2002 Winter OlympicsDeath and funeral of Queen Elizabeth The Queen MotherEast Timor independenceEuro2002 FIFA World CupD.C. sniper attacks2002 Überlingen mid-air collisionDepartment of Homeland Security
From left, clockwise: The 2002 Winter Olympics are held in Salt Lake City; Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother and her daughter Princess Margaret, Countess of Snowdon die; East Timor gains independence from Indonesia and is admitted to the United Nations; an Armenian postage stamp depicts the 2002 FIFA World Cup, which was held in South Korea and Japan; the United States Department of Homeland Security is created in the wake of the September 11 attacks to counter further terrorist threats against the United States; the 2002 Überlingen mid-air collision kills 71 people; FBI agents investigate a crime scene related to the D.C. sniper attacks; the Euro becomes the official currency of the European Union.
Millennium: 3rd millennium

2002 (MMII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2002nd year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 2nd year of the 3rd millennium and the 21st century, and the 3rd year of the 2000s decade.

Since the September 11 attacks of the previous year, foreign policy and international relations have been generally united in combatting al-Qaeda and other terrorist organizations. The United States especially was a leading force in combatting terrorist groups. 2002 also saw the signing and establishment of many international agreements and institutions, most notably the International Criminal Court, the African Union, the Russian-American Strategic Offensive Reductions Treaty, and the Eurozone.

The global economy, partly due to the September 11 attacks, generally stagnated or declined. Stock indices, such as the American Dow Jones Industrial Average and the Japanese Nikkei 225 both ended the year lower than they had started. In the later parts of 2002, the world saw the beginning of a SARS epidemic, which would go on to affect mostly China, Europe, and North America.[1][2]

Prominent deaths in 2002 included world leaders Hugo Banzer, John Gorton, Fernando Belaúnde and Ne Win. The British royal family in particular saw two major funerals, that of Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother and Princess Margaret. The year witnessed the passing of film figures Chuck Jones, Billy Wilder, María Félix and Rod Steiger; and musicians Layne Staley, John Entwistle and Joe Strummer. 2002 also marked the births of actors Jenna Ortega and Finn Wolfhard, as well as athletes Pedri and Emma Raducanu.


See also: Category:2002 births and Deaths in 2002

The world population on January 1, 2002, was estimated to be 6.272 billion people, and it increased to 6.353 billion people by January 1, 2003.[3] An estimated 134.0 million births and 52.5 million deaths took place in 2002.[3] The average global life expectancy was 67.1 years, an increase of 0.3 years from 2001.[3] The rate of child mortality was 7.05%, a decrease of 0.27pp from 2001.[4] 26.85% of people were living in extreme poverty, a decrease of 1.40pp from 2000.[5]

The number of global refugees was approximately 12 million at the beginning of 2002, but it declined to 10.3 million by the end of the year. Approximately 2.4 million refugees were repatriated in 2002, of which 2 million were Afghan. 293,000 additional refugees were displaced in 2002, primarily from Liberia, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Burundi, Somalia, Ivory Coast, and the Central African Republic.[6]


Further information: Category:Conflicts in 2002

There were 31 armed conflicts in 2002. This was a net decrease from the previous year: seven conflicts ended in 2001, while conflicts in Angola, Congo, and Ivory Coast began or resumed in 2002.[7] The deadliest conflicts in 2002 were those in Burundi, Colombia, Kashmir, Nepal, and Sudan.[7] Among developed nations in 2002, and in the United States in particular, national defense shifted toward counterterrorism after the September 11 attacks and the invasion of Afghanistan the previous year. Conflicts in Afghanistan, Chechnya, Israel, and the Philippines were directly related to countering Islamic terrorism.[8]: 87 

Internal conflicts

The Colombian conflict escalated after far-left insurgents occupied demilitarized zones and kidnapped Íngrid Betancourt, effectively ending peace talks. The insurgents began bombing cities, and over 200,000 Colombians were displaced by the conflict in 2002.[8]: 91–92  The Nepalese Civil War escalated in 2002, with casualties approximately equaling the combined totals from 1996–2001; half of this increase was civilian casualties, as civilians were targeted by both the Nepali government and the communist insurgents.[8]: 88–89  Chechen insurgents in Russia escalated their attacks during the Second Chechen War, destroying a Russian Mil Mi-26 in August and causing a hostage crisis in Moscow.[8]: 93–94  The Second Liberian Civil War also escalated, causing widespread displacement of civilians.[9]: 90 

