2018 Italian general election

← 2013 4 March 2018 2022 →

All 630 seats in the Chamber of Deputies (C· 315 seats in the Senate (S)
Opinion polls
Registered46,505,350 (C· 42,780,033 (S)
Turnout33,923,321 (C· 72.9% (Decrease2.3 pp)
31,231,814 (S· 73.0% (Decrease2.1 pp)
Results by party
  First party Second party Third party
 
Luigi Di Maio 2018 camera.jpg
MatteoSalvini2018 (cropped).jpg
MatteoRenzi2018 (cropped).jpg
Leader Luigi Di Maio Matteo Salvini Matteo Renzi
Party Five Star Movement League Democratic Party
Alliance Centre-right Centre-left
Leader since 23 September 2017 15 December 2013 15 December 2013
Leader's seat Acerra (C) Lazio (S) Florence (S)
Seats won 227 (C· 112 (S) 125 (C· 58 (S) 112 (C· 53 (S)
Seat change Increase114 (C· Increase58 (S) Increase109 (C· Increase39 (S) Decrease80 (C· Decrease57 (S)
Popular vote 10,732,066 (C)
9,733,928 (S)
5,698,687 (C)
5,321,537 (S)
6,161,896 (C)
5,783,360 (S)
Percentage 32.7% (C)
32.2% (S)
17.4% (C)
17.6% (S)
18.8% (C)
19.1% (S)
Swing Increase7.1 pp (C)
Increase8.4 pp (S)
Increase13.3 pp (C)
Increase13.3 pp (S)
Decrease6.6 pp (C)
Decrease8.3 pp (S)

  Fourth party Fifth party Sixth party
 
Silvio Berlusconi 2018 (cropped).jpg
Giorgia Meloni daticamera 2018 (cropped).jpg
Pietro Grasso Senato (cropped).jpg
Leader Silvio Berlusconi Giorgia Meloni Pietro Grasso
Party Forza Italia Brothers of Italy Free and Equal
Alliance Centre-right Centre-right
Leader since 16 November 2013 8 March 2014 3 December 2017
Leader's seat Did not run Latina (C) Sicily (S)
Seats won 104 (C· 57 (S) 32 (C· 18 (S) 14 (C· 4 (S)
Seat change Increase1 (C· Decrease41 (S) Increase25 (C· Increase18 (S) New party
Popular vote 4,596,956 (C)
4,358,004 (S)
1,429,550 (C)
1,286,606 (S)
1,114,799 (C)
991,159 (S)
Percentage 14.0% (C)
14.4% (S)
4.4% (C)
4.3% (S)
3.4% (C)
3.3% (S)
Swing Decrease7.6 pp (C)
Decrease7.9 pp (S)
Increase2.5 pp (C)
Increase2.4 pp (S)
New party
Results by coalition
Party % Seats +/–
Chamber of Deputies
Centre-right

37.00 265 +140
Five Star Movement

32.68 227 +118
Centre-left

22.85 122 -223
Free and Equal

3.38 14 New
MAIE

[a] 1 -1
USEI

[a] 1 0
Senate
Centre-right

37.50 137 +20
Five Star Movement

32.22 112 +58
Centre-left

23.00 60 -63
Free and Equal

3.28 4 New
Aosta Valley

[b] 1 0
MAIE

[a] 1 -1
USEI

[a] 1 0
This lists parties that won seats. See the complete results below.
2018 Italian general election - Chamber of Deputies - Single-member constituencies - Candidates strength.svg
2018 Italian general election - Chamber of Deputies - Single-member constituencies - Lists strength.svg
2018 Italian general election - Senate - Single-member constituencies - Candidates strength.svg
2018 Italian general election - Senate - Single-member constituencies - Lists strength.svg
Prime Minister before Prime Minister after the election
Paolo Gentiloni
Democratic Party
Giuseppe Conte
Independent

The 2018 Italian general election was held on 4 March 2018 after the Italian Parliament was dissolved by President Sergio Mattarella on 28 December 2017.[1] Voters were electing the 630 members of the Chamber of Deputies and the 315 elective members of the Senate of the Republic for the 18th legislature of the Italian Republic since 1948. The election took place concurrently with the Lombard and Lazio regional elections.[2] No party or coalition gained an absolute majority in the parliament, even though the centre-right coalition won a plurality of seats as a coalition, and the Five Star Movement (M5S) won a plurality of seats as an individual party.[3]

The centre-right coalition, whose main party was the right-wing League led by Matteo Salvini, emerged with a plurality of seats in the Chamber of Deputies and in the Senate, while the anti-establishment M5S led by Luigi Di Maio became the party with the largest number of votes. The centre-left coalition, led by former Prime Minister Matteo Renzi of the governing Democratic Party (PD), came third;[4][5] however, no political group or party won an outright majority, resulting in a hung parliament.[3]

