy delivered two of a trio notable speeches. First, on April 4, he spoke at Ball State University in Muncie. In this speech, Kennedy suggested the election would "determine the direction that the United States is going to move" and that the American people should "examine everything. Not take anything for granted." Kennedy expressed concerns about poverty and hunger, lawlessness and violence, jobs and economic development, and foreign policy. He emphasized that Americans had a "moral obligation" and should "make an honest effort to understand one another and move forward together." After leaving the stage at Ball State, Kennedy boarded a plane for Indianapolis. When he arrived, he was informed of the assassination of Martin Luther King Jr.[29] Addressing a crowd gathered for a political rally on the black north side of the city, Kennedy gave a heartfelt impromptu speech to the crowd, calling for peace and compassion.[30] The next day in Cleveland, he delivered prepared remarks entitled "On the Mindless Menace of Violence," elaborating the themes he had addressed in Indianapolis. After attending King's funeral in Atlanta, Kennedy resumed campaigning in Indiana on April 10.[31]

Branigan campaigned in nearly all of the state's 92 counties, while McCarthy's campaign strategy concentrated on Indiana's rural areas and small towns. According to Kennedy's campaign advisor, John Bartlow Martin, the campaign gained momentum with Kennedy's visits to central and southern Indiana on April 22 and 23, which included a memorable whistle-stop railroad trip aboard the Wabash Cannonball.[32] Martin urged the candidate to speak out against violence and rioting, emphasize his "law enforcement experience" as former U.S. Attorney General, and promote coordination between the government and private sector to solve domestic issues. Kennedy continued to speak out against the war and in support of the cessation of hostilities and reallocating war funds to domestic programs.[33] To appeal to conservative voters, Kennedy "toned down his rhetoric" as well.[34] McCarthy, meanwhile, contrasted his approach to conflict of "call[ing] upon everyone ... to be as fully responsible as [they] can be" against Humphrey's ("run[ning] things together indiscriminately") and Kennedy's (a "combination of separate interests ... or groups").[35]

On May 7, Kennedy won with 42 percent of the vote; Branigan was second with 31 percent of the vote; and McCarthy, earning 27 percent, came in third.[36][37] In response to the defeat, McCarthy remarked, "We've tested the enemy now, and we know his techniques ... we know his weaknesses."[38]

Campaigning vigorously in the Nebraska primary, Kennedy hoped for a major win to give him momentum going into the crucial California primary in June. While McCarthy made only one visit to Nebraska, Kennedy made numerous appearances.[39] Though Kennedy's advisors had been worried about his chances in Nebraska, given his lack of credibility on ranching and agriculture policy and the short amount of time to campaign in the state after the Indiana primary,[40] Kennedy won on May 14 with 51.4 percent of the vote to McCarthy's 31 percent.[39][41] Kennedy won 24 of the 25 counties that he visited ahead of the vote; of those, the sole county he lost by two votes was home to the University of Nebraska, where a plurality of students favored McCarthy.[42] Kennedy declared that the results, where two anti-war candidates collectively earned over 80 percent of the vote, were "a smashing repudiation" of the Johnson-Humphrey administration.[43]

A Newsweek delegate survey, taken after the Nebraska primary,[44] showed 1,280 delegates (1,312 delegates needed to win the nomination)[45] solid or leaning toward Humphrey, 714 leaning to Kennedy, and 280 favoring McCarthy.[46]

In contrast to Nebraska, the Oregon primary posed several challenges to Kennedy's campaign. His campaign organization, run by U.S. Congresswoman Edith Green, was not strong and his platform emphasizing poverty, hunger, and minority issues did not resonate with Oregon voters.[47][48] About Kennedy's calls for unity amongst Americans, Mills wrote that "As far as Oregonians were concerned, America had not fallen apart."[49] The Kennedy campaign circulated material on McCarthy's record; McCarthy had voted against a minimum wage law and repeal of the poll tax in the Voting Rights Act of 1965. The McCarthy campaign responded with charges that Kennedy illegally taped Martin Luther King Jr. as United States Attorney General.[50] Ten days ahead of the vote, Kennedy admitted his message did not appeal well to Oregonians: "This state is like one giant suburb. I appeal best to people who have problems."[51] During a speech he gave in California, Kennedy also admitted, "I think that if I get beaten in any primary, I am not a very viable candidate," further raising the stakes in Oregon.[50] Following that comment, Kennedy campaigned for sixteen hours a day; in the weeks before the election, his campaign canvased 50,000 homes.[52]

On May 28, McCarthy won the Oregon primary with 44.7 percent; Kennedy received 38.8 percent of votes.[53] After Kennedy's loss was confirmed, he sent a terse congratulatory message to McCarthy but asserted that he would remain in the race.[54] According to Kennedy biographer Larry Tye, the defeat in Oregon proved to Kennedy that he needed to take risks and convinced voters that Kennedy was vulnerable to electoral defeat.[51][55] Observers remarked that McCarthy was "back in the race as a real contender."[56]

Meanwhile, in the Florida primary (also on May 28), a slate of Humphrey delegates led by favorite son George A. Smathers easily swept aside McCarthy, who managed only four delegates from two Miami congressional districts.[57] Humphrey also picked up 83 of the 125 delegates from Pennsylvania,[58] following an endorsement from Philadelphia Mayor James Tate,[59] and collected delegates from non-primary party caucuses and state conventions.[60] In April and May, Humphrey won the majority of delegates in Delaware, Alaska, Hawaii, Wyoming, Arizona, Maryland, Nevada, New Jersey, Missouri, Maine, and Vermont.[61] The other candidates criticized this tactic, and accused Humphrey of organizing a "bossed convention" against the wishes of the people.[62]

June 4: California, South Dakota, and New Jersey; Kennedy assassinated

Kennedy campaigning in Los Angeles (photo courtesy of John F. Kennedy Presidential Library & Museum, Boston)

McCarthy and Kennedy vigorously campaigned throughout California in the beginning of June, with the latter announcing he would exit the race if he lost the state's primary. California's winner-take-all primary became crucial to both Kennedy and McCarthy's campaigns.[63] McCarthy stumped the state's many colleges and universities, where he was treated as a hero for being the first presidential candidate to oppose the war. Kennedy campaigned in the ghettos and barrios of the state's larger cities, where he was mobbed by enthusiastic supporters.[64] In the South Dakota primary, Kennedy also hoped to simultaneously pull off an upset victory over McCarthy and Humphrey, both from neighboring Minnesota (Humphrey was also a native of Wallace, South Dakota).[65]

