1993 Philadelphia Phillies
1993 NL East Champions
1993 NL Champions
Major League affiliations
Location
Results
Record97–65 (.599)
Divisional place1st
Other information
Owner(s)Bill Giles
General manager(s)Lee Thomas
Manager(s)Jim Fregosi
Local televisionWPHL-TV
(Andy Musser, Harry Kalas, Richie Ashburn)
PRISM
(Chris Wheeler, Jay Johnstone, Garry Maddox)
SportsChannel Philadelphia
(Andy Musser, Kent Tekulve)
Local radioWOGL
(Harry Kalas, Richie Ashburn, Andy Musser, Chris Wheeler, Garry Maddox)
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A ticket for a  1993 game between the Philadelphia Phillies and the Chicago Cubs.
A ticket for a 1993 game between the Philadelphia Phillies and the Chicago Cubs.

The 1993 Philadelphia Phillies season was the 111th season in the history of the franchise. The team won the National League East championship and defeated the Atlanta Braves in the 1993 National League Championship Series in six games, before losing the World Series to the Toronto Blue Jays.

Off-season

This section is empty. You can help by adding to it. (July 2010)

Regular season

After finishing in last place the previous year, the Phillies took the lead in the National League East Division on opening day and remained in first for all but one day (April 9) the rest of the season, clinching the division title on September 28 in Pittsburgh.

The 1993 Phillies were led by stars Dave Hollins, Darren Daulton, John Kruk, Lenny Dykstra, Mitch Williams and Curt Schilling. The team was often described as "shaggy", "unkempt", and "dirty." The previous year, noting the presence of the clean-cut Dale Murphy, Kruk described his team as "24 morons and one Mormon." Their character endeared them to fans, and attendance reached a record high the following season. As a play on the legendary 1927 New York Yankees' Murderers' Row, the team's scruffy, mullet-wearing look was dubbed "Macho Row." To the surprise of their city and the nation, the Phillies powered their way to a 97–65 record and an NL East Division title. Their 97 wins were the most since their back-to-back 101-win seasons in 1976 and 1977.

They had a formidable batting lineup, leading the National League in at-bats (5,685), runs scored (877), hits (1,555), doubles (297), walks (665), on-base percentage (.351), and total bases (2,422). Center fielder Lenny Dykstra batted .305 and led the league in hits, with 194, and runs scored, with 143, both career-highs; he also set career-highs in home runs (19) and RBI (66). Left fielder Pete Incaviglia hit 24 home runs and drove in 89 runs in only 368 at-bats. Catcher Darren Daulton also hit 24 home runs and drove in 105 runs, topping 100 for the second consecutive season. Steady-hitting right fielder Jim Eisenreich led the team with a .318 batting average and struck out only 36 times in 362 at-bats. First baseman John Kruk batted .316 and hit 14 home runs with 85 RBI, while third baseman Dave Hollins drove in 93 runs for the second straight season.[1]

The Phillies also had one of the best pitching staffs in the Major Leagues that year, leading their league in complete games (24), innings pitched (1,472.2) and strikeouts (1,117). Each of their five starting pitchers had at least one shutout during the regular season. Curt Schilling and Tommy Greene each won 16 games, Ben Rivera won 13, and Danny Jackson and Terry Mulholland won 12. Closer Mitch Williams walked 44 batters in 62.0 innings, but had a solid 3.34 ERA with 43 saves and averaged only one home run allowed every 20.2 innings pitched.[2]

During the season there were a multitude of memorable moments. In late April, the team rallied from an 8–0 deficit to defeat the San Francisco Giants 9–8 in 10 innings, spurred when Giants reliever Bryan Hickerson slammed the ball to the ground to celebrate an out. In San Diego, a few days later, left-fielder Milt Thompson saved a game by making a leaping catch on a potential grand slam by the Padres' catcher Bob Geren.

Terry Mulholland hurled the first shutout in Mile High Stadium, as the Phils swept the expansion Colorado Rockies in late May. On July 2, the Phils and Padres played a doubleheader that lasted almost 12 hours with rain delays; Mitch Williams won the second game with an RBI single at 4:41 AM. Five days later, Lenny Dykstra ended a 7–6, 20-inning game against the Dodgers at Veterans Stadium with a ground-rule double.

The Phillies survived a 6–14 skid from late June through mid-July that shrunk their lead in the East to three games on July 17. A three-game sweep of the St. Louis Cardinals to end July effectively pushed the Redbirds out of the pennant chase, and Danny Jackson's 12–0 rout of Cincinnati on August 29 left the Cards 10 games out and the Expos 10+12 out with one month to go.

However, another slip in September caused some columnists in the city to compare the club to the infamous 1964 team. They lost five of seven games at home to the Cubs and Astros, then lost two of three at Olympic Stadium, which brought Montreal within four games with 13 remaining.

All that was laid to rest on September 28, when the Phils clinched the NL East with a 10–7 win over in-state rival Pittsburgh at Three Rivers Stadium. Mariano Duncan hit a grand slam to lead a comeback, and little-used Donn Pall closed out the game, touching off a wild celebration for their first division crown since 1983. Outfielder Wes Chamberlain ended all the references to 1964, screaming, "It's 1993, baby! It ain't 1964. Where are those ghosts now?".[3][4] Here is Phillies announcer Harry Kalas's call of the final out of the Division-clinching game against Pittsburgh:

Ground ball, it's a fair ball! Kruk to Pall ... the Phillies are the '93 National League Eastern Division Champions! This wonderful band of throwback players have won the National League East, mobbing one another on the field.

