1984 Democratic Party presidential primaries

← 1980 February 20 to June 12, 1984 1988 →

3,882 delegates to the 1984 Democratic National Convention
1,942 (majority) votes needed to win
 
Candidate Walter Mondale Gary Hart Jesse Jackson
Home state Minnesota Colorado Illinois
Delegate count 1,929 1,164 358
Contests won 22 26 4
Popular vote 6,952,912 6,504,842 3,282,431
Percentage 38.3% 35.9% 18.1%

Grey denotes a territory that did not hold a primary or caucus.

Previous Democratic nominee

Jimmy Carter

Democratic nominee

Walter Mondale

From February 20 to June 12, 1984, voters of the Democratic Party chose its nominee for president in the 1984 United States presidential election. Former Vice President Walter Mondale was selected as the nominee through a series of primary elections and caucuses culminating in the 1984 Democratic National Convention held from July 16 to July 19, 1984, in San Francisco, California.

Candidates

Nominee

Candidate Most recent office Home state Campaign

Withdrawal date

Popular vote Contests won Running mate
Walter Mondale Vice President of the United States
(1977–1981)

Minnesota

(Campaign)
Secured nomination:
June 6, 1984

6,952,912

(38.3%)

22
NY, NJ, DE, MD, PA, VA, WV,
NC, GA, AL, TN, KY, MI, IL,
AR, MO, IA, MN, KS, TX, HI, PR
Geraldine Ferraro

Withdrew during primaries or convention

Candidate Most recent office Home state Campaign

Withdrawal date

Popular vote Contests won
Gary Hart U.S. Senator from Colorado
(1975–1987)
Colorado
Colorado

(Campaign)
6,504,842
(35.9%)
26
ME, NH, VT, MA, CT, RI,
FL, OH, IN, WI, OK, NE,
SD, ND, NM, CO, WY, MT,
AZ, UT, ID, NV, WA, OR,
CA, AK
Jesse Jackson None Illinois
Illinois

(Campaign)
3,282,431
(18.1%)
4
LA, MS, SC, DC

Withdrew during primaries

Declined to run

Timeline

Background

The Commission on Presidential Nomination was formed in July 1981, under the leadership of Jim Hunt. The commission sought to increase the power of elected officials, who could choose a more moderate and ideologically representative candidate. Alan Cranston, Gillis William Long, and Walter Mondale supported giving elected officials positions as uncommitted delegates while Ted Kennedy opposed it.[2] The report was completed on February 5, 1982. The commission allocated 568 delegates, 14% of the total, to unelected superdelegates, who were party leaders and elected officials. The primary schedule was reduced to occur from March to June, with the exception of Iowa and New Hampshire.[3]

411 of the superdelegates were elected officials and 157 were party officials. Members of the U.S. House and U.S. Senate accounted for 200 delegates. Mondale's campaign capitalized on this and Richard Moe, with 20 lobbyists, gained support for Mondale from members of Congress. Thomas Hale Boggs Jr. lobbied for congressional support for John Glenn.[4]

The majority of delegates were selected through primaries. Twenty-six primaries were held in 1984, less than the thirty-one in 1980.[5] Mondale performed best in states with primaries while California was the only primary that Hart won. Hart won more caucus states than Mondale.[6]

Overview and pre-contests

Nominee
Ended campaigns
Iowa caucuses
New Hampshire primary
Super Tuesday
Convention 1984

Kennedy, one of the leading possible candidates, announced in December 1982, that he would not run for the presidential nomination.[7]

In June 1983, Cranston won a series of straw polls in Alabama, California, and Wisconsin and placed second in Massachusetts.[8][9][10] Mondale won a straw poll in Maine in October. Glenn criticized the excessive spending on the straw poll as Cranston and Mondale both spent $100,000 and Hollings spent $25,000 while campaigning for it.[11]

Jackson ended up winning 21% of the national primary vote but received only 8% of the delegates to the national convention, and he initially charged that his campaign was hurt by the same party rules that allowed Mondale to win. He also poured scorn on Mondale, saying that Hubert Humphrey was the "last significant politician out of the St. Paul-Minneapolis" area.[12]

Colorado Senator Gary Hart was little-known when he announced his run February 1983, and barely received above 1% in the polls compared to other well-known figures. To counter this, Hart started campaigning early in New Hampshire, making a then-unprecedented canvassing tour in late September, months before the primary. This strategy attracted national media attention to his campaign, and by late 1983, he had risen moderately in the polls to the middle of the field, mostly at the expense of the sinking candidacies of John Glenn and Cranston.[13][14]