On June 1, Kennedy and McCarthy met in a televised debate on ABC's "Issues and Answers",[66] which observers generally considered a draw.[67] "It was a conversation rather than a debate," said The New York Times, "and it demonstrated that the two rivals are in substantial agreement on every major issue."[68] Though Kennedy considered the debate "indecisive and disappointing," subsequent polling showed that undecided voters favored his performance by a margin of two-to-one.[69]

On June 3, Kennedy made a "final dash" through the state's major urban centers, San Francisco, Los Angeles, and San Diego; along with suburban Long Beach, in a single day.[70] As his motorcade moved slowly through cheering crowds in San Francisco's Chinatown, gun shots appeared to ring out. However, it was just the sound of celebratory firecrackers.[70] The campaign entourage and traveling press were all "scared to death," recalled Bill Eppridge, a Life magazine photographer in the car just ahead of the Kennedys.[71]

On June 4, Kennedy privately expressed his hope to Theodore H. White that victories in the California and South Dakota primaries could persuade party insiders that he was more electable than Humphrey and thus win him crucial support from unpledged delegates. Kennedy won the California primary with 46 percent of the vote to McCarthy's 42 percent.[72] Author Joseph Palermo referred to the victory as Kennedy's "greatest."[73] Kennedy also won the South Dakota primary, winning approximately 50 percent of the vote.[74]

McCarthy, who that same night defeated Kennedy in the New Jersey primary (with 36% of the write-in vote),[75] made it clear that he would contest the upcoming New York primary on June 18 in Kennedy's adopted state.[76]

Kennedy assassination

Main article: Assassination of Robert F. Kennedy

After giving his victory speech at the Ambassador Hotel in Los Angeles, Kennedy was assassinated in the kitchen service pantry in the early morning of June 5. Sirhan Sirhan, a 24-year-old Palestinian-born Jordanian, was arrested. Kennedy died 26 hours later at Good Samaritan Hospital.

At the moment of Kennedy's death, the delegate totals were estimated to be:[77]

Kennedy's death threw the Democratic Party into disarray. Shaken by the event, Humphrey took off two weeks from campaigning. He met with President Johnson, and the two talked about "everything"[78] during a three-hour meeting. The assassination all but guaranteed Humphrey the nomination. He commented that he "was doing everything I could to win the nomination ... but God knows I didn't want it that way."[79] A large number of Kennedy delegates switched to Humphrey, but he lost money from Republican donors concerned about a Kennedy nomination,[79] and popular opinion polls shifted in favor of Senator McCarthy.[80] In fact, Humphrey was booed before 50,000 people on June 19 at the Lincoln Memorial as he was introduced at a Solidarity March for civil rights.[81] He tried to defend his record against the liberal detractors,[82] but often encountered anti-war protesters and hostile crowds while campaigning.[62] At the end of June, Republican Senator Mark Hatfield of Oregon assessed the race, arguing that Humphrey would be the party's nominee for president but criticized him for being too closely aligned with Johnson's policies.[83]

Schedule and results

Statewide results by winner

Tablemaker's Note:[a]

