1976 Republican Party presidential primaries

← 1972 January 19 to June 8, 1976 1980 →

2,259 delegates to the Republican National Convention
1,130 votes needed to win
 
Candidate Gerald Ford Ronald Reagan
Home state Michigan California
Delegate count 1,121[1] 1,078[1]
Contests won 27 24
Popular vote 5,529,899 4,760,222
Percentage 53.3% 45.9%

     Ford      Reagan      Uncommitted

Previous Republican nominee

Richard Nixon

Republican nominee

Gerald Ford

From January 19 to June 8, 1976, voters of the Republican Party chose its nominee for president in the 1976 United States presidential election. The major candidates were incumbent President Gerald Ford and former governor of California Ronald Reagan. After a series of primary elections and caucuses, neither secured a majority of the delegates before the convention.

The 1976 election marks the first time that Republican primaries or caucuses were held in every state and D.C.; the Democrats had done so in 1972. It was also the last election in which the Republican nominee was undetermined at the start of the party's national convention.

Background

August 1974 – February 1975: The Ford presidency begins

Following the Watergate scandal and resignation of President Richard Nixon, Vice President Gerald Ford was elevated to the presidency on August 9, 1974. Because Ford had been appointed vice president by Nixon following the resignation of Spiro Agnew from the position, he became the only president to assume office without having been previously elected president or vice president by the Electoral College.

On September 8, Ford's first major act in office was to grant a full and unconditional pardon for any crimes Richard Nixon might have committed against the United States while president. Following his pardon of Nixon, Ford's approval ratings among the American public dropped precipitously. Within a week, his approval rating fell from 69% to 49%, the steepest decline in history.[2]

The economy was in dire condition upon Ford's elevation, marked by the worst peacetime inflation in American history and the highest interest rates in a century. The Dow Jones had declined 43 percent from October 1973 to September 1974.[3] To combat inflation, Ford first proposed a tax increase and later, in response to Democratic calls for a permanent cut in taxes, a temporary moderate decrease. Reagan publicly criticized both proposals.[4]

Race and education divided public opinion, especially over issues such as forced integration and changes to public school curriculum. Political violence over education policy broke out in Boston and Charleston, West Virginia. Abortion also became a nationally salient issue after the Supreme Court's Roe v. Wade decision, which was handed down the year prior in 1973 and struck down state restrictions on abortion nationwide.

In the 1974 midterm elections, the Democratic Party dramatically expanded its majorities in both the House and Senate. The elections were seen as a referendum on the Republican Party post-Watergate and on the political establishment more generally. Newly elected members of Congress became known as "Watergate Babies" and aggressively pursued procedural and oversight reforms.

During this period, Ronald Reagan concluded his second term in office as governor of California. His administration was marked by efforts to dismantle the welfare state and a high-profile crackdown on urban crime and left-wing dissent, especially at the University of California, Berkeley. He also led an effort to enforce the state's capital punishment laws but was blocked by the California Supreme Court in the People v. Anderson decision. After Reagan left office in January 1975, he began hosting a national radio show and writing a national newspaper column.

March–July 1975: Conservatives revolt and Reagan rises

Conservative opposition to Ford within the Republican Party began to surface in December 1974, following his appointment of New York Governor Nelson Rockefeller as vice president. For more than a decade, Rockefeller had represented the party's liberal wing, and the appointment faced immediate criticism from right-wing senators Jesse Helms, Barry Goldwater and John Tower, though Rockefeller's confirmation in the Senate was largely undeterred.[5]

Discontent reached a fever pitch at the second annual Conservative Political Action Conference in February. Speaking there, Reagan dismissed calls to seek the presidency on a third-party ticket: "Is it a third party that we need, or is it a new and revitalized second party, raising a banner of no pale pastels, but bold colors which could make it unmistakably clear where we stand on all the issues troubling the people?" Speakers at CPAC also criticized Ford administration policy, Vice President Rockefeller, and First Lady Betty Ford's public campaign in support of abortion and the Equal Rights Amendment. In March, discussion of Reagan's presidential prospects began to grow following an appearance on The Tonight Show and a profile in Newsweek that called him "the most kinetic single presence in American political life." In defense, the administration drafted a letter of support for President Ford that received the signatures of 113 of 145 GOP representatives and 31 of 38 senators.[6] Ford formally announced he would run for re-election on July 8.

President Ford's snub of Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn drew criticism from conservative Cold War hawks, including Ronald Reagan

More than any domestic issue in 1975, foreign policy drove a wedge between the president and his conservative critics. Following the American evacuation of Saigon and the collapse of South Vietnam, these criticisms grew vociferous. On his radio show, Reagan compared the withdrawal from Saigon to the Munich Agreement and warned that it would "tempt the Soviet Union as it once tempted Hitler and the military rulers of Japan."[7] While Ford regained some support from conservatives following the rescue of the SS Mayaguez in Cambodia,[8] he soon drew the ire of the party's right wing with a series of foreign policy moves designed to improve relations with the Soviet Union.

First, President Ford refused to meet with Soviet dissident Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn on his visit to the United States on June 21. In response, Reagan publicly criticized Ford by name for the first time in his national newspaper column, contrasting the popular Solzhenitsyn to other "guests the President had entertained in the White House, "the Strawberry Queen of West Virginia and the Maid of Cotton."[9] The day after this column ran, Senator Paul Laxalt announced the formation of a committee named "Friends of Ronald Reagan,"[10] organized for the purpose of drafting Reagan to run for president.

Ford followed the Solzhenitsyn affair with an overseas trip to Eastern Europe, where he signed the Helsinki Accords, a treaty establishing that the current boundaries of Eastern European nations were "inviolable by force." Conservatives and anti-communists harshly criticized Ford for capitulating to Soviet demands and formally recognizing the Eastern bloc. The Wall Street Journal called the Helsinki agreement the "new Yalta."[11] By late August, Ford's approval rating was 34%.[12]

On September 5 in Sacramento, Ford survived the first of two attempts on his life by lone assassins.[13] A second attempt followed on September 21.[14] Neither assassin struck Ford.