Conflicts that were resolved in 2002 include the Eelam War III in Sri Lanka, which was halted with a ceasefire agreement on February 24,[8]: 98  and the Angolan Civil War, which was resolved in April with a ceasefire between the Angolan government and UNITA.[9]: 89  Internationally brokered peace talks advanced in the Second Sudanese Civil War[8]: 102  some factions of the Somali Civil War,[8]: 106  and the Second Congo War, with the latter producing an agreement on December 17 to create a Congolese transitional government.[8]: 100–101  Afghanistan underwent its first year without direct military conflict in over two decades, though sporadic attacks were carried out by the Taliban insurgency and Al-Qaeda.[9]: 256 

International conflicts

The only direct conflict between national governments in 2002 was the India–Pakistan standoff in Kashmir,[7] beginning in late 2001 and continuing until May 2002. This conflict was primarily one of brinkmanship, with the threat of nuclear warfare.[8]: 88 

The Second Intifada continued in 2002 between the Israel Defense Forces and Palestinian paramilitary groups. In response to suicide bombings against Israeli civilians, Israel carried out Operation Defensive Shield in March.[9]: 413  Under this operation, Israel occupied much of West Bank,[9]: 413  and it and briefly held Palestinian president Yasser Arafat under house arrest.[8]: 95  The Battle of Jenin was particularly destructive, with the United Nations finding both parties to be irresponsible regarding collateral damage.[8]: 96 



Main article: 2002 in art

The Documenta11 exhibition took place in Kassel, Germany, contributing to the early movement of art globalization with its focus on experimental and documentary works from developing nations.[10] Critically acclaimed paintings in 2002 include The Upper Room, a collection of paintings by Chris Ofili based on a drawing of a monkey by Andy Warhol,[11] and Dispersion, an abstract work by Julie Mehretu.[12]


Main articles: 2002 in film, 2002 in music, and 2002 in video games

The highest-grossing films globally in 2002 were The Lord of the Rings: The Two Towers, Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets, and Spider-Man. The highest-grossing non-English film was Hero (Mandarin), the 28th highest-grossing film of the year.[13] Film was marked by several unexpected successes and failures in 2002, including the underwhelming performances of a Star Wars film, a James Bond film, and a Disney film, and the word-of-mouth success of My Big Fat Greek Wedding.[14] Critically acclaimed films from 2002 include Adaptation,[15][16][17] Far from Heaven,[16][17][18] and Talk to Her.[16][17][18]

Music sales in 2002 amounted to about 3 billion units, a decline of 8% from 2001. CD albums remained the dominant form of music, making up 89% of the market. DVD music sales increased by 40%, while cassette tape music sales decreased by 36%.[19] Pop music saw a major decline in 2002 as it was overtaken by country music and hip hop music.[20] Globally, the best-selling albums in 2002 were The Eminem Show by Eminem, Let Go by Avril Lavigne, and the Elvis Presley greatest hits album ELV1S: 30 No. 1 Hits. The best-selling non-English album was Mensch (transl. Human) by German singer Herbert Grönemeyer, the 29th best-selling album overall.[21]

Critically acclaimed video games released in 2002 include Eternal Darkness, Grand Theft Auto: Vice City, Metroid Prime, Metroid Fusion, and Super Mario Sunshine.[22][23][24] Medal of Honor: Allied Assault was influential in the war-based first-person shooter genre with its portrayal of grand cinematic battles. 2002 was the final year of traditional survival horror before it was overtaken by action-based survival horror games in franchises such as Resident Evil.[25]


Main article: 2002 in sports

The 2002 Winter Olympics were held in Salt Lake City, with Norway winning the most gold medals. Allegations that a figure skating judge was bribed to favor Russia in a figure skating event led to France and Russia both receiving gold medals in the event.[26] In boxing, the Lennox Lewis vs. Mike Tyson was preceded by a scuffle during a press conference. Lennox Lewis went on to defeat Mike Tyson.[26] In American football, the Tuck Rule Game between the New England Patriots and the Oakland Raiders became a national controversy after officials cited the obscure tuck rule to challenge a pass by Tom Brady.[27]