The hit song "Whoomp! (There It Is)" became the unofficial team theme song throughout the season and postseason.[5]

Opening Day starters

Season standings

NL East W L Pct. GB Home Road
Philadelphia Phillies 97 65 0.599 52–29 45–36
Montreal Expos 94 68 0.580 3 55–26 39–42
St. Louis Cardinals 87 75 0.537 10 49–32 38–43
Chicago Cubs 84 78 0.519 13 43–38 41–40
Pittsburgh Pirates 75 87 0.463 22 40–41 35–46
Florida Marlins 64 98 0.395 33 35–46 29–52
New York Mets 59 103 0.364 38 28–53 31–50

Record vs. opponents


Sources: [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] [10] [11] [12] [13] [14]
Team ATL CHC CIN COL FLA HOU LAD MON NYM PHI PIT SD SF STL
Atlanta 7–5 10–3 13–0 7–5 8–5 8–5 7–5 9–3 6–6 7–5 9–4 7–6 6–6
Chicago 5–7 7–5 8–4 6–7 4–8 7–5 5–8–1 8–5 7–6 5–8 8–4 6–6 8–5
Cincinnati 3–10 5–7 9–4 7–5 6–7 5–8 4–8 6–6 4–8 8–4 9–4 2–11 5–7
Colorado 0–13 4–8 4–9 7–5 11–2 7–6 3–9 6–6 3–9 8–4 6–7 3–10 5–7
Florida 5–7 7–6 5–7 5–7 3–9 5–7 5–8 4–9 4–9 6–7 7–5 4–8 4–9
Houston 5–8 8–4 7–6 2–11 9–3 9–4 5–7 11–1 5–7 7–5 8–5 3–10 6–6
Los Angeles 5–8 5–7 8–5 6–7 7–5 4–9 6–6 8–4 2–10 8–4 9–4 7–6 6–6
Montreal 5–7 8–5–1 8–4 9–3 8–5 7–5 6–6 9–4 6–7 8–5 10–2 3–9 7–6
New York 3–9 5–8 6–6 6–6 9–4 1–11 4–8 4–9 3–10 4–9 5–7 4–8 5–8
Philadelphia 6-6 6–7 8–4 9–3 9–4 7–5 10–2 7–6 10–3 7–6 6–6 4–8 8–5
Pittsburgh 5–7 8–5 4–8 4–8 7–6 5–7 4–8 5–8 9–4 6–7 9–3 5–7 4–9
San Diego 4–9 4–8 4–9 7–6 5–7 5–8 4–9 2–10 7–5 6–6 3–9 3–10 7–5
San Francisco 6–7 6–6 11–2 10–3 8–4 10–3 6–7 9–3 8–4 8–4 7–5 10–3 4–8
St. Louis 6–6 5–8 7–5 7–5 9–4 6–6 6–6 6–7 8–5 5–8 9–4 5–7 8–4