September–December 1975: Reagan enters the race

In September, Reagan began to actively campaign in key early states. He stumped in New Hampshire for Louis Wyman in the special election for Senate and began to assemble a campaign staff led by campaign manager John Sears. He secured the endorsement of New Hampshire's conservative governor Meldrim Thomson Jr. and state party chairman, as well as support from moderate former governor Hugh Gregg.[15]

On November 4, Vice President Nelson Rockefeller announced he would not seek nomination as Ford's running mate in 1976.[16] That same day, Ford fired Secretary of Defense James R. Schlesinger, whose critical comments on the Helsinki summit had been leaked to the press earlier in the fall.[17] That week, Ford traveled to Massachusetts and pledged to campaign in every primary in the nation.[18]

On November 20, Ronald Reagan officially announced his campaign for president.[19]

Campaign

See also: 1976 New Hampshire Republican presidential primary

Ford narrowly defeated Reagan in the New Hampshire primary, and then won the Florida and Illinois primaries by comfortable margins.[citation needed] During the first six contests, Reagan followed the "eleventh commandment" he used during his initial campaign for governor of California: "Thou shalt not speak ill of any fellow Republican."[20] By the North Carolina primary, Reagan's campaign was nearly out of money, and it was widely believed that another defeat would force him to quit the race. But with the help of U.S. Senator Jesse Helms's powerful political organization, Reagan upset Ford. Reagan had abandoned the approach of invoking the commandment and beat Ford 52% to 46%, regaining momentum.[21]

Reagan then had a string of impressive victories, including Texas, where he won all delegates at stake in its first binding primary. Four other delegates chosen at the Texas state convention went to Reagan and the state shut out its U.S. senator, John G. Tower, who had been named to manage the Ford campaign on the convention floor. Ford bounced back to win his home state of Michigan, and from there, the two candidates engaged in an increasingly bitter nip-and-tuck contest for delegates. By the time the party's convention opened in August 1976, the race was still too close to call.

Reagan was the first candidate to win a presidential primary against an incumbent actively running for reelection since Estes Kefauver defeated Harry Truman in the 1952 New Hampshire primary.[22] Former Texas governor John Connally speculated that Reagan's attacks weakened Ford in the general election against his opponent and eventual successor, Jimmy Carter.[21]

Schedule and results

Tablemaker's Note:[a]

Date

(daily totals)