Further information: Category:2002 in economics

See also: 2002 world oil market chronology

International trade increased by 1.9% in 2002, correcting from a decrease in 2001.[28]: 11  Most countries experienced only limited growth of output and employment in the year, and economic policy within the largest economies focused primarily on combating inflation.[28]: 1  The gross world product increased by 1.7%, the second lowest growth in a decade after that of 2001.[28]: 2  Most developed nations began 2002 in a budget surplus and ended in a deficit.[28]: 8  Growth was focused in the first half of the year before tapering in the second half[28]: 35  as stock markets entered into a downturn.[29] The early 2000s recession began to stabilize in the final months of the year.[28]: 1 

The price drops associated with the September 11 attacks persisted for several months into 2002.[28]: 7  Latin American economies with large deficits were severely affected by lower prices, limiting export growth and preventing capital from entering the region, requiring further increases to the deficit.[28]: 3  The region overall saw a negative GDP in 2002.[28]: 4  Imports grew significantly in East Asia, with China competing with the United States as one of the largest export markets for other countries in the region.[28]: 12  Imports in Latin America and Africa decreased compared to the previous year.[28]: 13 

Several companies in the United States underwent major scandals in 2002, including the WorldCom scandal that led to what was then the largest bankruptcy in American history, and accounting scandals emerging from the previous year's Enron scandal.[29]

Environment and weather

Main articles: 2002 in the environment and Weather of 2002

See also: List of earthquakes in 2002 and Tropical cyclones in 2002

2002 was the second hottest year on record, exceeded only by 1998.[30] There was below average precipitation in 2002, with droughts in Australia, northern China, India, and western United States. Heavy rains in late 2002 caused significant flooding in eastern and southeastern Asia.[30]

The 2002 Atlantic hurricane season saw 12 named storms. This number was slightly higher than average, though most of them were relatively minor. The season also began later than any other in recorded history, with Hurricane Gustav inaugurating the hurricane season on September 11. Hurricane Lili was the first hurricane to make landfall in the United States since 1999, and it was the deadliest hurricane in 2002, killing four people in Saint Vincent.[31] The 2002 Pacific typhoon season entailed a typical number of typhoons, but they were above average in intensity with 46% of typhoons reaching "intense strength". Typhoon Rusa was the deadliest typhoon in 2002, killing at least 113 people in South Korea.[32]


Further information: Category:2002 in health

The World Health Organization (WHO) recognized "reducing risks" and "promoting healthy life" as its health concern of focus in the 2002 World Health Report.[33]


Main article: 2002 in politics

Brazil, Lesotho, and Senegal established democracy in 2002 through the acceptance of fair elections, while Bahrain and Kenya moved toward democracy through the strengthening of political institutions. Democracy was disestablished in Ivory Coast and Togo following mass political violence and unfair elections, respectively.[34]: 14  Afghanistan underwent significant liberalization under a transitional government, particularly in the capital of Kabul, though distant regions of the country remained oppressed by warlords.[34]: 15  Civil rights also increased following the end of conflicts in Angola, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Macedonia.[34]: 15–16  Turkey lessened its restrictions on the country's Kurdish population in 2002.[34]: 16 

U.S. President George W. Bush defined an "axis of evil" in an address in January, naming Iran, Iraq, and North Korea as foreign adversaries. Increasing tensions between Iraq and the United States became a major geopolitical issue in 2002 amid suspicions that Iraq had resumed its production of weapons of mass destruction. The United Nations delivered an ultimatum for Iraq to comply with weapons inspections in late 2002.[35]

In Latin America, the great depression in Argentina continued into 2002, causing significant political turmoil. Venezuela also underwent political crisis with an attempted coup against President Hugo Chávez in April and a national strike against his administration later in the year.[35]

Science and technology

Main article: 2002 in science

See also: 2002 in spaceflight

Major biological advances in 2002 include the discovery of small RNA, the genome sequence for indica rice, the genome sequences for malaria carriers anopheles gambiae and plasmodium falciparum, understanding of TRP channels in taste, understanding of the role of light in a circadian rhythm, the 3D imagery of cells, and the discovery of a potential human ancestor from millions of years before the present.[36]

In physics, solar neutrinos were discovered to change flavor, and recordings were captured of electrons.[36]

61 successful and four failed space launches took place in 2002. NASA launches included the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager, the Aqua research satellite, and a Polar Operational Environmental Satellite.[37] Study with the Cosmic Background Imager revealed a more detailed image of cosmic background radiation, and telescopes were able to counteract the scattering effect of Earth's atmosphere through adaptive optics.[36]














