1992 Philippine presidential election

← 1986 May 11, 1992 1998 →
Turnout75.5% Decrease 3.3%
Nominee Fidel V. Ramos Miriam Defensor Santiago Eduardo Cojuangco Jr.
Party Lakas PRP NPC
Running mate Emilio Osmeña Ramon Magsaysay Jr. Joseph Estrada
Popular vote 5,342,521 4,468,173 4,116,376
Percentage 23.58% 19.72% 18.17%

Nominee Ramon Mitra Jr. Imelda Marcos Jovito Salonga
Party LDP KBL Liberal
Running mate Marcelo Fernan Vicente Magsaysay Aquilino Pimentel Jr.
Popular vote 3,316,661 2,338,294 2,302,123
Percentage 14.64% 10.32% 10.16%

Election results per province/city.

President before election

Corazon Aquino

Elected President

Fidel V. Ramos

The 1992 Philippine presidential and vice presidential elections were held on May 11, 1992.[1] This was the first general election held under the 1987 Constitution. An estimated 80,000 candidates ran for 17,000 posts from the presidency down to municipal councilors.

The new constitution limited the president to a single six-year term with no possibility of reelection, even if nonsuccessive.[2] Although some of President Corazon Aquino's advisers suggested that she could run for a second term,[3] as she was sworn in before the 1987 Constitution took effect, Aquino did not run again.[4]

In the presidential election, retired general Fidel Ramos of Lakas–NUCD narrowly defeated populist candidate Miriam Defensor Santiago of the People's Reform Party.[5] Ramos also got the lowest plurality in the Philippine electoral history, and beat the previous election for the closest margin of victory, percentage-wise (this record would later be beaten by the 2004 election).[6]

Santiago led the canvassing of votes for the first five days but then was overtaken by Ramos in a few days. Santiago cried fraud and filed an electoral protest citing power outages as evidence.[7] Various media personnel became witnesses to the fraud made in the election, where the phrase, 'Miriam won in the election, but lost in the counting' became popular.[8] However, her protest was eventually dismissed by the Supreme Court of the Philippines.[7]

The 1992 election was the second time both president and vice president came from different parties.[9] Movie actor and Senator Joseph Estrada, running with presidential candidate Eduardo Cojuanco, won a six-year term as Vice-President.[10]

Under the transitory provisions of the Constitution, 24 senators were elected in this election. The first 12 senators who garnered the highest votes would have six-year terms while the next 12 senators would have three-year terms.[11] Laban ng Demokratikong Pilipino (LDP) got a large share in the Senate race.[12] Television personality and Quezon City Vice Mayor Vicente Sotto III (also known as Tito Sotto) got the highest number of votes.[13]


Presidential candidate Party Vice presidential candidate Party
Former Governor of Tarlac Danding Cojuangco Nationalist People's Coalition Senator Joseph Estrada Nationalist People's Coalition
Former Bureau of Immigration Commissioner Miriam Defensor Santiago People's Reform Party Former Representative from Zambales Ramon Magsaysay Jr. People's Reform Party
Vice President Salvador Laurel Nacionalista Party Former Mambabatas Pambansa from Manila Eva Estrada Kalaw Nacionalista Party
Former First Lady Imelda Marcos Kilusang Bagong Lipunan Former Governor of Zambales Vicente Magsaysay Kilusang Bagong Lipunan
Speaker Ramon Mitra Jr. Laban ng Demokratikong Pilipino Former Chief Justice Marcelo Fernan Laban ng Demokratikong Pilipino
Former Secretary of Defense Fidel V. Ramos Lakas-NUCD-UMDP Governor of Cebu Lito Osmeña Lakas-NUCD-UMDP
Senator Jovito Salonga Liberal Party Senator Aquilino Pimentel Jr. Partido Demokratiko Pilipino-Lakas ng Bayan


A debate was held between presidential candidates Salvador Laurel and Ramon Mitra Jr. on the ABS-CBN television program Magandang Gabi... Bayan on March 7, 1992.[14] It was considered an especially heated debate between the two candidates, with the Manila Standard noting the "barbs, insults, and witticisms" exchanged during the program.[14][15]

On March 15, the Commission on Elections (COMELEC) began its series of six presidential and vice-presidential debates held over the next six Sundays,[16] with the first debate held among presidential candidates Fidel V. Ramos, Miriam Defensor-Santiago, and Jovito Salonga, moderated by Ricardo Puno Jr. and broadcast live on GMA Network.[17] Estrada, then a presidential candidate, was scheduled to participate in the debate but had to withdraw due to a prior commitment.[18]

The second COMELEC-sponsored presidential debate was held on March 22 among Laurel, Mitra, and Eduardo Cojuangco Jr., moderated by Puno and broadcast live on RPN (now CNN Philippines).[19] The debate was also broadcast live on radio through the government-owned Radyo ng Bayan, but was interrupted 45 minutes into the debate when the station switched instead to a broadcast of a Lakas-NUCD rally in Dumaguete City led by President Aquino.[20]

The first vice-presidential debate as set by COMELEC was held on March 29 among Marcelo Fernan, Ramon Magsaysay Jr., and Vicente Magsaysay,[21] moderated by Mario C. Garcia and broadcast live on the government-owned PTV.[22]