Contest Total pledged
delegates
Delegates won and popular vote
Gerald
Ford
Ronald
Reagan
Others Uncommitted
January 6 New York
State Convention[23]
37(of 154) 37 Del.[b]
January 19 Iowa
Caucuses[23][24][c]
0 (of 36) 264
(45.28%)
248
(42.54%)
9[d]
(1.54%)
62
(10.63%)
January 31 Guam
Territorial Convention[23]
0 (of 4) 4 Del.[e]
February 24 New Hampshire
Primary
[25][26]
111,674
21 (of 21) 18 Del.
55,156
(49.39%)
3 Del.
53,569
(47.96%)
2,949 WI[f]
(2.65%)
February 26 District of Columbia
Convention[23]
14 (of 14) 14 Del.
February 28 Iowa
County Conventions[27]
3,495 CDs
0 (of 36) 1,494 CDs
(42.75%)
1,494 CDs
(42.75%)
507 CDs
(14.51%)
February 29 Puerto Rico
Convention[23]
8 (of 8) 8 Del.[g]
March 2[28] Massachusetts
Primary[28][29]
188,458
43 (of 43) 27 Del.
115,375
(61.22%)
15 Del.
63,555
(33.73%)
3,519 WI
(1.87%)
1 Del.
6,009
(3.18%)
Vermont
Primary[28]
32,158
0 (of 18) 27,014
(84.00%)
4,892 WI
(15.21%)
252 WI
(0.78%)
March 9 Florida
Primary[30]
608,879
66 (of 66) 43 Del.
321,982
(52.88%)
Del. 23
286,897
(47.12%)
March 16 Illinois
Pres. Primary[31]
775,893
0 (of 101) 456,750
(58.87%)
311,295
(40.12%)
7,848[h]
(1.01%)
Illinois
Del. Primary[32]
96 (of 101) 70 Del. 13 Del. 13 Del.
March 23 North Carolina
Primary[33]
193,727
54 (of 54) 25 Del.
88,897
(45.89%)
28 Del.
101,468
(52.38%)
1 Del.
3,362
(1.74%)
April 6 New York
Del. Primary[34]
117 (of 154) 3 Del. 114 Del.[i]
Wisconsin
Primary[35]590,418
45 (of 45) 41 Del.
325,869
(55.19%)
4 Del.
262,126
(44.40%)
2,423
(0.41%)
April 10 Mississippi
State Convention[36]
30 (of 30) 30 Del.
April 24 Arizona
State Convention[37]
29 (of 29) 2 Del. 27 Del.
Minnesota
District Conventions[j][38]
12 (of 42) 8 Del. 2 Del. 2 Del.
South Carolina
State Convention[39]
36 (of 36) 6 Del. 23 Del. 7 Del.[k]
Virgin Islands
Territorial Convention[40]
3 (of 3) 3 Del.
April 27 Pennsylvania
Pres. Primary[41]
797,358
0 (of 103) 733,472
(91.99%)
40,510 WI
(5.08%)
23,376 WI[l]
(2.93%)
Pennsylvania
Del. Primary[41]
103 (of 103) 103 Del.
April 30 Maine
State Convention[42]
20 (of 20) 20 Del.[m]
May 1 Minnesota
District Convention[n][43]
3 (of 42) 3 Del.
Texas
Primary[44]
419,406
96 (of 100) 139,944
(33.37%)
96 Del.
278,300
(66.36%)
1,162
(0.28%)
May 4 Alabama
Del. Primary[45][46]
37 (of 37) 37 Del.
Georgia
Primary[47]188,472
48 (of 48) 59,801
(31.73%)
48 Del.
128,671
(68.27%)
Indiana
Primary[47][48]
631,292
54 (of 54) 9 Del.
307,513
(48.71%)
45
323,779
(51.29%)
May 8 Kansas
District Conventions[49][50]
15 (of 34) 11 Del. 3 Del. 1 Del.
Minnesota
District Convention[o][51]
3 (of 42) 3 Del.
Missouri
District Conventions[p][52]
3 (of 49) 3 Del.
Oklahoma
District Conventions[49][53]
18 (of 36) 18 Del.[q]
Wyoming
State Convention[49][54]
17 (of 17) 17 Del.
May 9 Louisiana
District Conventions[r][55]
9 (of 41) 9 Del.
May 11 Louisiana
District Conventions[s][56]
6 (of 41) 3 Del. 3 Del.
Missouri
District Conventions[t][57]
6 (of 49) 6 Del.
Nebraska
Pres. Primary[58]
208,035
0 (of 26) 94,542
(45.36%)
113,493
(54.46%)
379
(0.18%)
Nebraska
Del. Primary[58]
26 (of 26) 8 Del. 18 Del.
West Virginia
Pres. Primary[59]
0 (of 28) 88,386
(56.77%)
67,306
(43.23%)
West Virginia
Del. Primary[59]
28 (of 28) 28 Del.
May 15 Hawaii
State Convention[60]
19 (of 19) 19 Del.
Louisiana
District Conventions[u][61]
9 (of 41) 9 Del.
Minnesota
District Conventions[v][51]
6 (of 42) 2 Del. 2 Del. 2 Del.
Missouri
District Conventions[w][62]
18 (of 49) 6 Del. 12 Del.
Virginia
District Convention[x][63][64]
9 (of 51) 2 Del. 5 Del. 2 Del.
May 18 Maryland
Pres. Primary[65]
165,971
0 (of 43) 96,291
(58.02%)
69,680
(41.98%)
Maryland
Del. Primary[65]
43 (of 43) 43 Del.[y] [z]
Michigan
Primary[66]
1,062,814
84 (of 84) 55 Del.
690,187
(64.94%)
29 Del.
364,052
(34.25%)
109 WI
(0.81%)
8,473
(0.80%)
May 22 Alaska
State Convention[67][68]
19 (of 19) 19 Del.[aa]
Kansas
State Convention[67][69]
19 (of 34) 18 Del. 1 Del.
Vermont
State Convention[67][70]
18 (of 18) 17 Del. 1 Del.[ab]
Virginia
District Conventions[ac][71]
15 (of 51) 3 Del. 11 Del. 1 Del.
May 24 Virginia
District Convention[ad][72]
3 (of 51) 3 Del.
May 25 Arkansas
Primary[73][74]
32,541
27 (of 27) 10 Del.
11,430
(35.12%)
17 Del.
20,628
(63.39%)
483
(1.48%)
Idaho
Primary[73][75]
89,693
17 (of 21) 4 Del.
22,323
(24.89%)
13 Del.
66,643
(74.30%)
727
(0.81%)
Kentucky
Primary[73][76]
133,528
37 (of 37) 19 Del.
67,976
(50.91%)
18 Del.
62,683
(46.94%)
1,088[ae]
(0.82%)
1,781
(1.33%)
Nevada
Primary[73][77]
47,749
18 (of 18) 5 Del.
13,747
(28.79%)
13 Del.
31,637
(66.26%)
2,365
(4.95%)
Oregon
Primary[78][79]
298,535
31 (of 31) 17 Del.
150,181
(50.30%)
13 Del.
136,691
(45.79%)
11,662 WI[af]
(3.91%)
Tennessee
Primary[78][80]
242,543
43 (of 43) 21 Del.
120,685
(49.76%)
22 Del.
118,997
(49.06%)
97 WI
(0.04%)
2,764
(1.14%)
May 29 Virginia
District Convention[ag][81]
3 (of 51) 3 Del.
June 1 Montana
Primary[82]
89,779
0 (of 20) 31,100
(34.64%)
56,683
(63.14%)
1,996
(2.22%)
Rhode Island
Primary[83]
14,352
19 (of 19) 19 Del.
9,365
(65.25%)
4,480
(31.21%)
507
(3.53%)
South Dakota
Primary[84]
84,077
20 (of 20) 9 Del.
36,976
(43.98%)
11 Del.
43,068
(51.22%)
4,033
(4.79%)
June 5 Colorado
District Convention[ah][85]
3 (of 31) 3 Del.
Louisiana
State Convention[86]
17 (of 41) 14 Del. 3 Del.
June 6 Virginia
State Convention[87]
21 (of 51) 17 Del. 4 Del.
June 8 California
Primary[88][89]
2,450,511
167 (of 167) 845,655
(34.51%)
167 Del.
1,604,836
(65.49%)
20 WI
(0.00%)
New Jersey
Pres. Primary[90]
242,122
0 (of 67) 242,122
(100.00%)
New Jersey
Del. Primary[90]
67 (of 67) 67 Del.[ai]
Ohio
Primary[91]
965,416
97 (of 97) 91 Del.
545,770
(56.53%)
6 Del.
419,646
(43.47%)
June 12 Missouri
State Convention[92]
19 (of 49) 1 Del. 18 Del.
June 19 Colorado
District Convention[aj][93]
3 (of 31) 3 Del.
Delaware
State Convention[94]
17 (of 17) 17 Del.[ak]
Iowa
State Convention[95]
36 (of 36) 19 Del. 17 Del.
Texas
State Convention[96]
4 (of 100) 4 Del.
Washington
State Convention[97]
38 (of 38) 7 Del. 31 Del.
June 26 Idaho
State Convention[98]
4 (of 21) 4 Del.
Minnesota
State Convention[99]
18 (of 42) 17 Del. 1 Del.
Montana
State Convention[100]
20 (of 20) 6 Del. 14 Del.
New Mexico
State Convention[101][102]
21 (of 21) 21 Del.
July 8 North Dakota
State Convention[103]
18 (of 18) 18 Del.[al]
July 9 Colorado
District Conventions[am][104]
9 (of 31) 3 Del. 5 Del. 1 Del.
July 10 Colorado
State Convention[105]
16 (of 31) 1 Del. 15 Del.
July 17 Connecticut
State Convention[106]
35 (of 35) 35 Del.
Utah
State Convention[107]
20 (of 20) 20 Del.
2,259 delegates
10,831,604 votes
727
5,702,278
(52.64%)
933
5,036,872
(46.50%)
0
51,299
(0.47%)
566
41,155
(0.38%)
Suspected Delegate Count
Eve of Convention
[1]
1,121
(49.24%)
1,078
(47.72%)
0
(0.00%)
60
(2.66%)

Candidates

This was the last time during the 20th century (and the last time to date) that a primary season had ended without a presumptive nominee.