Nobel Prizes


  1. ^ "Nikkei 225 Index - 67 Year Historical Chart". www.macrotrends.net. Retrieved December 21, 2022.
  2. ^ "Dow Jones - DJIA - 100 Year Historical Chart". www.macrotrends.net. Retrieved December 21, 2022.
  3. ^ a b c World Population Prospects 2022 (Report). United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs. 2022.
  4. ^ Roser, Max; Ritchie, Hannah; Dadonaite, Bernadeta (May 10, 2013). "Child and Infant Mortality". Our World in Data.
  5. ^ Hasell, Joe; Roser, Max; Ortiz-Ospina, Esteban; Arrigada, Pablo (October 17, 2022). "Poverty". Our World in Data.
  6. ^ "2002 Statistics summary". The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. June 20, 2003. Retrieved March 28, 2023.
  7. ^ a b c Eriksson, Mikael; Wallensteen, Peter; Sollenberg, Margareta (2003). "Armed Conflict, 1989-2002". Journal of Peace Research. 40 (5): 593–607. ISSN 0022-3433.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Wiharta, Sharon; Anthony, Ian (2003). "Major armed conflicts". SIPRI Yearbook 2003: Armaments, Disarmament and International Security. Stockholm International Peace Research Institute. pp. 87–108. ISBN 978-0-19-926570-1.
  9. ^ a b c d e Gordon, Kathryn (ed.). Yearbook of the United Nations, 2002. Vol. 56. United Nations.
  10. ^ "The Exhibitions That Defined the 2000s". ARTnews. December 8, 2020. Okwui Enwezor: Making the Art World Global. Retrieved March 29, 2023.
  11. ^ Searle, Adrian; Jones, Jonathan; O’Hagan, Sean; Judah, Hettie (September 17, 2019). "The best art of the 21st century". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved March 29, 2023.
  12. ^ "12 Masterpieces of 21st-Century Painting You Need to Know Now". Artspace. Retrieved March 29, 2023.
  13. ^ "2002 Worldwide Box Office". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved March 29, 2023.
  14. ^ Boyar, Jay (December 28, 2002). "2002 Year in Review". Orlando Sentinel. Retrieved March 29, 2023.
  15. ^ Ebert, Roger (December 31, 2002). "The Best 10 Movies of 2002". rogerebert.com. Retrieved March 29, 2023.
  16. ^ a b c Scott, A. O. (December 29, 2002). "Film: The Year in Review -- The Critics/The 10 Best; Ravished, Again, by Almodóvar". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved March 29, 2023.
  17. ^ a b c Phipps, Keith; Rabin, Nathan; Tobias, Scott (January 15, 2003). "The Year In Film: 2002". The A.V. Club. Retrieved March 29, 2023.
  18. ^ a b "The 21st Century's 100 greatest films". BBC. August 19, 2016. Retrieved March 29, 2023.
  19. ^ The Recording Industry World Sales (PDF) (Report). IFPI. 2003. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 3, 2016. Retrieved March 28, 2023.
  20. ^ Strauss, Neil (December 26, 2002). "The Year That Pop Lost Popularity; In the Roster of No. 1 CD's, Extreme Genres Led the Pack". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved March 29, 2023.
  21. ^ "2000-2005 Top 50 Albums [XLS]". IFPI. Archived from the original on November 5, 2006. Retrieved March 29, 2023. ((cite web)): |archive-date= / |archive-url= timestamp mismatch; March 23, 2012 suggested (help)
  22. ^ "Let's Remember How Amazing 2002 Was For Video Games". Kotaku. July 1, 2022. Retrieved March 29, 2023.
  23. ^ Fox, Tanner (April 4, 2022). "10 Greatest Video Games Of 2002, According To Metacritic". ScreenRant. Retrieved March 29, 2023.
  24. ^ "The 100 Best Video Games and PC Games From the 2000s". Complex. Retrieved March 29, 2023.
  25. ^ Smith, Ed (June 9, 2016). "Why 2002 Was Possibly the Most Important Year in Video Gaming History". Vice. Retrieved March 29, 2023.
  26. ^ a b "2002 World Sports Highlights". Top End Sports. Retrieved March 29, 2023.
  27. ^ Kaufman, King (January 1, 2003). "2002: The year in sports". Salon. Retrieved March 29, 2023.
  28. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k World Economic Situation and Prospects 2003 (Report). United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs. January 20, 2003. ISBN 92-1-109144-6.