Hart criticized Mondale as an "old-fashioned" Great Society Democrat who symbolized "failed policies" of the past. Hart positioned himself as a younger, fresher, and more moderate Democrat who could appeal to younger voters. He emerged as a formidable candidate, winning the key Ohio and California primaries as well as several others, especially in the West. However, Hart could not overcome Mondale's financial and organizational advantages, especially among labor union leaders in the Midwest and industrial Northeast. Hart was also badly hurt during a televised debate when Mondale used a popular television commercial slogan to ridicule Hart's vague "New Ideas" platform. Turning to Hart on camera, Mondale said that whenever he heard Hart talk about his "New Ideas", he was reminded of the Wendy's fast-food slogan "Where's the beef?". The remark drew loud laughter and applause from the audience and caught Hart off-guard. Hart never fully recovered from Mondale's charge that his "New Ideas" were shallow and lacking in specifics. Earlier in the same Democratic primary debate, Hart committed a serious faux pas that largely went underreported. Asked what he would do if an unidentified airplane flew over the Iron Curtain from a Warsaw Pact nation, Hart replied that he would send up a United States Air Force plane and instruct them to determine whether or not it was an enemy plane by looking in the cockpit window to see if the pilots were wearing uniforms. Fellow candidate John Glenn, a former Marine Corps fighter pilot, replied that this was physically impossible.

At a roundtable debate between the three remaining Democratic candidates moderated by Phil Donahue, Mondale and Hart got in such a heated argument over the issue of U.S. policy in Central America that Jackson had to tap his water glass on the table to get them to simmer down.

Jackson's campaign was bolstered after he led a delegation to Syria that convinced Hafez al-Assad to release Bobby Goodman in January 1984. Jackson received large and overwhelming positive news coverage. However, positive news coverage ended after he called Jews "Hymies" and New York City "Hymietown". Jackson was also criticized for his relation with Louis Farrakhan.[15][16][17]

Early contests

Mondale celebrates his victory in the Iowa caucus

Mondale won the Iowa caucus with a plurality of the vote. Glenn performed poorly and came in sixth.[18] Hart's campaign was bolstered by his second placing show. Hart, despite not winning Iowa, was now viewed as the only viable opponent to Mondale. Hart was polling below 10% nationally in late February, but was polling above 30% by March 2, and near 40% by March 6.[19]

Mondale led Glenn by two-to-one in New Hampshire and Glenn led Hart by two-to-one in New Hampshire in polling from March 1983 to February 1984. However, Hart's polling improved shortly before the primary and won in New Hampshire. Mondale and Hart both won 6 delegates, despite Hart's popular vote victory, due to mathematical distribution.[20][21][22]

Reubin Askew, Alan Cranston, and Fritz Hollings ended their campaigns after their poor results in New Hampshire.[23][24] Hart had incomplete delegate slates, such as him having 45 delegates slated for the 117 delegates up in Pennsylvania's primary. Hart adopted the delegate slates of withdrawn campaigns.[25]

March contests

Glenn's campaign stated that he needed to win Alabama and perform well in Georgia.[26] Mondale won the statewide popular vote in Georgia, but Hart won in more congressional districts and won a plurality of the state's delegates.[27][28]

Hollings was expected to win South Carolina as a favorite son candidate, but withdrew before the state held its caucus.[29]

On March 31, the Kentucky precinct caucuses elected a plurality uncommitted delegation supported by Martha Layne Collins. Mondale won the Virgin Islands caucus.[30]

April contests

Hart won the Wisconsin primary, but none of the major candidates campaigned in the state due to the primary having no pledged delegates.[31] Mondale won the caucus which was responsible for the allocation of 78 of the state's 89 delegates.[32]

Louisiana cancelled its primary, as it was unable to afford the $1.5 million cost, and caucuses were held for both parties instead.[33]

Last contests

On May 1, Jackson won Washington D.C. and Mondale won Tennessee. In order to gain the nomination Hart needed to win 91% of the remaining delegates after these contests.[34]