Date Total pledged
delegates
Contest
and total popular vote
Delegates won and popular vote
Hubert
Humphrey
Eugene
McCarthy
Robert
Kennedy
Lyndon
Johnson
Favorite
Son(s)
Uncommitted Other(s)
March 12 0 (of 24) New Hampshire
Pres. Primary
[84]
55,464
- 23,263
(41.94%)
606 WI
(1.09%)
27,520 WI
(49.62%)
- - 4,075 [b]
(7.35%)
24 (of 24) New Hampshire
Del. Primary[84]
?
- 20 Del.
16,315
- 4 Del.
17,444
- - -
March 16 22 (of 22) Nevada
State Convention[85]
- - - - - 22 Del. -
March 28 28 (of 28) South Carolina
State Convention[86][87]
- - - - 28 Del. [c][d] - -
March 30 38 (of 38) Kansas
State Convention[88]
- - - - - 38 Del. -
April 2 60 (of 60) Wisconsin
Primary[89]
733,002
3,605 WI
(0.49%)
52 Del.
412,160
(56.23%)
46,507 WI
(6.35%)
8 Del.
253,696
(34.61%)
- 11,861
(1.62%)
5,173 WI[e]
(0.71%)
April 8 22 (of 22) Alaska
State Convention[90]
- - - - - 22 Del. -
April 20 19 (of 19) Arizona
State Convention[91]
- - - - - 19 Del. -
April 23 0 (of 130) Pennsylvania
Pres. Primary
599,966
51,998 WI
(8.67%)
428,891
(71.49%)
65,430 WI
(10.91%)
21,265 WI
(3.54%)
- - 32,382 [f]
(5.40%)
130[g] (of 130) Pennsylvania
Del. Primary[92]
- 18 Del. 1.5 Del. - - 110.5 Del. [h] -
April 29 49 (of 49) Maryland
State Convention[93]
- - - - - 49 Del. -
April 30 72 (of 72) Massachusetts
Primary[94]
248,903
44,156 WI
(17.74%)
72 Del.
122,697
(49.30%)
68,604 WI
(27.56%)
6,890 WI
(2.77%)
- - 6,556 [i]
(2.63%)
May 7 32 (of 32) Alabama
Del. Primary[95][96]
- - - - - 32 Del. 0 Del. [j]
63 (of 63) Indiana
Primary[97]
776,513
- 209,695
(27.01%)
59 Del. [k]
328,118
(42.26%)
- 4 Del. [l]
238,700
(30.74%)
- -
115 (of 115) Ohio
Primary[98]
549,140
- 3 Del. - - 112 Del.[m]
549,140
(100.00%)
- -
23 (of 23) Washington D.C.
Primary[99]
92,114
34,559
(37.52%)
- 23 Del.
57,555
(62.48%)
- - - -
May 11 22 (of 22) Delaware
State Convention[100]
16 Del. - 6 Del. - - - -
9 (of 52) Minnesota
7th and 8th
District Conventions[101]
9 Del. - - - - - -
22 (of 22) Wyoming
State Convention[102]
- - - - - 22 Del. -
May 12 26 (of 26) Hawaii
State Convention[103]
- - - - - 26 Del. -
May 14 0 (of 30) Nebraska
Pres. Primary[104]
162,611
12,087 WI
(7.43%)
50,655
(31.15%)
84,102
(51.72%)
9,187
(5.65%)
- - 6,580 WI[n]
(4.04%)
28 (of 30) Nebraska
Del. Primary[104]
1 Del. 3 Del. 20 Del. - - 4 Del. -
36 (of 38) West Virginia
Del. Primary[105]
- - - - - 36 Del. [o] -
May 16 43 (of 43) Georgia
State Convention[106]
- - - - - 43 Del. -
May 18 27 (of 27) Maine
State Convention[107]
- - - - 27 Del. [p] - -
May 25 6 (of 35) Colorado
1st District Convention[108]
- 3 Del. 3 Del. - - - -
46 (of 46) Iowa
State Convention[109]
9.5 Del. 5 Del. 25 Del. - - 6.5 Del. -
13.5 (of 52) Minnesota
3rd, 4th and 5th
District Conventions[110]
- 13.5 Del. - - - - -
22 (of 22) Vermont
State Convention[111]
996
10 Del.
399
(40.06%)
5 Del.
270
(27.11%)
7 Del.
327
(32.83%)
- - - -
May 26 13.5 (of 52) Minnesota
1st, 2nd and 6th
District Conventions[110]
13.5 Del. - - - - - -
May 28 61 (of 63) Florida
Primary[112]
512,357
- 4 Del.
147,216
(28.73%)
- - 57 Del. [q]
236,242
(46.11%)
128,899 [r]
(25.16%)
-
35 (of 35) Oregon
Primary[113]
373,070
12,421 WI
(3.33%)
35 Del.
163,990
(43.96%)
141,631
(37.96%)
45,174
(12.11%)
- - 9,854 WI[s]
(2.64%)
27 (of 27) Rhode Island
State Committee[114]
- - - - - 27 Del. -
June 1 60 (of 60) Missouri
State Convention[115]
- - - - - 60 Del. -
June 2 96 (of 96) Michigan
State Convention[116]
- - - - - 96 Del. -
June 4 172 (of 174) California
Primary[117]
3,181,753
- 1,329,301
(41.78%)
172 Del.
1,472,166
(46.27%)
- - 380,286 [t]
(11.95%)
-
0 (of 82) New Jersey
Pres. Primary[118]
27,446
5,578 WI
(20.32%)
9,906 WI
(36.09%)
8,603 WI
(31.35%)
380 WI
(1.39%)
- - 2,979 [u]
(10.85%)
80 (of 82) New Jersey
Del. Primary[118][119]
- 20 Del. - - 60 Del. [v] - -
24 (of 24) South Dakota
Primary[65]
64,287
- 13,145
(20.45%)
24 Del.
31,826
(49.51%)
19,316
(30.05%)
- - -
June 6 59 (of 59) North Carolina
State Convention[120]
- - - - 59 Del. [w] - -
June 11 0 (of 118) Illinois
Pres. Primary
12,038
2,059 WI
(17.10%)
4,646 WI
(38.59%)
- 162 WI
(1.35%)
- - 5,171 [x]
(42.96%)
48 (of 118) Illinois
Del. Primary[121]
- 2 Del. - - - 46 Del. -
104 (of 104) Texas
State Convention[122]
- - - - 104 Del. [y] - -
June 12 5 (of 5) Panama Canal Zone
Territorial Convention[123]
- - - - - 5 Del. -
June 14 36 (of 36) Louisiana
State Convention[124]
- - - - 36 Del. [z] - -
June 15 25 (of 25) Idaho
State Convention[125]
- - - - - 25 Del. -
26 (of 26) Montana
State Convention[126]
24 Del. 2 Del. - - - - -
June 17 6 (of 35) Colorado
2nd District Convention[127]
- 5 Del. - - - 1 Del. [aa] -
June 18 123 (of 190) New York
Del. Primary[128][129]
19 Del. 62 Del. - - - 42 Del. [ab] -
June 22 44 (of 44) Connecticut
State Convention[130]
- 0 Del. [ac] - - - 44 Del. -
13.5 (of 52) Minnesota
State Convention[131]
14 Del. - - - - - -
June 27 33 (of 33) Arkansas
State Committee[132]
- - - - - 33 Del. -
June 28 68 (of 118) Illinois
State Convention[133]
- - - - - 68 Del. -
65 (of 190) New York
State Committee[129]
- 15.5 Del. - - - 49.5 Del. -
51 (of 51) Tennessee
State Convention[134]
- - - - 51 Del. [ad] - -
June 29 26 (of 26) New Mexico
State Convention[135]
15 Del. 11 Del. - - - - -
25 (of 25) North Dakota
State Convention[136]
17 Del. 7 Del. - - - 1 Del. -
41 (of 41) Oklahoma
State Convention[137]
37 Del. 2.7 Del. - - - 1.3 Del. -
July 2 24 (of 24) Mississippi
State Convention[138]
- - - - - 24 Del. [ae] -
July 6 6 (of 35) Colorado
3rd District Convention[139]
3 Del. 2 Del. - - - 1 Del. [af] -
July 13 6 (of 35) Colorado
State Convention[140]
- 2 Del. - - - 4 Del. [ag] -
6 (of 35) Colorado
4th District Convention[141]
6 Del. - - - - - -
47 (of 47) Washington
State Convention[142]
32.5 Del. 9.5 Del. - - - 5 Del. -
July 27 46 (of 46) Kentucky
State Convention[143]
41 Del. 5 Del. - - - - -
26 (of 26) Utah
State Convention[144]
20 Del. - - - - 6 Del. [ah] -
63 (of 63) Virginia
State Convention[145]
- - - - 63 Del. [ai] - -
Total
2,622 pledged delegates
7,356,838 votes
258
166,463
(2.26%)