  29. ^ a b Geller, Adam (December 20, 2002). "2002's Hottest Business Stories". CBS News. Retrieved March 30, 2023.
  30. ^ a b Annual 2002 Global Climate Report (Report). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. 2003. Retrieved March 30, 2023.
  31. ^ Pasch, Richard J.; Lawrence, Miles B.; Avila, Lixion A.; Beven, John L.; Franklin, James L.; Stewart, Stacy R. (July 1, 2004). "Atlantic Hurricane Season of 2002". Monthly Weather Review. 132 (7): 1829–1859. doi:10.1175/1520-0493(2004)132<1829:AHSO>2.0.CO;2. ISSN 1520-0493.
  32. ^ Saunders, Mark; Lea, Adam (January 17, 2003). "Summary of 2002 NW Pacific Typhoon Season and Verification of Authors' Seasonal Forecasts" (PDF). Tropical Storm Risk. University College London.
  33. ^ World Health Report: 2002 (Report). World Health Organization. September 11, 2002. ISBN 92-4-156207-2. ISSN 1020-3311.
  34. ^ a b c d Karatnycky, Adrian (2003). "Liberty's Expansion in a Turbulent World". Freedom in the World 2003: The Annual Survey of Political Rights and Civil Liberties (PDF). Rowman & Littlefield. pp. 14–16. ISBN 978-0-7425-2870-3.
  35. ^ a b Getz, Arlene (December 25, 2002). "The Top Stories Of 2002". Newsweek. Retrieved March 30, 2023.
  36. ^ a b c "Science's Top Ten: Discovery Of Genes' "Control Switches" Named Top Advance Of 2002". ScienceDaily. December 23, 2002. Retrieved March 30, 2023.
  37. ^ "NASA - Space Flight 2002 - The Year in Review". NASA. Retrieved March 30, 2023.
  38. ^ Maxwell, David (October 7, 2021). "Lessons from the Philippines: Irregular Warfare in Action". Modern War Institute. Retrieved December 12, 2022.
  39. ^ Bora, Kukil (December 8, 2014). "Russia To Conduct Observation Flight Over US Under Open Skies Treaty". International Business Times. Retrieved January 27, 2017.
  40. ^ "Celebrations as euro hits the streets". BBC News. January 1, 2002. Retrieved January 27, 2017.
  41. ^ "The euro becomes the sole legal tender in all euro area countries". European Central Bank. February 28, 2002. Retrieved January 27, 2017.
  42. ^ Carroll, Matt; Pfeiffer, Sacha; Rezendes, Michael; Robinson, Walter V. (January 6, 2002). "Church allowed abuse by priest for years". The Boston Globe. Retrieved March 12, 2023.
  43. ^ "Case study - volcanic eruption in a developing country: Mt Nyiragongo - Volcanoes and volcanic eruptions - Edexcel - GCSE Geography Revision - Edexcel". BBC Bitesize. Retrieved March 22, 2021.
  44. ^ Momodu, Samuel (January 16, 2017). "The Sierra Leone Civil War (1991–2002) | The Black Past: Remembered and Reclaimed". Black Past. Retrieved January 27, 2017.
  45. ^ "Toll in Blast at Nigerian Armory Exceeds 1,000". The New York Times. February 3, 2002. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved December 12, 2022.
  46. ^ "Turkey: Afyon earthquake - Final report". Reliefweb. United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs. October 6, 2003. Retrieved December 11, 2022.
  47. ^ "Queen helps CBC TV mark 50th anniversary". CBC. October 11, 2002. Retrieved June 4, 2016.
  48. ^ "Salt Lake City 2002 Winter Olympics - results & video highlights". International Olympic Committee. October 13, 2016. Retrieved December 10, 2016.
  49. ^ "The Trial of Slobodan Milosevic". The New York Times. February 11, 2002. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved January 27, 2017.
  50. ^ "Bahrain now a monarchy". Deseret News. February 15, 2002. Retrieved December 12, 2022.
  51. ^ Long, Tony (January 19, 2002). "Odyssey Turns Its Cameras on Mars". Wired. Retrieved January 27, 2017.
  52. ^ "Horror on Egypt fire train". CNN. February 20, 2002. Retrieved December 12, 2022.
  53. ^ "Savimbi 'died with gun in hand'". BBC News. February 25, 2002. Retrieved June 4, 2016.
  54. ^ Dugger, Celia W. (February 22, 2002). "Sri Lanka and Rebels Sign Cease-Fire Agreement". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved December 11, 2022.