For President

Fidel V. RamosLakas-NUCD5,342,52123.58
Miriam Defensor SantiagoPeople's Reform Party4,468,17319.72
Danding CojuangcoNationalist People's Coalition4,116,37618.17
Ramon Mitra Jr.Laban ng Demokratikong Pilipino3,316,66114.64
Imelda MarcosKilusang Bagong Lipunan2,338,29410.32
Jovito SalongaLiberal Party2,302,12410.16
Salvador LaurelNacionalista Party770,0463.40
Valid votes22,654,19593.40
Invalid/blank votes1,600,7596.60
Total votes24,254,954100.00
Registered voters/turnout32,141,07975.46
Source: Dieter Nohlen; Florian Grotz; Christof Hartmann; Graham Hassall; Soliman M. Santos.
Elections in Asia and the Pacific: A Data Handbook: Volume II: South East Asia, East Asia, and the South Pacific
Popular vote


Main article: Congressional canvass for the Philippine presidential election, 1992

For Vice President

Joseph EstradaNationalist People's Coalition6,739,73833.01
Marcelo FernanLaban ng Demokratikong Pilipino4,438,49421.74
Lito OsmeñaLakas-NUCD3,362,46716.47
Ramon Magsaysay Jr.People's Reform Party2,900,55614.20
Aquilino Pimentel Jr.[a]Partido Demokratiko Pilipino-Lakas ng Bayan2,023,2899.91
Vicente MagsaysayKilusang Bagong Lipunan699,8953.43
Eva Estrada KalawNacionalista Party255,7301.25
Valid votes20,420,16984.19
Invalid/blank votes3,834,78515.81
Total votes24,254,954100.00
Registered voters/turnout32,141,07975.46
Source: Dieter Nohlen; Florian Grotz; Christof Hartmann; Graham Hassall; Soliman M. Santos.
Elections in Asia and the Pacific: A Data Handbook: Volume II: South East Asia, East Asia, and the South Pacific
  1. ^ Running mate of Jovito Salonga (Liberal Party)
Popular vote
R. Magsaysay Jr.
V. Magsaysay

See also


  1. ^ "Phl presidential elections and the stock market". The Philippine Star. Retrieved November 8, 2018.
  2. ^ "The 1987 Constitution of the Republic of the Philippine – Article VII". Official Gazette of the Republic of the Philippines. Retrieved November 8, 2018.
  3. ^ Jurado, Emil P. (25 July 1988). "Realignment of forces". Manila Standard. Retrieved November 8, 2018 – via Google News Archive.
  4. ^ Shenon, Philip. "Aquino Endorses Ex-Army Chief in Vote". Retrieved November 8, 2018.
  5. ^ "Ramos Is Declared New President 6 Weeks After Philippine Election". Retrieved November 8, 2018.
  6. ^ Singh, Daljit; Salazar, Lorraine Carlos (2006). Southeast Asian Affairs 2006. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. p. 227. ISBN 9789812303738. closest margin win 2004 election philippines.
  7. ^ a b Servando, Kristine F. "Miriam: I was cheated, but didn't call for people power". ABS-CBN News. Retrieved November 8, 2018.
  8. ^ Wolfgang, Sachsenroeder (2018-05-30). Power Broking In The Shade: Party Finances And Money Politics In Southeast Asia. World Scientific. ISBN 9789813230750.
  9. ^ "Single ticket: How about voting for president and VP together?". Rappler. Retrieved November 8, 2018.
  10. ^ "Erap presidency redux". The Philippine Star. Retrieved November 8, 2018.
  11. ^ "Term of Office of Senators". senate.gov.ph. Retrieved November 8, 2018.
  12. ^ Banks, Arthur S.; Day, Alan J.; Muller, Thomas C. (February 1, 2016). Political Handbook of the World 1998. Springer. ISBN 9781349149513.
  13. ^ "Senators Profile - Vicente C. Sotto III". www.senate.gov.ph. Retrieved November 8, 2018.
  14. ^ a b Maragay, Fel V. (March 9, 1992). "Laurel, Mitra trade barbs in TV debate". Manila Standard. Kagitingan Publications, Inc. p. 5. Retrieved April 22, 2021.
  15. ^ "Give and take". Manila Standard. Kagitingan Publications, Inc. March 9, 1992. p. 8. Retrieved April 22, 2021.
  16. ^ "COMELEC Presidential/Vice Presidential Debates". Manila Standard. Kagitingan Publications, Inc. March 15, 1992. p. 11. Retrieved April 22, 2021.
  17. ^ Maragay, Fel V. (March 16, 1992). "Enlightening, but ho hum". Manila Standard. Kagitingan Publications, Inc. p. 3. Retrieved April 22, 2021.
  18. ^ Jurado, Emil P. V. (March 16, 1992). "The temporary insanity of senatorial candidates". Manila Standard. Kagitingan Publications, Inc. p. 10. Retrieved April 22, 2021.
  19. ^ Maragay, Fel V. (March 23, 1992). "Laurel loses points in the debate". Manila Standard. Kagitingan Publications, Inc. p. 2. Retrieved April 22, 2021.
  20. ^ "An interrupted debate". Manila Standard. Kagitingan Publications, Inc. March 23, 1992. p. 8. Retrieved April 22, 2021.
  21. ^ "Mismatch". Manila Standard. Kagitingan Publications, Inc. March 30, 1992. p. 8. Retrieved April 22, 2021.
  22. ^ "COMELEC Presidential/Vice Presidential Debates". Manila Standard. Kagitingan Publications, Inc. March 29, 1992. p. 7. Retrieved April 22, 2021.

Further reading