379.2
2,915,565
(39.63%)
340.5
2,273,322
(30.90%)
12
383,590
(5.21%)
601
1,024,082
(13.92%)
968.8
521,046
(7.08%)
0
72,770
(0.99%)
Suspected Delegate Count
June 5, 1968
[146]
561.5
(21.41%)
255
(9.73%)
393.5
(15.01%)
- 310
(11.82%)
99
(3.78%)
2[aj]
(0.08%)
Suspected Delegate Count
August 27, 1968
[147]
1,159.5
(44.22%)
487.5
(18.59%)
- - 179.5
(6.85%)
727
(27.73%)
51.5[ak]
(1.96%)
  1. ^ This should not be taken as a finalized list of results. While a significant amount of research was done, there were a number of Delegates who were not bound by the instruction, or "Pledged" to a candidate, and to simplify the data these delegates were considered "Uncommitted". Many states also held primaries for the delegate positions, and these on occasion were where slates or candidates pledged to a certain candidate might be elected; however, as these elections allowed for a single person to vote for multiple candidates, as many as the number of positions being filled, it is difficult to determine how many people actually voted in these primaries. For this reason, while such results may be found, they are not included in the popular vote summaries at the bottom of the table.
  2. ^ Includes 2,532 Write-In votes for Richard Nixon at (4.57%), 506 Write-In votes for Paul C. Fisher at (0.91%), 249 votes for Governor Nelson Rockefeller at (0.45%), 201 Write-In votes for George Wallace at (0.36%), and 186 votes for John G. Crommelin at (0.34%).
  3. ^ Committed to Governor Robert McNair of South Carolina.
  4. ^ Initially uncommitted, the delegates met and decided to commit themselves to Governor McNair in April, following President Johnson's withdrawal from the race.
  5. ^ Includes 4,031 Write-In votes for George Wallace at (0.55%).
  6. ^ Includes 24,147 Write-In votes for George Wallace at (4.03%), 3,434 Write-In votes for Richard Nixon at (0.57%), 1,897 Write-In votes for Governor Nelson Rockefeller at (0.32%), 327 Write-In votes for Governor Ronald Reagan at (0.06%), and 21 Write-In votes for Governor Raymond Shafer at (0.00%).
  7. ^ Includes 49 delegate votes that were not apportioned this day.
  8. ^ Only 61.5 of the delegate votes were elected in the delegate primary; 49 of the delegate votes were amongst appointed delegates who had been chosen at another date. However, it is not currently known when this was.
  9. ^ Includes 2,275 Write-In votes for Governor Nelson Rockefeller at (0.91%), 1,688 Write-In votes for George Wallace at (0.68%), and 575 Write-In votes for Richard Nixon at (0.23%).
  10. ^ More than half of the delegation was initially committed to supporting George Wallace; some backed down once Wallace made it clear he did not want to be nominated at the Democratic Convention, but there remained a significant cadre who wished to do so. Those remaining Wallace delegates however were later stripped of their right to sit as delegates given they refused to sign a pledge declaring their support for the Democratic nominee for President.
  11. ^ This represents the minimum number of delegates Kennedy could have earned based on his performance; the delegates themselves and their apportionment were not to be decided until Mid-June, some time after Kennedy's assassination.
  12. ^ Committed to Governor Roger Branigin of Indiana.
  13. ^ Committed to Senator Stephen Young of Ohio.
  14. ^ Includes 2,731 Write-In votes for Richard Nixon at (1.68%), 1,905 Write-In votes for Governor Ronald Reagan at (1.17%), 1,298 Write-In votes for George Wallace at (0.80%), and 509 Write-In votes for Governor Nelson Rockefeller at (0.31%).
  15. ^ While some delegates mentioned their candidate of choice, by state law the delegates were uncommitted.
  16. ^ Committed to Senator Edmund Muskie of Maine.
  17. ^ Committed to Senator George Smathers of Florida.
  18. ^ Represents an Uncommitted slate led by State Senator Scott Kelly of Lakeland which said it would support either Robert Kennedy or George Wallace.
  19. ^ Includes 3,082 Write-In votes for Governor Ronald Reagan at (0.83%), 2,974 Write-In votes for Richard Nixon at (0.80%), 2,841 Write-In votes for Governor Nelson Rockefeller at (0.76%), and 957 Write-In votes for George Wallace at (0.26%).
  20. ^ Votes for an Uncommitted slate headed by State Attorney General Thomas Lynch.
  21. ^ Includes 1,399 Write-In votes for George Wallace at (5.10%), 1,364 Write-In votes for Richard Nixon at (4.97%), 176 Write-In votes for Governor Nelson Rockefeller at (0.64%), and 40 Write-In votes for Governor Ronald Reagan at (0.15%).
  22. ^ Committed to Governor Richard Hughes of New Jersey.
  23. ^ Committed to Governor Dan Moore of North Carolina.
  24. ^ Includes 4,052 Write-In votes for Senator Edward Kennedy at (33.66%), and 768 Write-In votes for George Wallace at (6.38%).
  25. ^ Committed to Governor John Connally of Texas.
  26. ^ Committed to Governor John McKeithen of Louisiana.
  27. ^ This delegate was formally for Senator Robert Kennedy before his assassination.
  28. ^ 30 of these delegates were committed to Senator Robert Kennedy before his assassination.
  29. ^ 9 delegates had initially been apportioned to McCarthy, but after the McCarthyites walked out because of the Conventions refusal to name a 10th McCarthy delegates, all 9 slots were filled with Uncommitted delegates.
  30. ^ Committed to Governor Buford Ellington of Tennessee.
  31. ^ "Regulars" and "Loyalists" named opposing delegations to the National Convention, with the Loyalists being seated. Neither delegation was committed.
  32. ^ This delegate was formally for Senator Robert Kennedy before his assassination.
  33. ^ These delegates were formally for Senator Robert Kennedy before his assassination.
  34. ^ Four of the delegates were formally supporters of Senator Robert Kennedy before his assassination.
  35. ^ Committed to Governor Mills Godwin of Virginia.
  36. ^ Supporting George Wallace of Alabama.
  37. ^ Supporting Senator George McGovern of South Dakota.