Mondale gradually pulled away from Hart in the delegate count, but the race was not decided until June, on "Super Tuesday III".[35] Decided that day were delegates from five states: South Dakota, New Mexico, West Virginia, and the big prizes of California and New Jersey.[36] The proportional nature of delegate selection meant that Mondale was likely to obtain enough delegates on that day to secure the stated support of an overall majority of delegates, and hence the nomination, no matter who actually "won" the states contested. However, Hart maintained that unpledged superdelegates that had previously claimed support for Mondale would shift to his side if he swept the Super Tuesday III primary.[37] Once again, Hart committed a faux pas, insulting New Jersey shortly before the primary day. Campaigning in California, he remarked that while the "bad news" was that he and his wife Lee had to campaign separately, "[t]he good news for her is that she campaigns in California while I campaign in New Jersey." Compounding the problem, when his wife interjected that she "got to hold a koala bear," Hart replied that "I won't tell you what I got to hold: samples from a toxic-waste dump."[37] While Hart won California, he decisively lost New Jersey after leading in polls by as much as 15 points.

North Dakota held its first presidential primary, but no delegates were bound by it. Hart won the primary against Lyndon LaRouche, the only other candidate on the ballot.[38]

McGovern endorsed Mondale on July 11, and instructed his 23 delegates to vote for Mondale. Mondale was already 28 delegates above the minimum required to win.[39]

Mondale had the support of 81 state chairs and vice-chairs, Hart had 13, Jackson had 1, and 19 were uncommitted one week before the convention.[40] The final CBS poll of delegates before the convention showed that among the superdelegates 384 supported Mondale, 58 supported Hart, 25 supported Jackson, and 101 were uncommitted.[41]

Convention and aftermath

By the time the Democratic Convention started in San Francisco, Mondale had more than enough delegates to win the Democratic nomination. However, after Mondale's landslide loss to Ronald Reagan, Hart would quickly emerge as the frontrunner for the 1988 Democratic Party's presidential nomination. He would maintain that status until a sex scandal derailed his candidacy in 1987.

Mondale's nomination marked only the fifth time that the Democratic Party nominated a private citizen for President (i.e., not serving in an official government role at the time of the nomination and election), following former Georgia Governor Jimmy Carter in 1976, who followed former Illinois Governor Adlai Stevenson II in 1956, who followed former West Virginia Congressman John W. Davis in 1924, who was preceded by former President Grover Cleveland in 1892. The Democratic Party did not nominate another private citizen until former Secretary of State Hillary Clinton, in 2016. Four years later, the party nominated former vice president Joe Biden. Of the seven private-citizen Democratic nominees, Jimmy Carter, Grover Cleveland, and Joe Biden won their respective presidential elections.[42]

One-third of people who supported Hart during the Democratic primary voted for Reagan.[43]

Endorsements

Main article: Endorsements in the 1984 Democratic Party presidential primaries

List of Walter Mondale endorsements

Mondale had received endorsements from:

United States House of Representatives
Governors and State Constitutional officers
Former officeholders
Former diplomats, board members and other officials
Organizations and unions
Current and former state and local officials and party officeholders
Alabama
California
  • Mayor and 1982 Democratic Gubernatorial nominee Tom Bradley of Los Angeles[55]
Georgia
Illinois
  • Former Alderman, President of the City Council, 1983 mayoral candidate, and Cook County Democratic Party Chairman Edward Vrdolyak of Chicago[56]
Michigan
Celebrities, political activists, and political commentators
List of Gary Hart endorsements

Hart had received endorsements from:

United States House of Representatives
Celebrities, political activists, and political commentators
List of Jesse Jackson endorsements

Jackson had received endorsements from:

United States House of Representatives
Former officeholders
Current and former state and local officials and party officeholders
Alabama
Georgia
  • State Representative Tyrone Brookes[68]
Illinois
Indiana
Washington, D.C.
Organizations and unions
Celebrities, political activists, and political commentators
List of Ernest F. Hollings endorsements

Hollings had received endorsements from:

United States Senate
State Constitutional officers

Opinion polling

Before 1983

Poll source Date(s)
Jerry Brown
Jimmy Carter
John Glenn
Ted Kennedy
George McGovern
Walter Mondale
Other
Undecided/None
Gallup[77][78] Apr. 23–26, 1982 6% 11% 6% 45% 12% 9%[a] 11%
Gallup[78] July 30–Aug. 2, 1982 4% 8% 7% 43% 13% 25%[b]
Gallup[78][79] Dec. 10–13, 1982 5% 14% 6% 32% 17%[c] 26%
  1. ^ Combined for Jay Rockefeller, John Y. Brown Jr., Bruce Babbitt, Daniel Patrick Moynihan, Bill Bradley, Alan Cranston, Gary Hart, Ernest Hollings, Reubin Askew, and Robert Strauss, each of whom received less than 2%.
  2. ^ Jay Rockefeller, John Y. Brown Jr., Bruce Babbitt, Daniel Patrick Moynihan, Bill Bradley, Alan Cranston, Gary Hart, Ernest Hollings, Reubin Askew, and Robert Strauss were included in the poll but each received less than 2%.
  3. ^ Gary Hart with 2%, Alan Cranston with 2%, Reubin Askew with 1%, Ernest Hollings with 1% and less than 2% each for Bruce Babbitt, John Brown, Jay Rockefeller, Lloyd Bentsen, Daniel Patrick Moynihan, Bill Bradley, Mo Udall, Robert Strauss.

1983

Poll source Publication
Reubin Askew
Alan Cranston
John Glenn
Gary Hart
Ernest Hollings
Jesse Jackson
George McGovern
Walter Mondale
Gallup[78] Mar. 1983 2% 3% 13% 2% 1% 4% 32%
Gallup[78] Apr. 1983 1% 3% 23% 4% 1% 29%
Gallup[78] June 1983 3% 8% 24% 3% 1% 41%
Gallup[78] July 1983 2% 7% 25% 4% 2% 41%
Gallup[78] Sep. 1983 3% 5% 23% 3% 1% 8% 8% 34%
Gallup[78] Oct. 1983 1% 6% 21% 3% 1% 10% 8% 40%
Gallup[78] Oct. 1983 2% 3% 23% 1% 1% 8% 7% 34%
Gallup[78] Nov. 1983 3% 3% 19% 2% 1% 7% 7% 47%
Gallup[78] Dec. 1983 1% 3% 24% 3% 1% 10% 8% 40%

1984

Poll source Publication
Reubin Askew
Alan Cranston
John Glenn
Gary Hart
Ernest Hollings
Jesse Jackson
George McGovern
Walter Mondale
Gallup[78] Jan. 1984 1% 4% 16% 3% 1% 9% 4% 47%
Gallup[78] Jan. 1984 2% 3% 15% 2% 1% 11% 7% 47%
Gallup[78] Feb. 1984 2% 3% 13% 3% 1% 13% 5% 49%

Results by state

Date
(daily totals)
Total pledged
delegates
Contest Delegates won and popular vote Total Reference
Walter Mondale Gary Hart Jesse Jackson John Glenn Uncommitted Others
February 20 0[a] Iowa caucus 48.9% 16.5% 1.5% 3.5% 9.4% 20.2% [80][81][82]
February 28 12 New Hampshire primary 6
28,173
(27.88%)
6
37,702
(37.31%)

5,311
(5.26%)

12,088
(11.96%)

17,671
(17.49%)

101,045
[21][22]
March 4 0[b] Maine caucus 7,364
(43.73%)
8,540
(50.71%)
105
(0.62%)
52
(0.31%)
602
(3.57%)
178
(1.06%)
16,841 [83][84]
March 6 0[c] Vermont primary 14,985
(20.25%)
51,873
(70.08%)
5,761
(7.78%)
1,399
(1.89%)
74,018 [85][86]
March 10 12 Wyoming caucus 4
1,266
(35.84%)
8
2,153
(60.96%)

15
(0.42%)

3
(0.08%)

101
(2.86%)

8
(0.23%)
3,532 [87][88][89]
March 13 52 Alabama primary 23[d]
116,920
(27.30%)
11[e]
88,465
(20.66%)
9
83,787
(19.56%)
9[f]
89,286
(20.85%)

4,464
(1.04%)

45,361
(10.59%)
428,283 [82][90][91]
123 Florida primary 57
394,350
(35.66%)
36
463,799
(41.94%)
0
144,263
(13.05%)
0
128,209
(11.59%)
30
51,669
(4.67%)[g]
1,105,750 [92][93][94]
84 Georgia primary 24
208,588
(30.47%)
28
186,903
(27.30%)
17
143,730
(21.00%)
1
122,744
(17.93%)

3,068
(0.45%)

19,508
(2.85%)
684,541 [95][96][97][98]
0[h] Hawaii caucus 911
(32.3%)
118
(4.2%)
1,790
(63.5%)
[99]
106 Massachusetts primary 41
160,893
(25.14%)
52
245,943
(38.43%)