Notable transactions

Game log

1993 Game Log (Overall Record: 97–65)
April (17–5)
# Date Opponent Score Win Loss Save Attendance Record
1 April 5 @ Astros 3–1 Terry Mulholland (1–0) Doug Drabek (0–1) None 44,560 1–0
2 April 6 @ Astros 5–3 Curt Schilling (1–0) Greg Swindell (0–1) Mitch Williams (1) 18,686 2–0
3 April 7 @ Astros 6–3 (10) José DeLeón (1–0) Eric Bell (0–1) Mitch Williams (2) 16,471 3–0
4 April 9 Cubs 7–11 Chuck McElroy (1–0) Ben Rivera (0–1) Randy Myers (1) 60,985 3–1
5 April 10 Cubs 5–4 Terry Mulholland (2–0) Mike Morgan (0–2) Mitch Williams (3) 21,081 4–1
6 April 11 Cubs 3–0 Curt Schilling (2–0) José Guzmán (1–1) None 21,955 5–1
7 April 12 Reds 5–4 José DeLeón (2–0) Steve Foster (0–2) Mitch Williams (4) 20,107 6–1
8 April 13 Reds 4–1 Tommy Greene (1–0) Tim Belcher (0–1) Mitch Williams (5) 20,482 7–1
9 April 14 Reds 9–2 Ben Rivera (1–1) Tom Browning (0–2) None 21,111 8–1
10 April 16 @ Cubs 1–3 Mike Morgan (1–2) Terry Mulholland (2–1) Randy Myers (2) 16,255 8–2
11 April 17 @ Cubs 3–6 José Guzmán (2–1) Curt Schilling (2–1) Randy Myers (3) 32,680 8–3
12 April 18 @ Cubs 11–10 (11) Mitch Williams (1–0) Bob Scanlan (0–2) David West (1) 28,758 9–3
13 April 20 Padres 4–3 (14) Bob Ayrault (1–0) Jeremy Hernandez (0–2) None 21,074 10–3
April 21 Padres Postponed (rain);[12] Makeup: July 2 as a traditional double-header
14 April 22 Padres 1–2 Andy Benes (3–1) Terry Mulholland (2–2) Rich Rodriguez (2) 15,826 10–4
15 April 23 Dodgers 2–0 Curt Schilling (3–1) Ramón Martínez (2–2) None 21,702 11–4
16 April 24 Dodgers 7–3 Danny Jackson (1–0) Kevin Gross (2–2) Mitch Williams (6) 37,457 12–4
17 April 25 Dodgers 5–2 Tommy Greene (2–0) Tom Candiotti (0–3) Mitch Williams (7) 53,030 13–4
18 April 26 Giants 9–8 (10) Larry Andersen (1–0) Gino Minutelli (0–1) None 17,170 14–4
19 April 27 Giants 3–6 John Burkett (5–0) Terry Mulholland (2–3) Rod Beck (7) 34,005 14–5
20 April 28 @ Padres 5–3 Curt Schilling (4–1) Greg W. Harris (1–4) Mitch Williams (8) 10,905 15–5
21 April 29 @ Padres 5–3 Danny Jackson (2–0) Frank Seminara (1–2) Mitch Williams (9) 14,399 16–5
22 April 30 @ Dodgers 7–6 Bob Ayrault (2–0) Omar Daal (0–1) Mitch Williams (10) 43,679 17–5
May (17–10)
# Date Opponent Score Win Loss Save Attendance Record
23 May 1 @ Dodgers 1–5 Tom Candiotti (1–3) Ben Rivera (1–2) None 44,023 17–6
24 May 2 @ Dodgers 9–1 Terry Mulholland (3–3) Orel Hershiser (3–3) None 41,102 18–6
25 May 4 @ Giants 4–3 (12) Larry Andersen (2–0) Dave Righetti (1–1) Mitch Williams (11) 17,725 19–6
26 May 5 @ Giants 2–11 Bill Swift (3–1) Danny Jackson (2–1) None 20,289 19–7
27 May 7 Cardinals 4–3 Tommy Greene (3–0) Joe Magrane (2–3) Mitch Williams (12) 33,739 20–7
28 May 8 Cardinals 2–1 (10) Terry Mulholland (4–3) Mike Pérez (2–2) None 40,524 21–7
29 May 9 Cardinals 6–5 Mark Davis (1–0) Lee Smith (0–1) Mitch Williams (13) 43,648 22–7
30 May 10 Pirates 5–1 Danny Jackson (3–1) Bob Walk (3–3) None 29,712 23–7
31 May 11 Pirates 4–8 Paul Wagner (1–0) Mark Davis (1–1) None 32,871 23–8
32 May 12 Pirates 4–1 Tommy Greene (4–0) Randy Tomlin (1–4) None 24,906 24–8
33 May 14 @ Braves 7–10 Tom Glavine (5–0) Terry Mulholland (4–4) Mike Stanton (14) 48,449 24–9
34 May 15 @ Braves 3–5 Greg Maddux (3–3) David West (0–1) Mike Stanton (15) 48,425 24–10
35 May 16 @ Braves 5–4 Danny Jackson (4–1) Greg McMichael (1–2) Mitch Williams (14) 48,890 25–10
36 May 17 @ Marlins 10–3 Ben Rivera (2–2) Charlie Hough (2–4) None 38,519 26–10
37 May 18 @ Marlins 6–0 Tommy Greene (5–0) Jack Armstrong (3–4) None 35,805 27–10
38 May 19 @ Marlins 3–5 Richie Lewis (2–0) Mark Davis (1–2) Bryan Harvey (12) 33,970 27–11
39 May 20 Expos 9–3 Curt Schilling (5–1) Chris Nabholz (3–4) None 28,103 28–11
40 May 21 Expos 2–6 Ken Hill (5–0) Danny Jackson (4–2) Mel Rojas (6) 41,146 28–12
41 May 22 Expos 5–6 Jeff Fassero (3–1) Mitch Williams (1–1) John Wetteland (6) 37,911 28–13
42 May 23 Expos 14–7 Terry Mulholland (5–4) Gil Heredia (1–1) David West (2) 52,911 29–13
43 May 24 Mets 6–3 Tommy Greene (6–0) Frank Tanana (2–3) None 32,568 30–13
44 May 25 Mets 4–2 Curt Schilling (6–1) Pete Schourek (2–5) None 34,578 31–13
45 May 26 Mets 4–5 John Franco (2–0) Mitch Williams (1–2) Jeff Innis (1) 33,367 31–14
46 May 28 @ Rockies 15–9 Ben Rivera (3–2) Butch Henry (2–6) None 58,312 32–14
47 May 29 @ Rockies 6–0 Terry Mulholland (6–4) Willie Blair (1–2) None 56,263 33–14
48 May 30 @ Rockies 18–1 Tommy Greene (7–0) Lance Painter (0–2) None 56,710 34–14
49 May 31 @ Reds 4–6 Jeff Reardon (1–0) Larry Andersen (2–1) Rob Dibble (4) 25,676 34–15
June (18–10)
# Date Opponent Score Win Loss Save Attendance Record
50 June 1 @ Reds 6–3 Larry Andersen (3–1) Greg Cadaret (1–1) Mitch Williams (15) 24,175 35–15
51 June 2 @ Reds 5–2 Ben Rivera (4–2) John Smiley (2–7) Mitch Williams (16) 25,904 36–15
52 June 4 Rockies 1–2 Willie Blair (2–2) Terry Mulholland (6–5) Gary Wayne (1) 43,333 36–16
53 June 5 Rockies 6–2 Tommy Greene (8–0) Armando Reynoso (3–3) None 43,837 37–16
54 June 6 Rockies 11–7 Curt Schilling (7–1) Andy Ashby (0–4) None 55,714 38–16
55 June 7 Astros 7–5 Danny Jackson (5–2) Greg Swindell (5–5) Mitch Williams (17) 26,445 39–16