  55. ^ Sirilal, Ranga (January 2, 2008). "Sri Lanka ends ceasefire with Tamil Tigers". Reuters. Retrieved December 11, 2022.
  56. ^ "Godhra train burning case accused held after 19 years". The Hindu. February 16, 2021. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved December 11, 2022.
  57. ^ Ghosh, Sohini (July 1, 2022). "Gulberg Society case: 69 dead, 30 missing, all those convicted out on bail". The Indian Express. Retrieved December 11, 2022.
  58. ^ "Congo: Over 2,300 Ninjas surrender in recent days". ReliefWeb. April 29, 2003. Retrieved December 12, 2022.
  59. ^ "New satellite will monitor global warming". The Guardian. March 1, 2002. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved January 27, 2017.
  60. ^ Carroll, Rory (March 4, 2002). "Switzerland decides to join UN". The Guardian. Retrieved December 11, 2022.
  61. ^ Geibel, Adam (2002). "Operation Anaconda, Shah-i-Khot Valley, Afghanistan, 2-10 March 2002". Military Review. 82 (3): 72–77.
  62. ^ "Saudi police 'stopped' fire rescue". March 15, 2002. Retrieved December 12, 2022.
  63. ^ "Afghanistan: Earthquake Appeal No.10/02 Operations Update No. 5". ReliefWeb. United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs. April 1, 2004. Retrieved December 11, 2022.
  64. ^ Friedman, Matti (March 27, 2012). "Ten years after Passover blast, survivors return to Park Hotel". The Times of Israel. Retrieved January 27, 2017.
  65. ^ Whitaker, Brian (August 2, 2002). "UN report details West Bank wreckage". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved January 27, 2017.
  66. ^ "afrol News - Third autonomous region breaks with Somalia". afrol News. April 2, 2002. Retrieved December 12, 2022.
  67. ^ Session I: Jenin: What Actually Happened? (Report). Institute for National Security Studies. January 1, 2003. pp. 15–22. Retrieved December 12, 2022.
  68. ^ Guardia, Anton La (April 4, 2002). "Bloody siege of Bethlehem". The Telegraph. Archived from the original on January 11, 2022. Retrieved June 4, 2016.
  69. ^ "Israeli tanks roll across West Bank". CNN. April 3, 2002. Retrieved December 12, 2022.
  70. ^ Butcher, Tim (April 5, 2002). "Unita signs peace treaty with Angolan army to end 27-year civil war". The Telegraph. Archived from the original on January 11, 2022. Retrieved January 27, 2017.
  71. ^ Jones (2008:327–8)
  72. ^ Nelson, Brian A. (2009). The silence and the scorpion : the coup against Chávez and the making of modern Venezuela (online ed.). New York: Nation Books. pp. 23–25. ISBN 978-1568584188.
  73. ^ "Esposa de Gebauer espera publicación en Gaceta de Ley de Amnistía". El Universal (in Spanish). January 2, 2008. Retrieved January 31, 2010. Otto Gebauer fue imputado por el delito de insubordinación y privación ilegítima de libertad al coronel Hugo Chávez Frías,
  74. ^ "Veneconomía" (PDF) (in Spanish). March 15, 2006. Archived (PDF) from the original on October 9, 2022. Retrieved January 29, 2010.
  75. ^ Rey, J. C. (2002), "Consideraciones políticas sobre un insólito golpe de Estado" Archived 3 January 2009 at the Wayback Machine, pp. 1–16; cited in Cannon (2004:296); "In 2002, Venezuela's military and some of its business leaders ousted President Chavez from power and held him hostage." (N. Scott Cole (2007), "Hugo Chavez and President Bush's credibility gap: The struggle against US democracy promotion", International Political Science Review, 28(4), p498)
  76. ^ Bellos, Alex (April 15, 2002). "Chavez rises from very peculiar coup". The Guardian. Retrieved February 8, 2015.
  77. ^ "Major Attacks Against Synagogues Around the Globe". VOA. October 27, 2018. Retrieved December 11, 2022.
  78. ^ Forero, Juan (April 14, 2002). "A Chávez Comeback More Astounding Than His Fall". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved December 11, 2022.