31,824
(4.97%)

45,456
(7.10%)

5,080
(0.79%)
13
196,305
(30.67%)[i]

640,045
[100][98]
0[j] Nevada caucus (37.7%) (52.3%) (0.6%) (2%) (7.2%) (0.2%) 5,000 [101][102]
0[k] Oklahoma caucus (39.7%) (41.4%) (3.8%) (5.0%) (10.1%) 42,000 [101][103]
26 Rhode Island primary 12
12



2

[80][82]
66 Washington caucus 31
34
1




[80][82]
March 14 18 Delaware caucus 13
5



3

[80][82]
12 North Dakota caucus 8
4





[80][82]
March 15 0[l] Alaska caucus [104][105]
March 17 42 Arkansas caucus 24
9
7


2

[106][82]
5 Latin American Democrats caucus 1
9
7


4

[106][82]
Kentucky urban caucus






[106][82]
155 Michigan caucus 95
49
9


2

[106][82]
43 Mississippi caucus 23
4
12


4

[106][82]
3 Panama Canal Zone 3 [107]
43 South Carolina caucus 15
7
16


10

[106][82]
March 18 53 Puerto Rico caucus 53






[106][82]
March 20 194 Illinois primary 114
42
6


32

[106][82]
78 Minnesota caucus 51
3
2


22

[106][82]
March 24 44 Kansas caucus 24
16



4

[106][82]
March 24–26 78 Virginia caucus 31
13
22


12

[106][82]
March 25 20 Montana caucus 3
13



4

[106][82]
March 27 60 Connecticut primary 23
36
1


4

[106][82]
March 31 0[m] Oklahoma county convention (41.1%) (50.8%) (1.3%) (6.6%) 945 [108][109]
April 3 0[n] Wisconsin primary 261,374
(41.11%)
282,435
(44.42%)
62,524
(9.83%)
6,398
(1.01%)
23,037
(3.62%)
635,768 [110]
April 3 285 New York primary 155
77
51


2

[106][82]
April 7 69 Louisiana caucus 16
21
24


8

[106]
0[o] Wisconsin caucus 1,419 952 86 0 0 0 [111]
0[p] Iowa county conventions 1,654 949 36 0 314 248 [112][113]
April 10 117[q] Pennsylvania primary 81 14 16 1 4 1[r] [114][115]
April 14 40 Arizona caucus 19
19
1


1

[106][82]
29 Oklahoma district conventions 13 16 [116]
April 15 8 New Hampshire convention 3 3

2

[117]
April 16 24 Utah caucus 4
14



6

[106]
April 17 83 Missouri caucus 53
9
15


6

[106]
April 24 0[s] Vermont caucus 431 691 215 87 [82][118]
7 Guam caucus 6.25
0.75





[106]
April ? 0[t] Nevada county convention [119]
May 1 16 Washington D.C. primary 4

12




[106][82]
76 Tennessee primary 35
21
15


5

[106][82]
May 5 34 Iowa district conventions 20 13 0 0 0 1 [120]
186 Texas caucus 100
38
30


18

[106][82]
53 Wisconsin congressional district caucus 31 17 5 0 0 0 [121]
May 6 27 Maine convention 12 13 2 [122]
18 Oklahoma state convention 6 12 [123]
17 Nevada convention 6 11 [124]
May 7 48 Colorado caucus
45



3

[106][82]
May 8 80 Indiana primary 31
38
7


4

[106][82]
70 Maryland primary 47
3
17


3

[106][82]
80 North Carolina primary 47
18
14


1

[106][82]
176 Ohio primary 80
80
10


6

[106][82]
May 13 11 Alaska convention 6 4 1

[125]

May 15 24 Nebraska primary 8
16





[106][82]
47 Oregon primary 18
29





[106][82]
May 19 6 American Samoa caucus 6






[106]
May 22 20 Idaho primary 6
11



3

[106]
May 26 19 Hawaii convention 6 13 [126]
17 Vermont convention 5 8 3 1 [127]
18 Wisconsin at-large delegates 5 2 0 0 11 0 [128]
June 2 55 Pennsylvania convention 55 0 0 0 0 0 [129]
June 5 333 California primary 91
207
30



5
[106][82]
114 New Jersey primary 104
1
8



1
[106][82]
27 New Mexico primary 13
14





[106][82]
17 South Dakota primary 7
9




1
[106][82]
35 West Virginia primary 22
198,776 (51.91%)
13
137,866 (38.09%)