Nominee

Candidate Most recent office Home state Campaign

Withdrawal date

Popular vote Contests won Running mate
Gerald Ford President of the United States
(1974–1977)
Michigan
Michigan

(Campaign)
Secured nomination: August 19, 1976
5,529,899
(53.3%)
27
IA, NH, MA, VT, FL, IL, WI, PA, WV, MD, MI, KY, OR, TN, RI, NJ, OH, ME, CT, NY, DE, MS, KS, MN, ND, AK, HI, DC
Bob Dole

Eliminated at convention

Candidate Most recent office Home state Campaign

Withdrawal date

Popular vote Contests won
Ronald Reagan Governor of California
(1967–1975)

California

(Campaign)
Defeated at convention: August 19, 1976
4,760,222
(45.9%)
24
NC, TX, GA, IN, NE, AR, ID, NV, MT, SD, CA, VA, SC, AL, LA, MO, OK, NM, CO, WY, AZ, UT, WA

Candidates who declined to run

[119]

Endorsements

List of Gerald Ford endorsements
Federal Officials
Former Federal Officials
Senators
Former Senators
Representatives
Former Representatives
Governors
Former Governors
Lieutenant Governors
Attorney Generals
Mayors
Former Mayor
Individuals
Baseball
Basketball
Football
Actors and Actresses
Musicians

Polling

National polling

Before August 1974

Poll source Publication Sample size
Spiro Agnew
Howard Baker
John Connally
Gerald Ford
Barry Goldwater
Charles Percy
Ronald Reagan
Nelson Rockefeller
Other
Undecided/None
Gallup[191] March 30 – April 2, 1973 700 35% 1% 15% 8% 20% 11% 5%[an] 6%
Gallup[192] August 30, 1973 ? 22% 11% 10% 7% 22% 13% 6%[ao] 9%
12% 12% 8% 32% 16% 9%[ap] 11%
Gallup[193] Oct. 6–8, 1973 356 3% 16% 14% 29% 19% 6%[aq] 8%
Gallup January 4–7, 1974 377 5% 9% 24% 8% 20% 18% 8%[ar] 8%
7% 11% 11% 26% 25% 10%[as] 10%
Gallup July 21, 1974 ? 5% 5% 27% 16% 4% 16% 12% 8%[at] 7%
  1. ^ This should not be taken as a finalized list of results. While a significant amount of research was done, there were a number of Delegates who were not bound by the instruction, or "Pledged" to a candidate, and to simplify the data these delegates were considered "Uncommitted". Many states also held primaries for the delegate positions, and these on occasion were where slates or candidates pledge to a certain candidate might be elected; however, as these elections allowed for a single person to vote for multiple candidates, as many as the number of positions being filled, it is difficult to determine how many people actually voted in these primaries. For this reason, while the results of some are in the table, they are not included in the popular vote summaries at the bottom of the table.
  2. ^ Most of the uncommitted slates supported President Ford
  3. ^ Iowa Republicans didn't conduct a presidential preference poll for their 1976 caucuses. The results shown are a random sampling that was only conducted in various precincts throughout the state that showed an edge for President Ford. Since delegates weren't required to declare their presidential preference, even through the district and state conventions, it was difficult to judge the breakdown of Iowa's Republican delegation until the convention
  4. ^ Represents seven votes for Vice President Nelson Rockefeller, one vote for Iowa Governor Robert Ray, and one vote for Elliot Richardson.
  5. ^ Although all 4 of Guam's delegates were technically uncommitted, they were in favor of Ford.
  6. ^ Includes 591 (0.53%) Write-In votes for Jimmy Carter, 421 (0.38%) Write-In votes for Morris Udall, 228 (0.20%) Write-In votes for Birch Bayh, and 225 (0.20%) Write-In votes for Fred Harris.
  7. ^ Although all 8 of Puerto Rico's delegates were technically uncommitted, they were in favor of Ford.
  8. ^ Includes 7,582 (0.98%) votes for Lawrence "Lar" Daly.
  9. ^ 12 delegates ran as pro-Reagan but didn't have Reagan's endorsement or any support from his organization
  10. ^ Only one of eight districts held conventions on this date.
  11. ^ 4 delegates were leaning to Reagan
  12. ^ Includes 2,543 (0.32%) Write-In votes for Jimmy Carter, 899 (0.11%) Write-In votes for George Wallace, and 742 (0.09%) Write-In votes for Hubert Humphrey.
  13. ^ 14 delegates were said to favor President Ford, 3 Reagan, and 1 uncommitted
  14. ^ Only one of eight districts held conventions on this date.
  15. ^ Only one of eight districts held conventions on this date.
  16. ^ Only one of ten districts held conventions on this date.
  17. ^ All 18 delegates were controlled by Reagan supporters
  18. ^ Only three of eight districts held conventions on this date.
  19. ^ Only two of eight districts held conventions on this date.
  20. ^ Only two of ten districts held conventions on this date.
  21. ^ Only three of eight districts held conventions on this date.
  22. ^ Only two of eight districts held conventions on this date.
  23. ^ Only seven of ten districts held conventions on this date.
  24. ^ Only three of ten districts held conventions on this date.
  25. ^ While a handful of Reagan delegates were elected, by law they were required to support Ford for the first two ballots.
  26. ^ While a handful of Reagan delegates were elected, by law they were required to support Ford for the first two ballots.
  27. ^ Seventeen uncommitted delegates favorably supported President Ford.
  28. ^ The uncommitted delegate favorably supported President Ford.
  29. ^ Only five of ten districts held conventions on this date.
  30. ^ Only one of ten districts held conventions on this date.
  31. ^ All votes are for Thomas W. "Tommy" Klein.
  32. ^ Includes 8,368 (2.80%) Write-In votes for Jerry Brown, 1,371 (0.46%) Write-In votes for Frank Church, and 913 (0.31%) Write-In votes for Jimmy Carter.
  33. ^ Only one of ten districts held conventions on this date.
  34. ^ Only one of five districts held conventions on this date.
  35. ^ All uncommitted delegates favorably supported President Ford.
  36. ^ Only one of five districts held conventions on this date.
  37. ^ 13 uncommitted delegates supported President Ford.
  38. ^ 10 uncommitted delegates supported President Ford, 3 supported Ronald Reagan.
  39. ^ Only three of five districts held conventions on this date.
  40. ^ James Buckley with 2%, Edward Brooke and Daniel Evans with 1% each, and Bill Brock with 0%
  41. ^ James Buckley with 3%, Edward Brooke with 2%, Daniel Evans with 1%, and Bill Brock with 0%
  42. ^ James Buckley with 5%, Edward Brooke with 2%, Daniel Evans with 1%, and Bill Brock with 1%
  43. ^ James Buckley with 3%, Edward Brooke with 2%, Bill Brock with 1%, and Daniel Evans with 0%
  44. ^ Elliot Richardson with 3%, Mark Hatfield and James Buckley with 2% each, and Edward Brooke with 1%
  45. ^ Elliot Richardson with 4%, James Buckley with 3%, Mark Hatfield with 2%, and Edward Brooke with 1%
  46. ^ Elliot Richardson with 3%, James Buckley with 2%, Mark Hatfield with 2%, and Edward Brooke with 1%