Total popular vote:[148]

Johnson/Humphrey surrogates:

Minor candidates and write-ins:


Primary Map By County (Massachusetts not Included) Hubert Humphrey – Red Lyndon B. Johnson – Yellow (outside of Florida) Robert F. Kennedy – Purple Eugene McCarthy – Green George Wallace – Lime Green Roger D. Branigin – Orange George Smathers – Yellow (Florida Only) Stephen Young – Brown

Democratic Convention and antiwar protests

When the 1968 Democratic National Convention opened in Chicago, thousands of young antiwar activists from around the nation gathered in the city to protest the Vietnam War. In a clash covered on live television, Americans were shocked to see Chicago Police officers brutally beating antiwar protesters. While the protesters chanted "the whole world is watching," the police used clubs and tear gas to beat back the protesters, leaving many of them bloody and dazed. The tear gas even wafted into numerous hotel suites. In one of them, Humphrey was watching the proceedings on television. Meanwhile, the convention itself was marred by the strong-armed tactics of Chicago Mayor Richard J. Daley, who was seen on television angrily cursing Connecticut Senator Abraham Ribicoff, who had made a speech at the convention denouncing the excesses of the Chicago police in the riots.

In the end, the nomination itself was anticlimactic, with Humphrey handily beating McCarthy and McGovern on the first ballot. The convention then chose Senator Edmund Muskie of Maine as Humphrey's running mate. However, the tragedy of the antiwar riots crippled the Humphrey campaign from the start, and it never fully recovered. (White, pp. 377–378;[149])

The Final Ballot
Presidential tally Vice Presidential tally:
Hubert Humphrey 1759.25 Edmund S. Muskie 1942.5
Eugene McCarthy 601 Not Voting 604.25
George S. McGovern 146.5 Julian Bond[150] 48.5
Channing Phillips 67.5 David Hoeh 4
Daniel K. Moore 17.5 Edward M. Kennedy 3.5
Edward M. Kennedy 12.75 Eugene McCarthy 3.0
Paul E. "Bear" Bryant 1.5 Others 16.25
James H. Gray 0.5
George Wallace 0.5

Source: Keating Holland, "All the Votes... Really," CNN[151]