  79. ^ Grace, Francie (April 16, 2002). "Search Continues At Korean Crash Site". CBS News. Archived from the original on October 31, 2014. Retrieved June 4, 2016.
  80. ^ "Afronaut mourns his 'bride'". BBC News. May 28, 2002. Retrieved June 4, 2016.
  81. ^ Voge, Steven Grattan,Cady. "Bojaya massacre: After 17 years, victims' remains returned". Al Jazeera. Retrieved December 11, 2022.((cite web)): CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  82. ^ a b "Timeline: Recent attacks in Russia". Reuters. March 31, 2010. Retrieved December 11, 2022.
  83. ^ "Russia's space dreams abandoned". BBC News. May 13, 2002. Retrieved October 4, 2019.
  84. ^ Ahmad, Mukhtar (May 14, 2002). "33 killed in suicide attack in Jammu". Rediff. Retrieved December 11, 2022.
  85. ^ "East Timor celebrates as a nation is born". The Age. May 20, 2002. Retrieved January 27, 2017.
  86. ^ "Bush, Putin sign arms deal". CNN. May 24, 2002. Retrieved January 27, 2017.
  87. ^ Bradsher, Keith (May 25, 2002). "Taiwanese Airliner With 225 Aboard Crashes in Sea". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved November 3, 2014.
  88. ^ Murray, Scott (May 31, 2002). "The opening ceremony: as it happened". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved January 27, 2017.
  89. ^ "Brazil crowned world champions". BBC News. June 30, 2002. Retrieved January 27, 2017.
  90. ^ "2002 FIFA World Cup Korea/Japan". fifa.com. Retrieved October 11, 2020.
  91. ^ "(50000) Quaoar = 2002 LM60". Minor Planet Center. International Astronomical Union. Retrieved December 11, 2022.
  92. ^ "Syrian dam collapses". BBC News. June 4, 2002. Retrieved December 12, 2022.
  93. ^ Bosker, A.J. (September 17, 2002). "Near-Earth Objects Pose Threat, General Says". Space Daily. Retrieved June 4, 2016.
  94. ^ Giaimo, Cara (June 10, 2015). "Nervous System Hookup Leads to Telepathic Hand-Holding". Atlas Obscura. Retrieved January 27, 2017.
  95. ^ "Afghanistan ratified a new constitution on 26 Jan 2004". Archived from the original on November 27, 2010.
  96. ^ CIA World Factbook 2003
  97. ^ "Iran: Qazvin/Hamadan Area Earthquake - Information Bulletin n° 1". ReliefWeb. United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs. June 22, 2002. Retrieved December 11, 2022.
  98. ^ Hancock, David (June 24, 2002). "200 Dead In Tanzania Train Wreck". CBS News. Retrieved June 4, 2016.
  99. ^ Ministry of National Defense, Republic of Korea (July 1, 2002). "The Naval Clash on the Yellow Sea on 29 June 2002 between South and North Korea". Global Security.
  100. ^ Longman, Jere (July 1, 2002). "Ronaldo's Sweetest Vindication". The New York Times. Retrieved May 22, 2010.
  101. ^ "US renounces world court treaty". BBC News. May 6, 2002. Retrieved January 27, 2017.
  102. ^ "Information regarding the air accident at Überlingen on 1 July 2002". November 10, 2009. Archived from the original on November 10, 2009. Retrieved June 4, 2016.
  103. ^ "African Union replaces dictators' club". BBC News. July 8, 2002. Retrieved June 4, 2016.
  104. ^ Pollack, Andrew (July 12, 2002). "Traces of Terror: The Science; Scientists Create a Live Polio Virus". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved December 11, 2022.
  105. ^ Tremlett, Giles (July 18, 2002). "Spanish troops recapture Parsley island". The Guardian. Retrieved December 12, 2022.
  106. ^ Ahmad, Mukhtar (July 13, 2002). "29 killed in militant attack in Jammu". Rediff. Retrieved December 11, 2022.
  107. ^ Chen, Na (July 14, 2002). "Dolphin QiQi is Gone, but Research will Continue". Chinese Academy of Sciences. Retrieved December 7, 2022.
  108. ^ Stepanenko, Svetlana (August 21, 2002). "Deadly Performance. Ukrainian Militarys Prestige Crashes on Lvov Airfield". The Current Digest of the Russian Press. 54 (30): 16. Retrieved March 24, 2011.
  109. ^ "Chechen gets life for killing 127 Russian soldiers". The Guardian. April 30, 2004. Retrieved December 11, 2022.