24,697 (6.82%)

632 (0.17%)
361,971 [130][131]
June 9 24 Iowa conventions 15 7 0 0 0 1 [132][133]
Total

When he made his acceptance speech at the Democratic Convention, Mondale said: "Let's tell the truth. Mr. Reagan will raise taxes, and so will I. He won't tell you. I just did." Although Mondale intended to expose Reagan as hypocritical and position himself as the honest candidate, the choice of taxes as a discussion point likely damaged his electoral chances.[citation needed]

Vice-Presidential nominee

Mondale chose U.S. Rep. Geraldine A. Ferraro of New York as his running mate and she was confirmed by acclamation, making her the first woman nominated for that position by a major party.

Aides later said that Mondale was determined to establish a precedent with his vice presidential candidate, considering San Francisco Mayor (Later U.S. Senator) Dianne Feinstein and Governor of Kentucky Martha Layne Collins, who were also female; Los Angeles Mayor Tom Bradley, an African American; and San Antonio Mayor Henry Cisneros, a Hispanic, as other finalists for the nomination.[12] Unsuccessful nomination candidate Jackson derided Mondale's vice-presidential screening process as a "P.R. parade of personalities"; however, he praised Mondale for his choice.

Others however preferred Senator Lloyd Bentsen because he would appeal to more conservative Southern voters. Nomination rival Gary Hart had also been lobbying for the vice-presidential spot on the ticket once it became apparent that Mondale had clinched the majority of delegates; Hart's supporters claimed he would do better than Mondale against President Reagan, an argument undercut by a June 1984 Gallup poll that showed both men nine points behind the President.

Politicians considered for vice presidential nomination:[134]