56 June 8 Astros 3–6 Darryl Kile (5–1) Ben Rivera (4–3) Doug Jones (13) 24,669 39–17
57 June 9 Astros 8–0 Terry Mulholland (7–5) Pete Harnisch (6–3) None 25,389 40–17
58 June 10 @ Mets 7–6 David West (1–1) Paul Gibson (1–1) Mitch Williams (18) 22,377 41–17
59 June 11 @ Mets 5–2 Curt Schilling (8–1) Pete Schourek (2–8) None 29,594 42–17
60 June 12 @ Mets 3–0 Danny Jackson (6–2) Dwight Gooden (7–5) None 31,814 43–17
61 June 13 @ Mets 5–3 Ben Rivera (5–3) Anthony Young (0–7) Mitch Williams (19) 29,917 44–17
62 June 14 @ Expos 10–3 Terry Mulholland (8–5) Jeff Shaw (1–3) None 13,235 45–17
63 June 15 @ Expos 4–8 Brian Barnes (2–1) Tommy Greene (8–1) None 13,142 45–18
64 June 16 @ Expos 3–4 (10) Mel Rojas (2–5) David West (1–2) None 14,231 45–19
65 June 17 Marlins 1–4 Chris Hammond (7–4) Danny Jackson (6–3) Bryan Harvey (20) 38,855 45–20
66 June 18 Marlins 7–3 Ben Rivera (6–3) Ryan Bowen (4–7) None 37,925 46–20
67 June 19 Marlins 5–2 Terry Mulholland (9–5) Jack Armstrong (4–8) Mitch Williams (20) 50,391 47–20
68 June 20 Marlins 4–3 Tommy Greene (9–1) Trevor Hoffman (2–2) Mitch Williams (21) 58,508 48–20
69 June 21 Braves 1–8 Greg Maddux (7–5) Curt Schilling (8–2) None 34,817 48–21
70 June 22 Braves 5–3 Danny Jackson (7–3) Pete Smith (2–7) Mitch Williams (22) 41,557 49–21
71 June 23 Braves 8–3 Ben Rivera (7–3) John Smoltz (6–7) None 57,903 50–21
72 June 25 @ Pirates 8–6 José DeLeón (3–0) John Candelaria (0–3) Mitch Williams (23) 21,173 51–21
73 June 26 @ Pirates 2–4 Steve Cooke (5–3) Curt Schilling (8–3) None 39,439 51–22
74 June 27 @ Pirates 3–4 (10) Stan Belinda (3–0) Mitch Williams (1–3) None 27,824 51–23
75 June 28 @ Cardinals 1–3 Rhéal Cormier (5–4) Danny Jackson (7–4) Lee Smith (29) 29,199 51–24
76 June 29 @ Cardinals 13–10 Ben Rivera (8–3) Tom Urbani (0–1) None 39,344 52–24
77 June 30 @ Cardinals 3–9 Donovan Osborne (6–3) Tommy Greene (9–2) None 32,098 52–25
July (14–14)
# Date Opponent Score Win Loss Save Attendance Record
78 July 1 @ Cardinals 5–14 Bob Tewksbury (9–6) Curt Schilling (8–4) None 39,610 52–26
79 July 2 (1) Padres 2–5 Mark Ettles (1–0) Terry Mulholland (9–6) Gene Harris (13) see 2nd game 52–27
80 July 2 (2) Padres 6–5 (10) Mitch Williams (2–3) Trevor Hoffman (2–3) None 54,617 53–27
81 July 3 Padres 4–6 Greg W. Harris (8–8) Danny Jackson (7–5) Gene Harris (14) 57,521 53–28
82 July 4 Padres 8–4 Ben Rivera (9–3) Tim Worrell (0–2) None 33,379 54–28
83 July 5 Dodgers 9–5 Tommy Greene (10–2) Orel Hershiser (6–8) None 33,088 55–28
84 July 6 Dodgers 5–7 Pedro Astacio (7–4) Curt Schilling (8–5) Jim Gott (15) 32,993 55–29
85 July 7 Dodgers 7–6 (20) Mike Williams (1–0) Ricky Trlicek (0–2) None 41,730 56–29
86 July 8 Giants 2–13 Bill Swift (11–5) Danny Jackson (7–6) None 37,745 56–30
87 July 9 Giants 8–15 Bud Black (8–1) Ben Rivera (9–4) None 38,695 56–31
88 July 10 Giants 8–3 Tommy Greene (11–2) John Burkett (13–3) None 41,869 57–31
89 July 11 Giants 2–10 Bryan Hickerson (3–1) Curt Schilling (8–6) None 52,015 57–32
July 13 1993 Major League Baseball All-Star Game at Oriole Park at Camden Yards in Baltimore
90 July 15 @ Padres 2–5 Greg W. Harris (9–9) Danny Jackson (7–7) Mark Davis (1) 16,542 57–33
91 July 16 @ Padres 3–5 Pedro Martínez (1–0) Tommy Greene (11–3) Mark Davis (2) 20,763 57–34
92 July 17 @ Padres 2–4 Andy Benes (10–6) Terry Mulholland (9–7) Gene Harris (16) 32,505 57–35
93 July 18 @ Padres 6–3 Curt Schilling (9–6) Doug Brocail (2–5) Mitch Williams (24) 12,569 58–35
94 July 19 @ Dodgers 7–5 Roger Mason (1–7) Omar Daal (1–3) Mitch Williams (25) 33,615 59–35
95 July 20 @ Dodgers 8–2 Danny Jackson (8–7) Ramón Martínez (8–5) None 35,273 60–35
96 July 21 @ Dodgers 7–0 Tommy Greene (12–3) Orel Hershiser (7–9) None 47,893 61–35
97 July 22 @ Giants 1–4 John Burkett (14–4) Terry Mulholland (9–8) Rod Beck (27) 35,342 61–36
98 July 23 @ Giants 2–1 (14) David West (2–2) Mike Jackson (5–3) Mitch Williams (26) 37,095 62–36
99 July 24 @ Giants 4–5 Dave Burba (8–2) Ben Rivera (9–5) Rod Beck (28) 51,557 62–37
100 July 25 @ Giants 2–5 Bill Swift (14–5) Danny Jackson (8–8) Dave Righetti (1) 49,935 62–38
101 July 27 Cardinals 10–7 Roger Mason (2–7) Joe Magrane (8–9) Mitch Williams (27) 45,383 63–38
102 July 28 Cardinals 14–6 Terry Mulholland (10–8) Lee Guetterman (2–2) None 46,346 64–38
103 July 29 Cardinals 6–4 David West (3–2) Rob Murphy (1–5) Mitch Williams (28) 55,884 65–38
104 July 30 Pirates 2–4 Bob Walk (11–8) Ben Rivera (9–6) Stan Belinda (19) 47,406 65–39
105 July 31 Pirates 10–2 Danny Jackson (9–8) Randy Tomlin (3–8) None 48,171 66–39
August (16–11)
# Date Opponent Score Win Loss Save Attendance Record
106 August 1 Pirates 5–4 Roger Mason (3–7) Steve Cooke (5–7) Mitch Williams (29) 46,693 67–39
107 August 3 @ Braves 5–3 Terry Mulholland (11–8) Steve Avery (11–4) Mitch Williams (30) 49,102 68–39
108 August 4 @ Braves 8–9 Jay Howell (2–3) David West (3–3) Greg McMichael (4) 46,144 68–40
109 August 5 @ Braves 10–4 Ben Rivera (10–6) Greg Maddux (12–9) None 49,070 69–40
110 August 6 @ Marlins 3–4 Luis Aquino (5–6) Roger Mason (3–8) Bryan Harvey (33) 43,670 69–41