August 1974 – December 1975

Poll source Publication Sample size
Howard Baker
John Connally
Gerald Ford
Barry Goldwater
Charles Percy
Ronald Reagan
Nelson Rockefeller
Other
Undecided/None
Gallup[194] Feb. 28 – March 3, 1975 330 4% 34% 17% 3% 22% 10% 7%[a] 3%
Gallup[195][196] June 27–30, 1975 375 4% 2% 41% 13% 4% 20% 5% 6%[b] 5%
Gallup[196] Aug. 15–18, 1975 348 3% 3% 45% 11% 4% 19% 7% 5%[c] 3%
Gallup Oct. 17–20, 1975 339 2% 1% 48% 7% 2% 25% 5% 2%[d] 5%
Gallup[197] Nov. 21–24, 1975 352 2% 1% 32% 10% 3% 40% 6% 5%[e] 1%
  1. ^ Mark Hatfield with 3%, Elliot Richardson with 3%, and James Buckley with 1%
  2. ^ Elliot Richardson with 3%, Mark Hatfield with 2%, and James L. Buckley with 1%
  3. ^ James L. Buckley with 2%, Mark Hatfield with 2%, and Elliot Richardson with 1%
  4. ^ Elliot Richardson with 3%, James L. Buckley and Mark Hatfield with 1% each
  5. ^ Mark Hatfield with 2%, Elliot Richardson with 2%, and James L. Buckley with 1%

Head-to-head polling

Poll source Publication Sample size
Gerald Ford
Ronald Reagan
Undecided/None
Gallup[195] June 27–30, 1975 375 61% 33% 6%
Gallup[198] Dec. 12–15, 1975 ? 45% 45% 10%

Convention

Main article: 1976 Republican National Convention

The 1976 Republican National Convention was held in Kansas City. As the convention began, Ford was seen as having a slight lead in delegate votes, but fewer than the 1,130 he needed to win. Reagan and Ford competed for the votes of individual delegates and state delegations. In a bid to woo moderate Northern Republicans, Reagan shocked the convention by announcing that if he won the nomination, Senator Richard Schweiker of Pennsylvania, from the northern liberal wing of the party, would be his running mate. The move backfired, however, as few moderates switched to Reagan while many conservative delegates were outraged. The key state of Mississippi, which Reagan needed, narrowly voted for Ford; it was believed that Reagan's choice of Schweiker led Clarke Reed, Mississippi's chairman, to switch to Ford. Ford then narrowly won the nomination on the first ballot. He chose Senator Robert Dole of Kansas as his running mate. After giving his acceptance speech, Ford asked Reagan to say a few words to the convention.

The 1976 Republican National Convention at Kemper Arena in Kansas City. Vice presidential candidate Bob Dole is on the far left, then Nancy Reagan, former Governor Ronald Reagan is at the center shaking hands with President Gerald Ford, Vice President Nelson Rockefeller is just to the right of Ford, followed by Susan Ford and First Lady Betty Ford.

Results

First ballot vote for the presidential nomination by state delegation.
Partial county results.

Convention tally:[199]

Vice-presidential nomination

Further information: 1976 Republican National Convention § Vice Presidential

Ford chose Senator Robert J. Dole of Kansas as his running mate, while Reagan chose Pennsylvania Senator Richard Schweiker.