Endorsements

See also

References

  1. ^ Nash, Knowlton (1984). History on the Run: The Trenchcoat Memoirs of a Foreign Correspondent. Toronto, Canada: McClelland & Stewart. pp. 103–104. ISBN 0-7710-6700-3.
  2. ^ Donaldson, Gary (2003). Liberalism's Last Hurrah: The Presidential Campaign of 1964. Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe. p. 103. ISBN 0-7656-1119-8.
  3. ^ Bohrer, John R. (May 24, 2017). "Robert Kennedy's Secret Campaign to Become Lyndon Johnson's Vice President". Daily Beast. Retrieved December 26, 2022.
  4. ^ Donaldson, Gary (2003). Liberalism's Last Hurrah: The Presidential Campaign of 1964. Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe. ISBN 0-7656-1119-8.
  5. ^ Sabato, Larry J. (2014). The Kennedy Half-Century: The Presidency, Assassination, and Lasting Legacy of John F. Kennedy. Bloomsbury USA. pp. 269–271. ISBN 978-1620402825.
  6. ^ Shesol, Jeff (1998). Mutual Contempt: Lyndon Johnson, Robert Kennedy, and the Feud that Defined a Decade. W. W. Norton. p. 179.
  7. ^ Thomas 2000, p. 297.
  8. ^ Gould, Lewis L. 1968: The Election That Changed America (Chicago 1993), pp. 20–21.
  9. ^ Sandbrook, Dominic (2007-12-18). Eugene McCarthy: The Rise and Fall of Postwar American Liberalism. Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group. p. 188. ISBN 978-0-307-42577-5.
  10. ^ Thomas 2000, p. 351.
  11. ^ Thomas 2000, p. 357.
  12. ^ a b Thomas, p. 357.
  13. ^ a b Clark, Thurston (June 2008). "The Last Good Campaign". Vanity Fair. Archived from the original on 2014-12-20. Retrieved 31 Dec 2022. Excerpt from The Last Campaign: Robert F. Kennedy and the 82 Days that Inspired America (New York, Henry Holt, 2008) by Thurston Clark.
  14. ^ Schlesinger 1978, p. 884.
  15. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x "US President - D Primaries, Polling". OurCampaigns.com. 16 Nov 2004. Retrieved 25 Apr 2020.
  16. ^ "McCarthy nearly upsets LBJ in New Hampshire primary: March 12, 1968". Politico.
  17. ^ Kennedy, Robert F., "Robert F. Kennedy's Announcement of his candidacy for president" Archived 2012-02-05 at the Wayback Machine (speech, Washington, D.C., 1968-03-16). Retrieved 31 Dec 2022.
  18. ^ "Could Trump Lose the Republican Nomination? Here's the History of Primary Challenges to Incumbent Presidents". Time.
  19. ^ Cook, Rhodes (2000). United States Presidential Primary Elections 1968–1996: A Handbook of Election Statistics. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press. p. 797. ISBN 9781568024516.
  20. ^ Dallek 1998, p. [page needed].
  21. ^ Woods 2006, p. [page needed].
  22. ^ Gould 1993, p. [page needed].
  23. ^ Solberg, Carl (1984). Hubert Humphrey: A Biography. New York: W.W. Norton. p. 332. ISBN 9780393018066.
  24. ^ "McCarthy Wins Easily in Wisconsin Primary". St. Petersburg Times. April 3, 1968. Retrieved 26 November 2023.
  25. ^ "McCarthy Takes Primary", Daily Collegian, vol. 68, no. 109, University Park, PA, p. 1, April 24, 1968, archived from the original on March 21, 2012
  26. ^ Richardson, Darcy G. (2002). A Nation Divided: The 1968 Presidential Campaign. p. 81.
  27. ^ Herbers, John (March 28, 1968). "Kennedy to Enter Indiana's Primary". The New York Times. Retrieved 23 Apr 2021.
  28. ^ Boomhower 2008, p. 43.
  29. ^ Boomhower 2008, pp. 62–63.
  30. ^ Boomhower 2008, pp. 67–68.
  31. ^ Boomhower 2008, p. 76.
  32. ^ Boomhower 2008, pp. 83–91.
  33. ^ Boomhower 2008, p. 78.
  34. ^ Thomas 2000, p. 369.
  35. ^ Wicker, Tom (May 10, 1968). "New Kennedy Emphasis On View in India". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. p. 6.[permanent dead link]
  36. ^ Thomas 2000, p. 375.
  37. ^ PBS, "American Experience". "Shock Year: 1968 – May 7, Indiana Primary". PBS. Archived from the original on 2016-08-23. Retrieved 23 Apr 2023.
  38. ^ "Tarot Cards, Hoosier Style". Time. May 17, 1968. Archived from the original on September 17, 2005.
  39. ^ a b Thomas 2000, p. 377.
  40. ^ Clarke 2008, pp. 194–95.
  41. ^ Dooley, Brian (1996). Robert Kennedy: The Final Years. New York: St. Martin's Press. p. 128. ISBN 9780312161309.
  42. ^ Mills 1998, p. 428.
  43. ^ Schlesinger 1978, p. 929.
  44. ^ Newfield, Jack (1969). RFK: A Memoir. p. 267.
  45. ^ Gould 1993, p. 104.
  46. ^ Richardson, Darcy G. (2002). A Nation Divided: The 1968 Presidential Campaign. p. 84.
  47. ^ Dooley, p. 129.
  48. ^ Schlesinger, p. 906.
  49. ^ Mills 1998, pp. 430–432.
  50. ^ a b Gould 1993, p. 73.
  51. ^ a b "New Robert F. Kennedy biography examines historic loss in Oregon presidential primary". oregonlive.com. July 5, 2016. Archived from the original on September 14, 2016.
  52. ^ Richardson, Darcy (2002). A Nation Divided: The 1968 Presidential Campaign. iUniverse. p. 100.
  53. ^ Thomas 2000, p. 382.
  54. ^ Korman, Seymour (May 29, 1968). "McCarthy Defeats Bobby". Chicago Tribune.
  55. ^ Oregonian/OregonLive, Douglas Perry | The (May 16, 2016). "Robert F. Kennedy's epic battle for Oregon: Historic photos". oregonlive.((cite web)): CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link) CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  56. ^ Marder, George (May 29, 1968). "Kennedy's campaign strategy damaged seriously by Oregon primary defeat". The Bulletin. Bend, Deschutes County, Oregon. p. 3.[permanent dead link]
  57. ^ "Smathers Takes 57 Delegates; McCarthy 4", Evening Independent, vol. 61, no. 178, St. Petersburg, Florida, p. 2A, May 29, 1968
  58. ^ Offner, Arnold A. (2018). Hubert Humphrey: The Conscience of the Country. Yale University Press. p. 280.
  59. ^ "Humphrey Gathering Pennsylvania Delegates", St. Petersburg Times, vol. 84, no. 309, St. Petersburg, Florida, p. 6A, May 28, 1968
  60. ^ Wainstock, Dennis (2012). Election Year 1968: The Turning Point. p. 84.
  61. ^ Wainstock, Dennis (2012). Election Year 1968: The Turning Point. p. 84.
  62. ^ a b Solberg, p. 343
  63. ^ "Remembering Robert F. Kennedy". California Secretary of State.
  64. ^ Richardson, Darcy G. (2002). A Nation Divided: The 1968 Presidential Campaign. p. 85.