111 August 7 @ Marlins 8–7 (10) Mitch Williams (3–3) Matt Turner (2–4) None 44,689 70–41
112 August 8 @ Marlins 5–6 Charlie Hough (7–11) Terry Mulholland (11–9) Bryan Harvey (34) 43,186 70–42
113 August 10 Expos 5–2 Curt Schilling (10–6) Chris Nabholz (7–8) None 43,104 71–42
114 August 11 Expos 6–5 David West (4–3) John Wetteland (7–3) None 45,260 72–42
115 August 12 Expos 7–4 Roger Mason (4–8) Tim Scott (4–2) Mitch Williams (31) 45,002 73–42
116 August 13 Mets 9–5 Bobby Thigpen (1–0) Anthony Young (1–14) None 40,552 74–42
117 August 14 Mets 5–9 Bobby J. Jones (1–0) Danny Jackson (9–9) Jeff Innis (2) 46,393 74–43
118 August 15 Mets 5–4 David West (5–3) Anthony Young (1–15) Mitch Williams (32) 58,103 75–43
119 August 17 @ Rockies 10–7 Ben Rivera (11–6) Armando Reynoso (8–9) Mitch Williams (33) 63,183 76–43
120 August 18 @ Rockies 7–6 Bobby Thigpen (2–0) Bruce Ruffin (4–5) Mitch Williams (34) 61,056 77–43
121 August 18 @ Rockies 5–6 Marcus Moore (2–0) Roger Mason (4–9) Darren Holmes (15) 53,443 77–44
122 August 20 @ Astros 6–4 David West (6–3) Todd Jones (0–1) Mitch Williams (35) 33,080 78–44
123 August 21 @ Astros 2–3 (10) Doug Jones (4–9) Larry Andersen (3–2) None 27,507 78–45
124 August 22 @ Astros 3–7 Darryl Kile (14–4) Ben Rivera (11–7) None 28,940 78–46
125 August 23 Rockies 2–3 (13) Gary Wayne (4–3) Roger Mason (4–10) Darren Holmes (18) 40,481 78–47
126 August 24 Rockies 4–2 Danny Jackson (10–9) Willie Blair (5–10) Mitch Williams (36) 43,419 79–47
127 August 25 Rockies 8–5 Curt Schilling (11–6) Mo Sanford (1–1) None 46,448 80–47
128 August 27 Reds 5–8 Johnny Ruffin (2–1) Mitch Williams (3–4) Rob Dibble (19) 41,540 80–48
129 August 28 Reds 5–9 Scott Service (2–0) Bobby Thigpen (2–1) None 42,924 80–49
130 August 29 Reds 12–0 Danny Jackson (11–9) Tim Pugh (8–13) None 58,363 81–49
131 August 30 @ Cubs 6–10 (11) Dan Plesac (2–1) Roger Mason (4–11) None 33,276 81–50
132 August 31 @ Cubs 7–0 Ben Rivera (12–7) Mike Morgan (8–13) None 19,961 82–50
September (14–13)
# Date Opponent Score Win Loss Save Attendance Record
133 September 1 @ Cubs 4–1 Terry Mulholland (12–9) Mike Harkey (8–8) None 23,519 83–50
134 September 3 @ Reds 14–2 Tommy Greene (13–3) Bobby Ayala (5–7) None 26,157 84–50
135 September 4 @ Reds 5–6 José Rijo (13–7) Danny Jackson (11–10) Scott Service (1) 31,166 84–51
136 September 5 @ Reds 5–3 Curt Schilling (12–6) Tim Pugh (8–14) Mitch Williams (37) 28,741 85–51
137 September 6 Cubs 6–7 Mike Harkey (9–8) Mike Williams (1–1) Randy Myers (40) 30,765 85–52
138 September 7 Cubs 4–5 José Guzmán (12–10) Ben Rivera (12–8) Randy Myers (41) 27,041 85–53
139 September 8 Cubs 5–8 Greg Hibbard (12–11) David West (6–4) Randy Myers (42) 26,553 85–54
140 September 9 Cubs 10–8 Danny Jackson (12–10) José Bautista (7–3) David West (3) 25,894 86–54
141 September 10 Astros 6–2 Curt Schilling (13–6) Greg Swindell (10–12) None 31,146 87–54
142 September 11 Astros 1–4 Mark Portugal (15–4) Mike Williams (1–2) Todd Jones (2) 45,738 87–55
143 September 12 Astros 2–9 Pete Harnisch (14–8) Ben Rivera (12–9) None 46,238 87–56
144 September 13 @ Mets 5–0 Tommy Greene (14–3) Bobby J. Jones (2–3) None 17,497 88–56
145 September 14 @ Mets 4–5 Frank Tanana (7–15) Danny Jackson (12–11) John Franco (10) 18,292 88–57
146 September 15 @ Mets 6–3 Curt Schilling (14–6) Pete Schourek (3–11) Mitch Williams (38) 18,632 89–57
147 September 17 @ Expos 7–8 (12) Tim Scott (6–2) Mitch Williams (3–5) None 45,757 89–58
148 September 18 @ Expos 5–4 Tommy Greene (15–3) Denis Boucher (1–1) Mitch Williams (39) 50,438 90–58
149 September 19 @ Expos 5–6 Tim Scott (7–2) Mitch Williams (3–6) None 40,047 90–59
150 September 20 Marlins 7–1 Curt Schilling (15–6) Charlie Hough (9–16) None 31,454 91–59
151 September 21 Marlins 5–3 Donn Pall (3–3) Rich Rodriguez (2–4) Mitch Williams (40) 32,165 92–59
152 September 22 Marlins 2–1 (12) Roger Mason (5–11) Bryan Harvey (1–5) None 31,556 93–59
153 September 24 Braves 3–0 Tommy Greene (16–3) Tom Glavine (20–6) Mitch Williams (41) 57,792 94–59
154 September 25 Braves 7–9 Steve Bedrosian (5–2) Roger Mason (5–12) Greg McMichael (16) 57,146 94–60
155 September 26 Braves 2–7 Steve Avery (17–6) Curt Schilling (15–7) None 57,588 94–61
156 September 27 @ Pirates 6–4 Ben Rivera (13–9) Steve Cooke (10–10) Mitch Williams (42) 15,847 95–61
157 September 28 @ Pirates 10–7 Bobby Thigpen (3–1) Rich Robertson (0–1) None 17,386 96–61
158 September 29 @ Pirates 1–9 Bob Walk (13–14) Kevin Foster (0–1) Joel Johnston (2) 21,159 96–62
159 September 30 @ Pirates 0–5 Tim Wakefield (6–11) Tommy Greene (16–4) None 10,448 96–63
October (1–2)
# Date Opponent Score Win Loss Save Attendance Record
160 October 1 @ Cardinals 4–2 Curt Schilling (16–7) Omar Olivares (5–3) Mitch Williams (43) 26,870 97–63
161 October 2 @ Cardinals 4–5 (10) Rob Murphy (5–7) Mike Williams (1–3) None 31,501 97–64
162 October 3 @ Cardinals 0–2 Lee Guetterman (3–3) Mitch Williams (3–7) Mike Pérez (7) 40,247 97–65
  •    Phillies win
  •    Phillies loss
  •    All-Star Game
  •    Game postponed
  • Bold: Phillies team member
Source:[13]