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c Based on Time Magazine estimate prior to the 1976 convention; both candidates were short of the needed 1,130 delegates. "Another Loss For the Gipper." CNN AllPolitics "Back in TIME" series. Retrieved March 24, 2016.
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  14. ^ Perlstein 2014, p. 509.
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  48. ^ "CROSSOVERS LOSE FORD INDIANA WIN". The Reporter-Times. Martinsville, Indiana. May 7, 1976. Retrieved March 15, 2024.
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  52. ^ "REAGAN, FORD ADD DELEGATES". The Kansas City Star. Kansas City, Missouri. May 9, 1976. Retrieved March 17, 2024.
  53. ^ "REAGAN CAPTURES HALF OF DELEGATES". The Daily Oklahoman. Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. May 9, 1976. Retrieved March 16, 2024.
  54. ^ "DELEGATES GO UNCOMMITTED". The Casper Star-Tribune. Casper, Wyoming. May 9, 1976. Retrieved March 16, 2024.
  55. ^ "REAGAN GAINS STRENGTH IN LOUISIANA CAUCUSES". The Shreveport Journal. Shreveport, Louisiana. May 10, 1976. Retrieved March 17, 2024.
  56. ^ "STATE GOP ESTABLISHMENT GETS 1ST UNCOMMITTED DELEGATES". The Shreveport Journal. Shreveport, Louisiana. May 12, 1976. Retrieved March 17, 2024.
  57. ^ "DEMOCRATS GO UNCOMMITTED". The Kansas City Star. Kansas City, Missouri. May 9, 1976. Retrieved March 17, 2024.
  58. ^ a b "SLATING DELEAGTES THOUGHT RISK". The Lincoln Star. Lincoln, Nebraska. May 14, 1976. Retrieved March 16, 2024.
  59. ^ a b "FORD". The Weirton Daily Times. Wierton, West Virginia. May 12, 1976. Retrieved March 16, 2024.
  60. ^ "ISLE GOP IS FAVORING FORD". The Honolulu Star-Bulletin. Honolulu, Hawaii. May 15, 1976. Retrieved March 16, 2024.
  61. ^ "REAGAN LANDSLIDE LIKELY AT LOUISIANA CONVENTION". The Shreveport Journal. Shreveport, Louisiana. May 17, 1976. Retrieved March 17, 2024.
  62. ^ "FORD LEADS 15 TO 12 IN STATE". The Kansas City Star. Kansas City, Missouri. May 9, 1976. Retrieved March 17, 2024.
  63. ^ "RICHMOND GOP LEANS TO REAGAN". The Daily News Leader. Staunton, Virginia. May 16, 1976. Retrieved March 17, 2024.
  64. ^ "FORD 2, REAGAN 6 IN VIRGINIA". Suffolk News-Herald. Suffolk, Virginia. May 17, 1976. Retrieved March 17, 2024.
  65. ^ a b "GOV. BROWN WINS PRIMARY; CARTER GETS 24 DELEGATES". The Evening Sun. Baltimore, Maryland. May 19, 1976. Retrieved March 16, 2024.
  66. ^ "REAGAN KEEPS DELEGATE EDGE AFTER PRIMARY". Petoskey News-Review. Petoskey, Michigan. May 20, 1976. Retrieved March 16, 2024.
  67. ^ a b c Jr, R. W. Apple (May 24, 1976). "CARTER SETBACKS IN PRIMARIES HURT DELEGATE REST". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved January 7, 2024.
  68. ^ "STATE GOP ELECTS 19 DELEGATES; 17 STATE PREFERENCE FOR FORD". Fairbanks Daily News-Miner. Fairbanks, Alaska. May 24, 1976. Retrieved March 16, 2024.
  69. ^ "FORD DELEGATES WIN KANSAS GOP SUPPORT". The Salina Journal. Salina, Kansas. May 23, 1976. Retrieved March 16, 2024.
  70. ^ "PRESIDENT FORD TAKES ALL 18 VERMONT GOP CONVENTION VOTES". Rutland Daily Herald. Rutland, Vermont. May 23, 1976. Retrieved March 16, 2024.
  71. ^ "STATE DEMOS, GOP PICK DELEGATES". The Daily News Leader. Staunton, Virginia. May 16, 1976. Retrieved March 17, 2024.
  72. ^ "DELEGATE LEAD FOR REAGAN WIDER IN VA". Culpeper Star-Exponent. Culpepper, Virginia. May 26, 1976. Retrieved March 17, 2024.
  73. ^ a b c d Jr, R. W. Apple (May 26, 1976). "FORD DEFEATS REAGAN IN KENTUCKY, LOSES ARKANSAS". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved January 8, 2024.
  74. ^ "LAST RESULTS". Northwest Arkansas Times. Fayetteville, Arkansas. May 27, 1976. Retrieved March 16, 2024.
  75. ^ "OFFICIALS ASSESS EFFECT OF IDAHO PRIMARY VOTE". The Idaho Statesman. Boise, Idaho. May 27, 1976. Retrieved March 16, 2024.
  76. ^ "KENTUCKIANS FIND ROLE IN VICTORY IS ENJOYABLE". The Courier-Journal. Louisville, Kentucky. May 27, 1976. Retrieved March 16, 2024.
  77. ^ "BIGGEST PRIMARY DAY". The Reno Gazette-Journal. Reno, Nevada. May 26, 1976. Retrieved March 16, 2024.
  78. ^ a b Jr, R. W. Apple (May 26, 1976). "FORD TAKES KENTUCKY AND OREGON, LEADS TENNESSEE". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved January 8, 2024.
  79. ^ "CHURCH, FORD WIN OREGON PRIMARY". The Corvallis Gazette-Times. Corvallis, Oregon. May 26, 1976. Retrieved March 16, 2024.
  80. ^ "LOSER REAGAN WINS DELEGATE MAJORITY". The Tennessean. Nashville, Tennessee. May 27, 1976. Retrieved March 16, 2024.
  81. ^ "UNCOMMITTED DELEGATES CHOSEN". Daily Press. Newport News, Virginia. May 30, 1976. Retrieved March 17, 2024.
  82. ^ "GOP CHAIRMAN WANTS DELEGATES APPORTIONED". The Great Falls Tribune. Great Falls, Montana. June 9, 1976. Retrieved March 16, 2024.
  83. ^ "ALMOST EVERYONE CLAIMS VICTORY FROM TUESDAY". The Bellingham Herald. Bellingham, Washington. June 9, 1976. Retrieved March 16, 2024.
  84. ^ "REAGAN, CARTER WIN SOUTH DAKOTA NOD". Argus-Leader. Sioux Falls, South Dakota. June 2, 1976. Retrieved March 16, 2024.
  85. ^ "REAGAN WINS 3 COLORADO DELEGATES". Fort Collins Coloradoan. Fort Collins, Colorado. June 7, 1976. Retrieved March 16, 2024.
  86. ^ "REAGAN GETS 35 OF STATE'S 41 DELEGATES". The Shreveport Journal. Shreveport, Louisiana. June 7, 1976. Retrieved March 17, 2024.
  87. ^ "REAGAN ADDS 17 STATE DELEGATES". Daily Press. Newport News, Virginia. June 6, 1976. Retrieved March 17, 2024.