  65. ^ a b "STATE'S 'NATIVE SON' TAKES SOUND LICKING". The Lead Daily Call. Lead, South Dakota. June 5, 1972. Retrieved October 5, 2023.
  66. ^ Wainstock, Dennis (2012). Election Year 1968: The Turning Point. Enigma Books. p. 86.
  67. ^ Schlesinger, pp. 910–912.
  68. ^ Wainstock, Dennis (2012). Election Year 1968: The Turning Point. Enigma Books. p. 89.
  69. ^ Mills 1998, p. 443.
  70. ^ a b Schlesinger, p. 912.
  71. ^ Thomas, pp. 24–25.
  72. ^ Clarke, Thurston (2008). The Last Campaign: Robert F. Kennedy and 82 Days That Inspired America. Henry Holt and Co. p. 268.
  73. ^ Palermo, Joseph A. (2001). In His Own Right: The Political Odyssey of Senator Robert F. Kennedy. Columbia University Press. p. 245.
  74. ^ Clarke, Thurston (2008). The Last Campaign: Robert F. Kennedy and 82 Days That Inspired America. Henry Holt and Co. p. 266.
  75. ^ "Primaries, caucuses and conventions: Classic races for the presidential nomination". Oocities.com. Archived from the original on 2009-10-27. Retrieved 2010-06-17.
  76. ^ Richardson, Darcy G. (2002). A Nation Divided: The 1968 Presidential Campaign. p. 108.
  77. ^ Smith, Jeffrey K. (2010). Bad Blood: Lyndon B. Johnson, Robert F. Kennedy, and the Tumultuous 1960s. p. 266.
  78. ^ Solberg, p. 341
  79. ^ a b Solberg, p. 340
  80. ^ Bartlett, C. (June 14, 1968), "Delaware Sample", The Spokesman-Review, vol. 86, no. 31, Spokane, Washington, p. 4
  81. ^ Pearson, Drew; Anderson, Jack (June 24, 1968), "Humphrey Efforts Forgotten", The Free Lance–Star, vol. 84, no. 149, Fredericksburg, Virginia, p. 4
  82. ^ McGill, Ralph (July 6, 1968), "Irreconcilable Liberals Do Humphrey Disservice", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, vol. 41, no. 293, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, p. 6
  83. ^ "Mark Hatfield Fails to Convince", Eugene Register-Guard, vol. 101, no. 248, Eugene, Oregon, p. 10A, June 27, 1968
  84. ^ a b "JOHNSON MARGIN CUT TO 230 VOTES". The New York Times. New York, New York. March 16, 1972. Retrieved October 4, 2023.
  85. ^ "NEVADA DEMOCRATS ELECT PRO-JOHNSON DELEGATION TO CONVENTION". The Reno Gazette-Journal. Reno, Nevada. March 18, 1968. Retrieved October 10, 2023.
  86. ^ "SOUTH CAROLINA DEMOCRATS PICK NEGRO DELEGATES". The New York Times. New York, New York. March 28, 1968. Retrieved October 6, 2023.
  87. ^ "CAROLINA DELEGATES GIVEN TO GOV. M'NAIR". The New York Times. New York, New York. April 11, 1968. Retrieved October 6, 2023.
  88. ^ "KANSAS SKIRMISH WON BY KENNEDY". The New York Times. New York, New York. March 31, 1968. Retrieved October 6, 2023.
  89. ^ "M'CARTHY WINS WISCONSIN; POLLS 57% TO JOHNSON'S 35; G.O.P. GIVES 80% TO NIXON". The New York Times. New York, New York. April 3, 1972. Retrieved October 4, 2023.
  90. ^ "KANSAS SKIRMISH WON BY KENNEDY". The New York Times. New York, New York. March 31, 1968. Retrieved October 6, 2023.
  91. ^ "HUMPHREY WINS STATE DELEGATES". The Arizona Republic. Phoenix, Arizona. April 21, 1968. Retrieved October 8, 2023.
  92. ^ "MCCARTHY GETS 24 DELEGATES". The Philadelphia Inquirer. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. April 26, 1968. Retrieved October 11, 2023.
  93. ^ "HUMPHREY'S CAMP BUOYED BY UNIT RULE". The Baltimore Sun. Baltimore, Maryland. April 30, 1968. Retrieved October 8, 2023.
  94. ^ "ROCKY UPSETS VOLPE, NIXON; MCCARTHY TOPS JFK RECORD". The Boston Globe. Boston, Massachusetts. May 1, 1972. Retrieved October 4, 2023.
  95. ^ "WALLACE DELEGATES IN LEAD". The Birmingham Post-Herald. Birmingham, Alabama. June 5, 1968. Retrieved October 10, 2023.
  96. ^ "ALABAMANS LOSE ACTION ON SEATING". The Dothan Eagle. Dothan, Alabama. August 27, 1968. Retrieved October 10, 2023.
  97. ^ "KENNEDY WINS IN INDIANA; BRANIGIN AHEAD OF M'CARTHY; NIXON DRAWS STRONG VOTE". The New York Times. New York, New York. May 8, 1972. Retrieved October 5, 2023.
  98. ^ "MCCARTHY DELEGATES". The New York Times. New York, New York. May 9, 1972. Retrieved October 5, 2023.
  99. ^ "KENNEDY CAPTURES CAPITAL'S DELEGATES". The New York Times. New York, New York. May 8, 1972. Retrieved October 5, 2023.
  100. ^ "16 DELAWARE VOTES PLEDGED TO HUMPHREY". The New York Times. New York, New York. May 12, 1968. Retrieved October 7, 2023.
  101. ^ "HUMPHREY SLATES WIN 2 DISTRICTS". The St. Cloud Times. Saint Cloud, Minnesota. July 7, 1968. Retrieved October 10, 2023.
  102. ^ "WYOMING HOLDS TWO CONVENTIONS". The Fort Collins Coloradoan. Fort Collins, Colorado. May 12, 1968. Retrieved October 8, 2023.
  103. ^ "HUMPHREY DEFEATS RIVALS' BLOC TO WIN MOST HAWAII DELEGATES". The New York Times. New York, New York. May 13, 1968. Retrieved October 8, 2023.
  104. ^ a b "KENNEDY GETS MOST DELEGATES". The Grand Island Independent. Grand Island, Nebraska. May 16, 1972. Retrieved October 5, 2023.
  105. ^ "WEST VIRGINIA VOTING IS CLOSE; JOHN ROCKEFELLER 4TH IS VICTOR". The New York Times. New York, New York. May 15, 1968. Retrieved October 11, 2023.
  106. ^ "UNPLEDGED SLATE VOTED IN GEORGIA". The New York Times. New York, New York. May 17, 1968. Retrieved October 7, 2023.
  107. ^ "HUMPHREY GAINS VICTORY IN MAINE". The New York Times. New York, New York. May 19, 1968. Retrieved October 6, 2023.
  108. ^ "DENVER DEMOCRATS SELECT MCCARTHY-KENNEDY SLATE". The Fort Collins Coloradoan. Fort Collins, Colorado. May 26, 1968. Retrieved October 10, 2023.
  109. ^ "KENNEDY WINNER IN IOWA CONTEST". The New York Times. New York, New York. May 26, 1968. Retrieved October 6, 2023.
  110. ^ a b "HUMPHREY SCORES IN 3 DISTRICTS". The St. Cloud Times. Saint Cloud, Minnesota. May 27, 1968. Retrieved October 10, 2023.
  111. ^ "HUMPHREY WINS DELEGATE PLURALITY AT CONVENTION". The Burlington Free Press. Burlington, Vermont. May 27, 1968. Retrieved October 7, 2023.
  112. ^ "COLLINS TAKES LEAD IN FLORIDA SENATORIAL CONTEST". The New York Times. New York, New York. May 29, 1972. Retrieved October 5, 2023.
  113. ^ "GENE UPSETS BOBBY; NIXON GETS 73%". The Capital Journal. Salem, Oregon. May 29, 1972. Retrieved October 5, 2023.