Roster

1993 Philadelphia Phillies
Roster
Pitchers Catchers

Infielders

Outfielders Manager

Coaches

Postseason

Postseason game log

1993 Postseason Game Log (Overall Record: 6–6)
1993 National League Championship Series vs. Atlanta Braves – Philadelphia wins series 4–2
# Date Opponent Score Win Loss Save Attendance Record
1 October 6 Braves 4–3 (10) Mitch Williams (1–0) Greg McMichael (0–1) None 62,012 1–0
2 October 7 Braves 3–14 Greg Maddux (1–0) Tommy Greene (0–1) None 62,436 1–1
3 October 9 @ Braves 4–9 Tom Glavine (1–0) Terry Mulholland (0–1) None 52,032 1–2
4 October 10 @ Braves 2–1 Danny Jackson (1–0) John Smoltz (0–1) Mitch Williams (1) 52,032 2–2
5 October 11 @ Braves 4–3 (10) Mitch Williams (2–0) Mark Wohlers (0–1) Larry Andersen (1) 52,032 3–2
6 October 13 Braves 6–3 Tommy Greene (1–1) Greg Maddux (1–1) Mitch Williams (2) 62,502 4–2
1993 World Series vs. Toronto Blue Jays – Toronto wins series 4–2
# Date Opponent Score Win Loss Save Attendance Record
7 October 16 @ Blue Jays 5–8 Al Leiter (1–0) Curt Schilling (0–1) Duane Ward (3) 52,011 0–1
8 October 17 @ Blue Jays 6–4 Terry Mulholland (1–1) Dave Stewart (2–1) Mitch Williams (3) 52,062 1–1
9 October 19 Blue Jays 3–10 Pat Hentgen (1–1) Danny Jackson (1–1) None 62,689 1–2
10 October 20 Blue Jays 14–15 Tony Castillo (1–0) Mitch Williams (2–1) Duane Ward (4) 62,731 1–3
11 October 21 Blue Jays 2–0 Curt Schilling (1–1) Juan Guzmán (2–1) None 62,706 2–3
12 October 23 @ Blue Jays 6–8 Duane Ward (1–0) Mitch Williams (2–2) None 52,195 2–4
  •   Phillies win
  •   Phillies loss
  •   Game postponed
Source:[13]

National League Championship Series

Main article: 1993 National League Championship Series

Game 1

October 6: Veterans Stadium in Philadelphia

Team 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 R H E
Atlanta 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 3 9 0
Philadelphia 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 4 9 1
W: Mitch Williams (1–0)   L: Greg McMichael (0–1)   S: None
HR: ATL – None  PHIPete Incaviglia
Pitchers: ATL – Avery (6), Mercker (2), McMichael (1+13)  PHI – Schilling (8), Williams (2)
Attendance: 62,012  Time: 3:33

Game 2

October 7: Veterans Stadium in Philadelphia

Team 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 R H E
Atlanta 2 0 6 0 1 0 0 4 1 14 16 0
Philadelphia 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 1 3 7 2
W: Greg Maddux (1–0)   L: Tommy Greene (0–1)   S: None
HR: ATLFred McGriff, Jeff Blauser, Damon Berryhill, Terry Pendleton  PHIDave Hollins, Lenny Dykstra
Pitchers: ATL – Maddux (7), Stanton (1), Wohlers (1)  PHI – Greene (2+13), Thigpen (23), Rivera (2), Mason (2), West (1), Andersen (1)
Attendance: 62,346  Time: 3:14

Game 3

October 9: Atlanta–Fulton County Stadium in Atlanta

Team 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 R H E
Philadelphia 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 4 10 1
Atlanta 0 0 0 0 0 5 4 0 X 9 12 0
W: Tom Glavine (1–0)  L: Terry Mulholland (0–1)   S: None
HR: PHIJohn Kruk  ATL – None
Pitchers: PHI – Mulholland (5), Mason (1), Andersen (13), West (23), Thigpen (1)  ATL – Glavine (7), Mercker (1), McMichael (1)
Attendance: 52,032  Time: 2:44

Game 4

October 10: Atlanta–Fulton County Stadium in Atlanta

Team 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 R H E
Philadelphia 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 2 8 1
Atlanta 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 10 1
W: Danny Jackson (1–0)  L: John Smoltz (0–1)   S: Mitch Williams (1)
HR: PHI – None  ATL – None
Pitchers: PHI – Jackson (7+23), Williams (1+13)  ATL – Smoltz (6+13), Mercker (23), Wohlers (2)
Attendance: 52,032  Time: 3:33

Game 5

October 11: Atlanta–Fulton County Stadium in Atlanta

Team 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 R H E
Philadelphia 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 4 6 1
Atlanta 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 3 7 1
W: Mitch Williams (2–0)   L: Mark Wohlers (0–1)   S: Larry Andersen (1)
HR: PHIDarren Daulton, Lenny Dykstra  ATL – None
Pitchers: PHI – Schilling (8), Williams (1), Andersen (1)  ATL – Avery (7), Mercker (1), McMichael (1), Wohlers (1)
Attendance: 52,032  Time: 3:21

Game 6

October 13: Veterans Stadium in Philadelphia

Team 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 R H E
Atlanta 0 0 0 0 1 0 2 0 0 3 5 3
Philadelphia 0 0 2 0 2 2 0 0 0 6 7 1
W: Tommy Greene (1–1)   L: Greg Maddux (1–1)   S: Mitch Williams (2)
HR: ATLJeff Blauser  PHIDave Hollins
Pitchers: ATL – Maddux (5+23), Mercker (13), McMichael (23), Wohlers (1+13)  PHI – Greene (7), West (1), Williams (1)
Attendance: 62,502  Time: 3:04

World series

Main article: 1993 World Series

Game 1

October 16, 1993, at the SkyDome in Toronto, Ontario, Canada

The series' first game sent two staff aces -- Curt Schilling for Philadelphia and Juan Guzmán for Toronto—against one another. The result was less than a pitcher's duel, however, as both teams scored early and often.

The deciding plays came in the middle innings. With Toronto behind 4–3 in the 5th inning, Devon White hit a solo home run to tie the game. The next inning, John Olerud hit a solo home run of his own to put Toronto on top. Toronto added three insurance runs in the bottom of the 7th and held on to win 8–5. Al Leiter pitched 2+23 innings—in relief of a sporadic Juan Guzman, who walked four in just five innings—for his first World Series win. John Kruk had three hits for Philadelphia.