  88. ^ Jr, R. w Apple (June 9, 1976). "FORD VICTOR IN JERSEY AND OHIO; CARTER IS SET BACK IN JERSEY; REAGAN, BROWN LEAD CALIFORNIA". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved January 8, 2024.
  89. ^ "CALIFORNIA: BROWN, REAGAN WINNERS". The Fresno Bee. Fresno, California. June 9, 1976. Retrieved March 16, 2024.
  90. ^ a b "CARTER UPS LEAD, FORD EDGES REAGAN". The Jersey Journal. Jersey City, New Jersey. June 9, 1976. Retrieved March 16, 2024.
  91. ^ "OHIO ELECTION FINALS". The News Herald. Port Clinton, Ohio. June 11, 1976. Retrieved March 16, 2024.
  92. ^ "REAGAN TAKES 18 MISSOURI DELEGATES". The Sunday News and Tribune. Jefferson City, Missouri. June 13, 1976. Retrieved March 17, 2024.
  93. ^ "FEW DELEGATES PLEDGED TO REAGAN". Greeley Daily Tribune. Greeley, Colorado. June 21, 1976. Retrieved March 16, 2024.
  94. ^ "FOUR GOP DELEGATES PLAY IT CLOSE TO VEST". The Morning News. Wilmington, Delaware. June 20, 1976. Retrieved March 16, 2024.
  95. ^ "FORD 19, REAGAN 17 IN IOWA DELEAGTE SPLIT". The Des Moines Register. Des Moines, Iowa. June 20, 1976. Retrieved March 14, 2024.
  96. ^ "REAGAN PICKS UP FOUR DELEAGTES IN TEXAS". The Odessa American. Odessa, Texas. June 20, 1976. Retrieved March 16, 2024.
  97. ^ "FORD WINS 7 DELEGATES, CHALLENGER REAGAN 31". The Des Moines Register. Des Moines, Iowa. June 20, 1976. Retrieved March 14, 2024.
  98. ^ "4 MORE DELEGATES JOIN REAGAN". The Idaho Statesman. Boise, Idaho. May 27, 1976. Retrieved March 17, 2024.
  99. ^ "FORD GETS 17 OF 18 STATE DELEGATES". Star Tribune. Minneapolis, Minnesota. June 27, 1976. Retrieved March 16, 2024.
  100. ^ "MONTANA GOP GIVES 14 AT-LARGE VOTES TO REAGAN". Great Falls Tribune. Great Falls, Montana. June 27, 1976. Retrieved March 16, 2024.
  101. ^ "REAGAN TAKES 8 IN NEW MEXICO". Albuquerque Journal. Albuquerque, New Mexico. June 27, 1976. Retrieved March 16, 2024.
  102. ^ "STATE GOPS GO TO REAGAN". Las Vegas Optic. Las Vegas, New Mexico. June 28, 1976. Retrieved March 16, 2024.
  103. ^ "REAGAN HALTED IN NORTH DAKOTA AS FORD PICKS UP 24 DELEGATES". Argus-Leader. Sioux Falls, South Dakota. July 9, 1976. Retrieved March 16, 2024.
  104. ^ "REAGAN GAINS 5 MORE COLORADO GOP DELEGATES". The Daily Sentinel. Grand Junction, Colorado. July 10, 1976. Retrieved March 16, 2024.
  105. ^ "FORD FORCES STALL SWEEP OF DELEGATES". Fort Collins Coloradoan. Fort Collins, Colorado. July 11, 1976. Retrieved March 16, 2024.
  106. ^ "ALL 35 VOTES FOR FORD; WEICKER NOMINATED". The Bridgeport Post. Bridgeport, Connecticut. July 18, 1976. Retrieved March 16, 2024.
  107. ^ "REAGAN GETS ALL 20 IN UTAH". The Herald-Journal. Logan, Utah. July 18, 1976. Retrieved March 16, 2024.
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  111. ^ Baker, Donald P (November 9, 1975). "Mathias Says He May Run In Presidential Primaries". The Washington Post. p. 21.
  112. ^ Will, George (January 25, 1976). "Sen. Mathias' 'Stroll'". The Washington Post. p. 131.
  113. ^ Peterson, Bill (February 8, 1976). "The Quiet Presidential Campaign". The Washington Post. p. 21.
  114. ^ Peterson, Bill (March 3, 1976). "Mathias Joins Almost-Rans, Will Not Seek Presidency". The Washington Post. p. A3.
  115. ^ Peterson, Bill (June 26, 1976). "Dissident Mathias Denied GOP Platform Committee Post". The Washington Post. p. A5.
  116. ^ Logan, Harold J (August 19, 1976). "Mathias' Convention Role Is Low-Key". The Washington Post. p. 14.
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  118. ^ "Agnew's '76 Campaign". The New York Times. October 3, 1972.
  119. ^ a b c "Remarks at a Chamber of Commerce Dinner in Nashua, New Hampshire". February 7, 1976.
  120. ^ a b "Remarks Upon Arrival at the 1976 Republican National Convention Headquarters in Kansas City, Missouri". August 15, 1976.
  121. ^ a b "Remarks in Columbus at the Annual Meeting of the Ohio Governor's Conference on Aging". May 26, 1976.
  122. ^ a b "Remarks at Opening Ceremonies for the Texas State Fair in Dallas". October 9, 1976.
  123. ^ a b c d e "Remarks at a President Ford Committee Campaign Debate Party in San Francisco". October 6, 1976.
  124. ^ a b c d e "Remarks in Lawton, Oklahoma". October 8, 1976.
  125. ^ a b c "Remarks in New City, New York". October 13, 1976.
  126. ^ "Remarks in Paramus, New Jersey". October 13, 1976.
  127. ^ a b "Remarks in Chicago, Illinois". October 26, 1976.
  128. ^ a b c d "Remarks at a Rally in Houston, Texas". October 29, 1976.
  129. ^ a b c d e f g h "Remarks in Livonia, Michigan". November 1, 1976.
  130. ^ a b "Remarks in Portland, Oregon". October 25, 1976.
  131. ^ "Remarks at a President Ford Committee Volunteers Reception in Lincoln". May 8, 1976.
  132. ^ a b c d "Remarks at a Picnic Honoring Senator Robert Dole in Russell, Kansas". August 20, 1976.
  133. ^ "Remarks iDuring an Illinois Whitlestop Tour". October 16, 1976.
  134. ^ a b c "Remarks in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania". October 27, 1976.
  135. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m "Remarks at a Rally in Cincinnati, Ohio". October 28, 1976.
  136. ^ a b c "Remarks in Columbia, South Carolina". October 23, 1976.
  137. ^ "Remarks to President Ford Committee Volunteers in Abilene". April 30, 1976.
  138. ^ a b c d e "Remarks at the Connecticut State Republican Convention in Hartford". July 16, 1976.