  110. ^ Shah, Anup (September 7, 2002). "World Summit on Sustainable Development". Global Issues. Retrieved January 27, 2017.
  111. ^ International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (September 9, 2002). DPR Korea: Typhoon Rusa Information Bulletin No. 2/2002 (Report). United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs. Retrieved July 31, 2012.
  112. ^ Guy Carpenter (January 30, 2003). Tropical Cyclone Review 2002 (PDF) (Report). Marsh & McLennan Companies. p. 21. Archived from the original (PDF) on February 6, 2012. Retrieved July 25, 2012.
  113. ^ "With Admission of Switzerland, United Nations Family Now Numbers 190 Member States". United Nations. September 10, 2002. Retrieved January 27, 2017.
  114. ^ "Ivory Coast: Turmoil in a troubled country". CBC News. Retrieved January 27, 2017.
  115. ^ Wilfried Haeberli; et al. (September 8, 2017). "The Kolka-Karmadon rock/ice slide of 20 September 2002". Journal of Glaciology. 50 (171). Cambridge University Press: 533–546.
  116. ^ "Accused in 2002 Akshardham temple attack in Gujarat arrested". The Hindu. November 26, 2018. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved December 11, 2022.
  117. ^ Alfred, Randy (September 25, 2009). "Mysterious Meteorite Dazzles Siberia". Wired. Retrieved June 4, 2016.
  118. ^ "Senegal Marks Anniversary of Ferry Disaster Amid Court Cases". Voice of America. November 1, 2009. Retrieved June 4, 2016.
  119. ^ "Unanimous Assembly Decision Makes 191st United Nations Member State". United Nations. Retrieved June 4, 2016.
  120. ^ Melvin, Neil (2019). The Foreign Military Presence in the Horn of Africa Region (PDF) (Report). Stockholm International Peace Research Institute. p. 20. Retrieved December 12, 2022.
  121. ^ "Bali death toll set at 202". BBC News. February 19, 2003. Retrieved June 4, 2016.
  122. ^ Steele, Nick Paton Walsh Jonathan (October 23, 2002). "Chechen gunmen storm Moscow theatre". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved January 27, 2017.
  123. ^ "Bahrain: parliamentary elections Al-Nuwab, 2002". archive.ipu.org. Retrieved December 11, 2022.
  124. ^ "Dozens killed in Vietnam blaze". BBC News. October 29, 2002. Retrieved December 12, 2022.
  125. ^ Daly, Emma (November 8, 2002). "Gibraltar Rejects Power-Sharing Between Britain and Spain". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 4, 2016.
  126. ^ a b "Iraq Weapons Inspections Fast Facts". CNN. March 4, 2016. Retrieved January 27, 2017.
  127. ^ Martinez, Marta Rodriguez; Llach, Laura (November 14, 2022). "'Terrifying cocktail': Spain's worst environmental disaster, 20 years". Euronews. Retrieved December 11, 2022.
  128. ^ Feng, Dan; de Vlas, Sake J.; Fang, Li-Qun; Han, Xiao-Na; Zhao, Wen-Juan; Sheng, Shen; Yang, Hong; Jia, Zhong-Wei; Richardus, Jan Hendrik; Cao, Wu-Chun (November 2009). "The SARS epidemic in mainland China: bringing together all epidemiological data". Tropical Medicine & International Health. 14 (Suppl 1): 4–13. doi:10.1111/j.1365-3156.2008.02145.x. PMC 7169858. PMID 19508441.
  129. ^ "Summary of probable SARS cases with onset of illness from 1 November 2002 to 31 July 2003". World Health Organization. 2004. Archived from the original on June 24, 2011. Retrieved June 24, 2011.
  130. ^ Astill, James (November 30, 2002). "The truth behind the Miss World riots". The Guardian. Retrieved December 11, 2022.
  131. ^ "Bush signs landmark security act". BBC News. November 25, 2002. Retrieved January 27, 2017.
  132. ^ Sher, Hanan (2003). "Israel". The American Jewish Year Book. 103: 183–280. ISSN 0065-8987. JSTOR 23605545.
  133. ^ Tran, Mark; agencies (December 23, 2002). "Iraqi fighters shot down drone, says US". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved January 27, 2017.
  134. ^ Anderson, David M. (2003). "Briefing: Kenya's Elections 2002: The Dawning of a New Era?". African Affairs. 102 (407): 331–342. doi:10.1093/afraf/adg007. ISSN 0001-9909. JSTOR 3518682.