Team 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 R H E
Philadelphia 2 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 5 11 1
Toronto 0 2 1 0 1 1 3 0 X 8 10 3
W: Al Leiter (1–0)   L: Curt Schilling (0–1)  S: Duane Ward (1)
HRTOR: Devon White (1), John Olerud (1)

Game 2

October 17, 1993, at SkyDome in Toronto, Ontario, Canada

In the second game of the series, Dave Stewart was on the mound for Toronto and Terry Mulholland started for Philadelphia. Philadelphia jumped out to an early lead: in the third inning, Jim Eisenreich followed John Kruk and Dave Hollins RBI singles with a three-run home run to deep right-center. Toronto got on the scoreboard in the fourth inning courtesy of a Joe Carter two-run home run to left, but the Jays were unable to mount a significant offensive push later in the game. Philadelphia held on to win 6–4. Terry Mulholland pitched 5+23 innings, allowing 3 earned runs, for the win.

Team 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 R H E
Philadelphia 0 0 5 0 0 0 1 0 0 6 12 0
Toronto 0 0 0 2 0 1 0 1 0 4 8 0
W: Terry Mulholland (1–0)   L: Dave Stewart (0–1)  S: Mitch Williams (1)
HR: PHIJim Eisenreich (1), Lenny Dykstra (1)  TORJoe Carter (1)

Game 3

October 19, 1993, at Veterans Stadium in Philadelphia

For Toronto, Pat Hentgen faced off against Philadelphia starter Danny Jackson in Game 3. Hentgen pitched a strong 6 innings, allowing just 1 run, and the Toronto offense took care of the rest. Toronto won 10–3.

Toronto manager Cito Gaston was faced with an unusual and difficult decision prior to game time. As the series switched the National League ballpark, Gaston was forced to sit one player from his regular lineup as the designated hitter (DH) would not be allowed to play. As regular DH Paul Molitor had been a hot hand in the lineup, Gaston elected to sit firstbaseman John Olerud and place Molitor at first base. The decision was potentially controversial as Olerud led the American League in batting during the year with a .363 average and Molitor was the less sure-handed fielder. Molitor, however, put these concerns to rest, going 3 for 4, hitting a home run in the 3rd inning, and driving in 3 runs.

Team 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 R H E
Toronto 3 0 1 0 0 1 3 0 2 10 13 1
Philadelphia 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 3 9 0
W: Pat Hentgen (1–0)   L: Danny Jackson (0–1)  
HR: TORPaul Molitor (1)  PHIMilt Thompson (1)

Game 4

October 20, 1993, at Veterans Stadium in Philadelphia

In the fourth game of the series, Todd Stottlemyre started for Toronto while Tommy Greene started for Philadelphia. The starters are notable because neither lasted three innings.

In one of the more unusual plays in World Series history, Todd Stottlemyre, trying to go first to third on a Roberto Alomar single in the 2nd inning, did a bellyflop diving into third base, where he was called out. Todd's awkward dive resulted in an abrasion on his chin and appeared to shake him up in the next inning, during which he surrendered a Lenny Dykstra two-run home run. Stottlemyre was pulled after the second inning, having already given up six runs. (Tommy Greene fared little better, being pulled after giving up seven runs in 2+13 innings.)

Philadelphia took a commanding 12–7 lead in the 5th inning, courtesy of two-run home runs from Darren Daulton and Dykstra, and a run-scoring double from Milt Thompson.

Toronto fought back from a 14–9 deficit in the 8th inning, scoring six runs on run-scoring hits from Paul Molitor, Tony Fernández, Rickey Henderson, and Devon White. Duane Ward pitched the final 1+13 innings, preserving the 15–14 victory. Three new World Series records included the longest game at four hours fourteen minutes (4:14), most runs by both clubs with twenty-nine (29), and runs scored by a losing team with fourteen (14).

Also, Charlie Williams became the first African American to serve as the home plate umpire for a World Series game.

Team 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 R H E
Toronto 3 0 4 0 0 2 0 6 0 15 18 0
Philadelphia 4 2 0 1 5 1 1 0 0 14 14 0
W: Tony Castillo (1–0)   L: Mitch Williams (0–1)  S: Duane Ward (2)
HR: PHILenny Dykstra 2 (3), Darren Daulton (1)

Game 5

October 21, 1993, at Veterans Stadium in Philadelphia

The offenses were due for an off-day, and it came in Game 5 courtesy of a Curt Schilling (Philadelphia) and Juan Guzmán (Toronto) pitching duel. Schilling shut down the previously unstoppable Toronto offense, limiting the team to just five hits and no runs. Guzman pitched well in a losing effort, allowing only two runs and five hits in seven innings of work.

The two runs scored as a result of scrappy play from the Philadelphia offense. In the first inning, Lenny Dykstra walked, stole second, moved to third on a Pat Borders throwing error, and scored on a John Kruk ground out. In the second inning, Darren Daulton opened with a double, took third on a ground out, and scored on a Kevin Stocker single.

This would be the Phillies' final victory in a postseason game until their championship winning 2008 season.

Team 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 R H E
Toronto 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 1
Philadelphia 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 X 2 5 1
W: Curt Schilling (1–1)   L: Juan Guzmán (1–1)  

Game 6

October 23, 1993, at SkyDome in Toronto, Ontario, Canada

[15]

The sixth game in the series was a rematch between Game 2 starters Terry Mulholland and Dave Stewart, who would have similar results. Toronto opened up the scoring in the bottom of the first with a run-scoring Paul Molitor triple, Joe Carter sacrifice fly, and Roberto Alomar RBI single. Molitor added a solo home run in the 5th inning, bringing the score to 5–1 for Toronto.

In the 7th inning, Philadelphia fought back with five runs to take a 6–5 lead. Lenny Dykstra hit a three-run home run, Dave Hollins had an RBI single and Pete Incaviglia hit a sacrifice fly. The inning brought an end to Dave Stewart's night, leaving the game with 6 innings pitched and 4 runs given up.