  139. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl cm cn co cp cq cr cs ct cu cv cw cx cy cz da db dc dd de df dg dh di dj dk dl dm dn do dp dq dr ds dt du dv dw dx dy dz ea eb ec ed ee ef eg eh ei ej "The original documents are located in Box 7, folder "Campaign – Letters of support from Former Members of Congress" of the John Marsh Files at the Gerald R. Ford Presidential Library" (PDF). 1976.
  140. ^ a b c d e "Remarks on Departure From Akron, Ohio". November 1, 1976.
  141. ^ "Remarks in Rockford, Illinois". March 11, 1976.
  142. ^ a b c "Remarks at the Ohio State Capitol in Columbus". November 1, 1976.
  143. ^ a b "Remarks in Tampa, Florida". February 29, 1976.
  144. ^ "Remarks in San Jose, California". May 25, 1976.
  145. ^ "Remarks in Langhorne, Pennsylvania". October 30, 1976.
  146. ^ a b "Remarks at a Public Rally in Birmingham, Michigan". May 12, 1976.
  147. ^ a b "Remarks at the North Carolina State Fair in Raleigh". October 23, 1976.
  148. ^ a b c d "Remarks in Mobile, Alabama". September 26, 1976.
  149. ^ "Remarks at a Bicentennial Celebration in Saginaw, Michigan". May 16, 1976.
  150. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "Remarks in La Mesa, California". October 24, 1976.
  151. ^ "Remarks in Gulfport, Mississippi". September 26, 1976.
  152. ^ a b "Remarks on Departure From Rochester, New York". October 31, 1976.
  153. ^ a b c "Remarks in Northbrook, Illinois". October 26, 1976.
  154. ^ a b c d "Remarks at a Reception for Bergen County Business and Civic Leaders in Paterson, New Jersey,". June 6, 1976.
  155. ^ a b "Remarks at the Chanute Community Foundation Reception in Rantoul, Illinois". March 6, 1976.
  156. ^ a b c "Remarks at a Republican Party Leadership Rally in Minneapolis". August 19, 1976.
  157. ^ "Remarks Upon Arrival at Van Nuys, California". May 26, 1976.
  158. ^ a b "Remarks at Iowa State University in Ames". October 15, 1976.
  159. ^ a b c "Remarks in Findlay, Ohio". June 7, 1976.
  160. ^ a b c d e f g "Remarks in Indianapolis, Indiana". October 28, 1976.
  161. ^ "Remarks at the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor". September 15, 1976.
  162. ^ "Remarks in Bay St. Louis, Missouri". September 26, 1976.
  163. ^ a b "Remarks Aboard the SS Natchez During a Trip Along the Mississippi River in Louisiana". September 25, 1976.
  164. ^ "Remarks at the "Days of the Verdugos" Festival in Glendale, California". October 8, 1976.
  165. ^ a b "Remarks in Seattle, Washington". October 25, 1976.
  166. ^ a b c "Remarks at Dedication Ceremonies for the Commerce Square Fountain in Memphis". May 14, 1976.
  167. ^ a b c d "Remarks in Richmond, Virginia". October 23, 1976.
  168. ^ a b "Remarks to Employees of the Rockwell International Corporation in Hawthorne, California". October 7, 1976.
  169. ^ "Remarks in Devon, Pennsylvania". October 27, 1976.
  170. ^ "Remarks on Arrival at Grand Rapids, Michigan". May 15, 1976.
  171. ^ "Remarks in Dayton, Ohio". June 7, 1976.
  172. ^ a b c d e f g "Remarks in Fountain Valley". October 24, 1976.
  173. ^ "Remarks in Sarasota, Florida". February 29, 1976.
  174. ^ a b "Remarks at a President Ford Committee Leadership and Delegate Reception in Birmingham". May 3, 1976.
  175. ^ "Remarks in Pascagoula, Mississippi". September 26, 1976.
  176. ^ a b "Remarks in Medford, Oregon". May 22, 1976.
  177. ^ "Remarks in Union, New Jersey". October 13, 1976.
  178. ^ "Remarks on Arrival at Amarillo, Texas". April 10, 1976.
  179. ^ a b "Remarks in St. Louis, Missouri". October 16, 1976.
  180. ^ "Remarks to President Ford Committee Volunteers in Milwaukee". April 2, 1976.
  181. ^ "Benjamin Travis Laney Jr. (1896–1977)". January 19, 2024.
  182. ^ "Remarks in Biloxi, Mississippi". September 26, 1976.
  183. ^ a b "Remarks to the New York Delegation at the 1976 Republican National Convention in Kansas City". August 18, 1976.
  184. ^ a b "Remarks in St. Louis, Missouri". October 29, 1976.
  185. ^ "Remarks at the International Council of Shopping Centers Convention in Las Vegas". May 24, 1976.
  186. ^ a b "Remarks in Hauppauge, New York". October 31, 1976.
  187. ^ "Remarks in Hempstead, New York". October 31, 1976.
  188. ^ "Remarks at a Rally in Dallas, Texas". April 29, 1976.
  189. ^ a b c d e Critchlow, Donald (2013). When Hollywood was right : how movie stars, studio moguls, and big business remade American politics. New York : Cambridge University Press – via Internet Archive.
  190. ^ a b "Ford made brief stop in 1976". December 31, 2006.
  191. ^ "AGNEW REMAINS TOP G.O.P. CHOICE: Little Damage Seen 35% in Gallup Poll Support Him for President in '76". The New York Times. April 29, 1973. p. 41.
  192. ^ Gallup, George (August 30, 1973). "GALLUP POLL: Agnew is losing support". p. 29.
  193. ^ "Reagan Leads, Rockefeller Is 2d In Gallup Poll on '76 Nomination". The New York Times. October 21, 1973. p. 54.
  194. ^ Gallup, George (March 28, 1975). "Ford, Reagan Top GOP Picks in '76". The Hartford Courant. p. 20.
  195. ^ a b Gallup, George (July 14, 1975). "Ford Support Up As 1976 Hopeful". The Hartford Courant. p. 5.
  196. ^ a b Gallup, George (September 7, 1975). "Ford Widens Lead Over Rest of Field". The Washington Post. p. A11.
  197. ^ "Gallup: Reagan Passes Ford". Newsday. December 12, 1975. p. 6.
  198. ^ Apple, R.W. (January 11, 1976). "G.O.P. Seems Evenly Split Over Ford-Reagan Contest". The New York Times. p. 1.
  199. ^ "Our Campaigns – US President – R Convention Race – Aug 16, 1976". www.ourcampaigns.com. Retrieved February 11, 2024.