See also

References

  1. ^ "Second former Florida governor surprise entry in N.H. Primary - UPI Archives".
  2. ^ Ranney 1985, p. 103-104.
  3. ^ Ranney 1985, p. 45-47; 105.
  4. ^ Ranney 1985, p. 107-108.
  5. ^ Ranney 1985, p. 46.
  6. ^ Ranney 1985, p. 106.
  7. ^ Ranney 1985, p. 47.
  8. ^ Harris, Art (June 18, 1983). "Cranston Is First in Straw Vote Of Alabama Young Democrats". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on February 15, 2024.
  9. ^ Raines, Howell (June 12, 1983). "Cranston Beats Mondale In Wisconsin Democratic Straw Poll". The New York Times. Archived from the original on February 15, 2024.
  10. ^ "Around The Nation; Cranston Bests Hollings In Alabama Straw Poll". The New York Times. June 19, 1983. Archived from the original on February 15, 2024.
  11. ^ Broder, David (October 1, 1983). "Mondale Captures Maine Straw Poll, AFL-CIO Backing". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on August 28, 2017.
  12. ^ a b Evan Thomas (1984-07-02). "Trying to Win the Peace". Time. Archived from the original on September 30, 2007.
  13. ^ Raines, Howell (19 February 1984). "Candidates Facing First Major Test in Iowa Caucuses". The New York Times.
  14. ^ "Caucus history: Past years' results". Archived from the original on 2016-11-08. Retrieved 2021-07-20.((cite web)): CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
  15. ^ Ranney 1985, p. 52-53.
  16. ^ Ranney 1985, p. 180.
  17. ^ "Jesse Jackson's 'Hymietown' Remark – 1984". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on February 16, 2024.
  18. ^ Ranney 1985, p. 48-49.
  19. ^ Ranney 1985, p. 179; 189-190.
  20. ^ Ranney 1985, p. 49-50.
  21. ^ a b Morgan 1985, p. 56-57.
  22. ^ a b "Hart, Mondale Get 6 Delegates". Concord Monitor. March 8, 1984. p. 14. Archived from the original on February 15, 2024 – via Newspapers.com.
  23. ^ "Hollings Withdraws From Democratic Race". Concord Monitor. March 1, 1984. p. 16. Archived from the original on February 15, 2024 – via Newspapers.com.
  24. ^ "New Hampshire Reality Punctures 3 Candidates' White House Dreams". Concord Monitor. March 2, 1984. p. 1. Archived from the original on February 15, 2024 – via Newspapers.com.
  25. ^ "Playing for delegates". Concord Monitor. April 18, 1984. p. 12. Archived from the original on February 15, 2024 – via Newspapers.com.
  26. ^ Raines, Howell (February 19, 1984). "Candidates Facing First Major Test In Iowa Caucuses". The New York Times. Archived from the original on May 16, 2023.
  27. ^ "Mondale's winning margin 3%". The Atlanta Journal-Constitution. March 15, 1984. p. 23A. Archived from the original on March 24, 2024 – via Newspapers.com.
  28. ^ "Mondale wins Georgia; Hart takes 5 states". The Atlanta Journal-Constitution. March 14, 1984. p. 1A. Archived from the original on March 24, 2024 – via Newspapers.com.
  29. ^ "Uncommitted delegates are a major factor". The Atlanta Journal-Constitution. March 16, 1984. p. 15A. Archived from the original on March 24, 2024 – via Newspapers.com.
  30. ^ "Uncommitted slate leads in Kentucky". Sioux City Journal. April 1, 1984. p. 1A. Archived from the original on February 12, 2024 – via Newspapers.com.
  31. ^ "Polls show Jewish, union votes carry Mondale to victory". The Des Moines Register. April 4, 1984. p. 9A. Archived from the original on February 12, 2024 – via Newspapers.com.
  32. ^ "Mondale trounces Hart in Wisconsin's caucuses". The Des Moines Register. April 8, 1984. p. 9A. Archived from the original on February 12, 2024 – via Newspapers.com.
  33. ^ "Louisiana calls off primary, citing cost". The Atlanta Journal-Constitution. March 15, 1984. p. 1A. Archived from the original on March 24, 2024 – via Newspapers.com.
  34. ^ "Hart shut out in primaries". The Gazette. May 2, 1984. p. 1A. Archived from the original on February 12, 2024 – via Newspapers.com.
  35. ^ Ed Magnuson (1984-06-18). "Over the Top, Barely". Time. Archived from the original on November 2, 2007.
  36. ^ George J. Church (1984-06-04). "A Big Bicoastal Finale". Time. Archived from the original on December 12, 2008.
  37. ^ a b Evan Thomas (1984-06-11). "Last Call, and Out Reeling". Time. Archived from the original on April 21, 2008.
  38. ^ "Thurmond nominated for 6th term in Senate". The Des Moines Register. June 13, 1984. p. 3A. Archived from the original on February 12, 2024 – via Newspapers.com.
  39. ^ "Mondale wins endorsement by McGovern". The Des Moines Register. June 13, 1984. p. 1A. Archived from the original on February 13, 2024 – via Newspapers.com.
  40. ^ Ranney 1985, p. 110.
  41. ^ Ranney 1985, p. 105.
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Notes

  1. ^ First stage of caucus to select delegates to then select 3,201 county delegates on April 7.
  2. ^ First stage of caucus to select delegates to then select 3,295 delegates on May 6
  3. ^ Non-binding primary. Delegates selected at caucus on April 24.
  4. ^ 4 of Glenn's delegates were at-large delegates. After he withdrew these were redistributed to give Mondale an additional three and Hart one
  5. ^ 4 of Glenn's delegates were at-large delegates. After he withdrew these were redistributed to give Mondale an additional three and Hart one
  6. ^ 4 of Glenn's delegates were at-large delegates. After he withdrew these were redistributed to give Mondale an additional three and Hart one.
  7. ^ 27 delegates for Reubin Askew, 2 delegates for John Glenn, and 1 delegate for Jesse Jackson.
  8. ^ First stage of caucus to select delegates to then select delegates at state convention on May 26.
  9. ^ 13 delegates for George McGovern
  10. ^ First stage of caucus to select delegates to then select county delegates.
  11. ^ First stage of caucus to select 3,247 county convention delegates.
  12. ^ First stage of caucus to select delegates to then select delegates at state convention on May 13.
  13. ^ Second stage of caucus to select delegates to then select national delegates at the district and state conventions.
  14. ^ Delegates selected through caucus
  15. ^ First stage of caucus to select 1,799 delegates to then select 53 delegates on May 5.
  16. ^ Second stage of caucus to select delegates to then select 34 delegates on May 5
  17. ^ Additional 55 delegates based on primary performance allocated on June 2.
  18. ^ Alan Cranston
  19. ^ First stage of caucus to select delegates to then select national delegates at state convention on May 26.
  20. ^ Second stage of caucus to select county delegates to then select national delegates on May 6.

Works cited