Philadelphia closer Mitch Williams came on to the pitch the bottom of the 9th with Philadelphia clinging to a 6–5 lead. After beginning the inning by walking Rickey Henderson, Williams tried to counter Henderson's speed by pitching out of a slide-step style of pitching delivery. Prior to Game 6 of the 1993 World Series, Williams never used the slide-step delivery in his career. This may have cut back on the velocity of the hard throwing Williams. The walk to Henderson was followed by a Devon White fly out and a single by Paul Molitor. Joe Carter came up next and, on a two strike pitch, he hit an inside pitch just over the left field fence, giving the Blue Jays a come-from-behind 8–6 victory, and the World Series crown.

Team 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 R H E
Philadelphia 0 0 0 1 0 0 5 0 0 6 7 0
Toronto 3 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 3 8 10 2
W: Duane Ward (1–0)   L: Mitch Williams (0–2)  
HR: PHILenny Dykstra (4)  TORPaul Molitor (2), Joe Carter (2)

Awards and honors

1993 Major League Baseball All-Star Game

Team leaders

Player stats

Batting

Starters by position

Note: Pos = Position; G = Games played; AB = At bats; H = Hits; Avg. = Batting average; HR = Home runs; RBI = Runs batted in

Pos Player G AB H Avg. HR RBI
C Darren Daulton 147 510 131 .257 24 105
1B John Kruk 150 535 169 .316 14 85
2B Mickey Morandini 120 425 105 .247 3 33
SS Kevin Stocker 70 259 84 .324 2 31
3B Dave Hollins 143 543 148 .273 18 93
LF Milt Thompson 129 340 89 .262 4 44
CF Lenny Dykstra 161 637 194 .305 19 66
RF Jim Eisenreich 153 362 115 .318 7 54

Other batters

Note: Pos = Position; G = Games played; AB = At bats; H = Hits; Avg. = Batting average; HR = Home runs; RBI = Runs batted in

Pos Player G AB H Avg. HR RBI
MI Mariano Duncan 124 496 140 .282 11 73
LF Pete Incaviglia 116 368 101 .274 24 89
RF Wes Chamberlain 96 284 80 .282 12 45
1B Ricky Jordan 90 159 46 .289 5 18
IF Kim Batiste 79 156 44 .282 5 29
C Todd Pratt 33 87 25 .287 5 13
SS Juan Bell 24 65 13 .200 0 7
OF Rubén Amaro 25 48 16 .333 1 6
3B Jeff Manto 8 18 1 .056 0 0
LF Tony Longmire 11 13 3 .231 0 1
IF Joe Millette 10 10 2 .200 0 2
C Doug Lindsey 2 2 1 .500 0 0

Pitching

Starting pitchers

Note: G = Games pitched; IP = Innings pitched; W = Wins; L = Losses; ERA = Earned run average; SO = Strikeouts

Player G IP W L ERA SO
Curt Schilling 34 235.1 16 7 4.02 186
Danny Jackson 32 210.1 12 11 3.77 120
Tommy Greene 31 200.0 16 4 3.42 167
Terry Mulholland 29 191.0 12 9 3.25 116
Ben Rivera 30 163.0 13 9 5.02 123

Relief pitchers

Note: G = Games pitched; IP = Innings pitched; W = Wins; L = Losses; SV = Saves; ERA = Earned run average; SO = Strikeouts

Player G IP W L SV ERA SO
Mitch Williams (Closer) 65 62.0 3 7 43 3.34 60
David West 76 86.1 6 4 3 2.92 87
Larry Andersen 64 61.2 3 2 0 2.92 67
Roger Mason 34 49.2 5 5 0 4.89 32
Mark Davis 25 31.1 1 2 0 5.17 28
Bobby Thigpen 17 19.1 3 1 0 6.05 10
Bob Ayrault 10 10.1 2 0 0 9.58 8
Donn Pall 8 17.2 1 0 0 2.55 11
Tim Mauser 8 16.1 0 0 0 4.96 14
Brad Brink 2 6.0 0 0 0 3.00 8
Paul Fletcher 1 0.1 0 0 0 0.00 0

Other pitchers

Note: G = Games pitched; IP = Innings pitched; W = Wins; L = Losses; ERA = Earned run average; SO = Strikeouts

Player G IP W L ERA SO
Mike Williams 17 51.0 1 3 5.29 33
José DeLeón 24 47.0 3 0 3.26 34
Tyler Green 3 7.1 0 0 7.36 7
Kevin Foster 2 6.2 0 1 14.85 6

Farm system

See also: Minor League Baseball

Level Team League Manager
AAA Scranton/Wilkes-Barre
Red Barons
International League Lee Elia
AA Reading Phillies Eastern League Don McCormack
A Clearwater Phillies Florida State League Bill Dancy
A Spartanburg Phillies South Atlantic League Roy Majtyka
A-Short Season Batavia Clippers New York–Penn League Al LeBoeuf
Rookie Martinsville Phillies Appalachian League Ramon Henderson

LEAGUE CHAMPIONS: Clearwater[14]

References

  1. ^ "1993 Philadelphia Phillies Batting Statistics".
  2. ^ "1993 Philadelphia Phillies Pitching Statistics".
  3. ^ Westcott, Rich (1994). Phillies '93: an incredible season. Philadelphia: Temple University Press. p. 73. ISBN 9781566392310.
  4. ^ Fitzpatrick, Frank (September 29, 1993). "A Grand Way to Win Duncan, Phillies Clinch NL East". Philadelphia Inquirer. p. D1.
  5. ^ Bell, Christopher (2002). Scapegoats: Baseballers Whose Careers Are Marked by One Fateful Play. McFarland. p. 150.
  6. ^ a b Mark Davis at Baseball Reference
  7. ^ Juan Bell at Baseball Reference
  8. ^ Wayne Gomes at Baseball Reference
  9. ^ Scott Rolen at Baseball Reference
  10. ^ Tim Mauser at Baseball Reference
  11. ^ Bobby Thigpen at Baseball Reference
  12. ^ "Major League Standings". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. April 22, 1993. p. C5. Retrieved January 26, 2015.
  13. ^ a b "1993 Philadelphia Phillies Schedule, Box Scores and Splits". Baseball-Reference.com.
  14. ^ Johnson, Lloyd, and Wolff, Miles, ed., The Encyclopedia of Minor League Baseball, 2nd and 3rd editions. Durham, North Carolina: Baseball America, 1997 and 2007