  114. ^ "RFK TO GET 12 VOTES FROM STATE DELEGATES". The Newport Daily News. Newport, Rhode Island. May 29, 1968. Retrieved October 11, 2023.
  115. ^ "HUMPHREY WINS MISSOURI VOTES". The New York Times. New York, New York. May 17, 1968. Retrieved October 8, 2023.
  116. ^ "DEMOCRATS PICK MICHIGAN SLATE". The New York Times. New York, New York. May 17, 1968. Retrieved October 8, 2023.
  117. ^ "STATE VICTORY GAVE KENNEDY POWERFUL DELEGATE STRENGTH". The Stockton Evening and Sunday Record. Stockton, California. June 5, 1972. Retrieved October 5, 2023.
  118. ^ a b "REGULAR DEMS KO OPPONENTS". The Jersey Journal. Jersey City, New Jersey. June 5, 1972. Retrieved October 5, 2023.
  119. ^ "GOV. HUGHES SLATE WINS 60 DELEGATES". The Press of Atlantic City. Atlantic City, New Jersey. June 7, 1972. Retrieved October 9, 2023.
  120. ^ "HHH COMES OUT TOPS AS STATE DEMO'S CHOICE". The Robesonian. Lumberton, North Carolina. June 7, 1968. Retrieved October 9, 2023.
  121. ^ "REGULAR DEMS KO OPPONENTS". The New York Times. New York, New York. June 13, 1972. Retrieved October 10, 2023.
  122. ^ "FREE HAND GIVEN CONNALLY ON VOTES". The Forth Worth Star-Telegram. Fort Worth, Texas. June 12, 1968. Retrieved October 4, 2023.
  123. ^ "PRO-HUMPHREY DELEGATION IS SELECTED BY CANAL ZONE". The New York Times. New York, New York. June 14, 1968. Retrieved October 11, 2023.
  124. ^ "LOUISIANA'S CONVENTION DELEGATES ARE SOLIDLY BEHIND BIDS OF NIXON, HUMPHREY". The Town Talk. Alexandria, Louisiana. June 13, 1968. Retrieved October 9, 2023.
  125. ^ "DELEGATES TO CONVENTION AT DEMOCRATIC ASSEMBLY VOICE HUBERT SENTIMENT". The Idaho Statesman. Boise, Idaho. June 16, 1968. Retrieved October 10, 2023.
  126. ^ "HUBERT NETS 24 OF 26 DELEGATES". The Montana Standard. Butte, Montana. June 16, 1968. Retrieved October 10, 2023.
  127. ^ "PRO-MCCARTHY DELEGATES CHOSEN BY SECOND DISTRICT". The Daily Sentinel. Grand Junction, Colorado. June 18, 1968. Retrieved October 10, 2023.
  128. ^ "MCCARTHY DELEGATES WIN MAJORITY OF RACES HERE; O'DWYER BEATS NICKERSON". The New York Times. New York, New York. June 19, 1972. Retrieved October 10, 2023.
  129. ^ a b "300 MCCARTHYITES STAGE A WALKOUT AT STATE MEETING". The New York Times. New York, New York. June 29, 1972. Retrieved October 10, 2023.
  130. ^ "200 M'CARTHY MEN BOLT IN HARTFORD". The New York Times. New York, New York. June 23, 1968. Retrieved October 11, 2023.
  131. ^ "HUMPHREY GAINS 14 IN MINNESOTA DELEGATE TEST". The New York Times. New York, New York. June 23, 1968. Retrieved October 10, 2023.
  132. ^ "DEMO DELEGATE BATTLE FIZZLES". The Courier News. Blytheville, Arkansas. June 28, 1968. Retrieved October 9, 2023.
  133. ^ "UNCOMMITTED SLATE OF DELEGATES PICKED BY STATE DEMOCRATS". The Chicago Tribune. Chicago, Tribune. June 29, 1972. Retrieved October 10, 2023.
  134. ^ "ELLINGTON WINS NOD FOR HHH". The Tennessean. Nashville, Tennessee. July 29, 1968. Retrieved October 9, 2023.
  135. ^ "N.M. DEMOCRATS GIVE EDGE TO HUMPHREY". The Albuquerque Journal. Albuquerque , New Mexico. June 30, 1968. Retrieved October 10, 2023.
  136. ^ "SEVEN OF N.D. DELEGATES ARE MCCARTHY MEN". The Bismark Tribune. Bismark, North Dakota. June 30, 1968. Retrieved October 10, 2023.
  137. ^ "HUMPHREY'S BACKERS CONTROL CONVENTION, BUT PREVENT WALKOUT". The Daily Oklahoman. Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. June 30, 1968. Retrieved October 9, 2023.
  138. ^ "STATE DEMOS FACING THREAT OF CHALLENGE". The Sun Herald. Biloxi, Mississippi. July 3, 1968. Retrieved October 9, 2023.
  139. ^ "COLORADO THIRD DISTRICT DEMOCRATS OKAY UNITY SLATE". The Fort Collins Coloradoan. Fort Collins, Colorado. July 7, 1968. Retrieved October 10, 2023.
  140. ^ "MCCARTHY WINS DELEGATE VICTORY AT STATE DEMOCRATIC CONVENTION". The Daily Sentinel. Grand Junction, Colorado. July 14, 1968. Retrieved October 10, 2023.
  141. ^ "FOURTH DISTRICT BACKS VICE PRESIDENT". The Fort Collins Coloradoan. Fort Collins, Colorado. July 14, 1968. Retrieved October 10, 2023.
  142. ^ "HUMPHREY GROUP GAINS IN TACOMA". The Spokesman-Review. Spokane, Washington. July 14, 1968. Retrieved October 9, 2023.
  143. ^ "HUMPHREY BEATS MCCARTHY, 41-5, IN STATE DELEGATE FIGHT". The Courier News. Blytheville, Arkansas. July 28, 1968. Retrieved October 9, 2023.
  144. ^ "UTAH DEMOS SUPPORT HUMPHREY". The Ogden Standard-Examiner. Ogden, Utah. July 30, 1968. Retrieved October 10, 2023.
  145. ^ "MODERATES, LIBERALS SCORE AT STATE DEMOCRATIC CONVENTION". The Danville Register and Bee. Danville, Virginia. July 28, 1968. Retrieved October 9, 2023.
  146. ^ "A PALL SETTLES OVER CAMPAIGN". The Chicago Tribune. Chicago, Illinois. June 6, 1968. Retrieved October 11, 2023.
  147. ^ "HUBERT RIDES ON GROWING VICTORY TIDE". The Chicago Tribune. Chicago, Illinois. June 6, 1968. Retrieved October 11, 2023.
  148. ^ a b c d e f g "US President - D Primaries Race - Mar 12, 1968". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 2010-06-17.
  149. ^ a b c "US President - D Convention Race - Aug 26, 1968". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 2010-06-17.
  150. ^ Not eligible to serve as Vice President because he was only 28 years old
  151. ^ "AllPolitics - 1996 GOP NRC - All The Votes...Really". Cnn.com. Retrieved 2010-06-17.
  152. ^ "SD US President - D Primary Race - Jun 04, 1968". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 2010-06-17.
  153. ^ "Candidate - Harold Everett Hughes". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 2010-06-17.
  154. ^ Uhlig, Mark. "JESSE UNRUH, A CALIFORNIA POLITICAL POWER, DIES". The New York Times. The New York Times. Retrieved 2024-06-20.
  155. ^ a b "CA US President - D Primary Race - Jun 04, 1968". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 2010-06-17.
  156. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "Eugene McCarthy Benefit (1968)". 26 June 1968.
  157. ^ The Rise of a Prairie Statesman: The Life and Times of George McGovern, p. 405

Sources cited

Further reading