The 2018 Italian government formation lasted three months and the Conte I Cabinet was formed on 1 June between the M5S and the League, whose leaders both became deputy prime ministers in a populist coalition government led by the M5S-linked independent Giuseppe Conte as Prime Minister of Italy.[6] The 2019 Italian government crisis started when the League withdrew its support of the government and the coalition ended with Conte's resignation on 20 August.[7] A new M5S-led coalition was formed with the centre-left PD and the Free and Equal left-wing parliamentary group, with Conte at its head, on 5 September 2019.[8][9] Amid the 2021 Italian government crisis, the Conte II Cabinet was replaced by a national unity government headed by Mario Draghi.[10]

Background

In the 2013 Italian general election held in March, none of the three main alliances (the centre-right coalition led by Silvio Berlusconi, the centre-left coalition led by Pier Luigi Bersani, and the anti-establishment, populist Five Star Movement (M5S) led by Beppe Grillo) won an outright majority in the Italian Parliament. After a failed attempt to form a government by Bersani, then-secretary of the Democratic Party (PD), and Giorgio Napolitano's reluctantly-accepted second term as President of Italy in the 2013 Italian presidential election held in April, Enrico Letta, Bersani's deputy, received the task of forming a grand coalition government. The Letta Cabinet consisted of the PD, Berlusconi's The People of Freedom (PdL), Civic Choice (SC), the Union of the Centre (UDC), and the Italian Radicals (RI).[11]

On 16 November 2013, Berlusconi launched the new Forza Italia (FI), named like the previous Forza Italia party (1994–2009).[12] Additionally, Berlusconi announced that FI would be opposed to Letta's government, causing the split from the PdL/FI of a large group of deputies and senators led by Minister of Interior Angelino Alfano, who launched the alternative New Centre-Right (NCD) party and remained loyal to the government,[13] which also came to include the Populars for Italy (PpI).[14][15][16]

Following the election of Matteo Renzi as secretary of the PD in December 2013, there were persistent tensions culminating in Letta's resignation as Prime Minister in February 2014.[17] The Renzi Cabinet was based on the same coalition, including the NCD, but in a new fashion.[18] The new Prime Minister had a strong mandate from the PD, which was reinforced in May by the party's strong showing in the 2014 European Parliament election in Italy;[19] the 2015 Italian presidential election resulted in the election of Sergio Mattarella, a former PD member, as the president of Italy in January.[20] While in power, Renzi implemented several reforms, including the Italian electoral law of 2015 (Italicum) that would be declared partially unconstitutional by the Constitutional Court of Italy in January 2017 and replaced by the Italian electoral law of 2017 (Rosatellum),[21][22] and a relaxation of labour and employment laws known as the Jobs Act with the intention of boosting economic growth that would also found by the same court to be partially unconstitutional in September 2018,[23][24][25] which was upheld in July 2020,[26][27] plus a thorough reform of the public administration, the simplification of the civil trial, the recognition of same-sex unions (not marriages), and the abolition of several minor taxes.[28][29][30]

As a result of the Libyan Civil War, a major problem faced by Renzi was the high level of illegal immigration to Italy. During his tenure, there was an increase in the number of immigrants rescued at sea being brought to southern Italian ports, prompting criticism from the M5S, FI, and the Northern League,[31][32] and causing a loss of popularity for Renzi.[33] Into 2016, opinion polls registered the PD's strength, the growth of the M5S, the Northern League, and Brothers of Italy (FdI), FI's decline, SC's disappearance, and the replacement of Left Ecology Freedom (SEL) with Italian Left (SI).[34]

Matteo Renzi announcing his resignation after the 2016 constitutional referendum result
Matteo Renzi announcing his resignation after the 2016 constitutional referendum result

In the 2016 Italian constitutional referendum, a constitutional reform proposed by Renzi's government and duly approved by Parliament was rejected 59% to 41%.[35][36] Under the reform, the Senate would have been composed of 100 members, of which 95 are regional representatives and five are presidential appointees.[37][38][39] Following defeat in December 2016, Renzi stepped down as Prime Minister and was replaced by Minister of Foreign Affairs Paolo Gentiloni,[40] another PD member and deputy.[41]

In early 2017, in opposition to Renzi's policies, some left-wing PD members led by Bersani, Massimo D'Alema, and Roberto Speranza launched, along with SI splinters, the Democratic and Progressive Movement (MDP).[42][43] Contextually, the NCD was transformed into Popular Alternative (AP).[44] In April, Renzi was re-elected secretary of the PD and became the party's candidate for Prime Minister,[45] defeating Minister of Justice Andrea Orlando and the governor of Apulia Michele Emiliano.[46][47]

In May 2017, Matteo Salvini was re-elected federal secretary of the Northern League and launched his own bid.[48][49] Under Salvini, the party had emphasised Euroscepticism, opposition to immigration, and other right-wing populist policies.[50] His aim had been to re-launch it as a nationalist party, withering any notion of northern separatism. This focus became particularly evident in December 2017, when the party (Lega Nord) presented its new electoral logo dropping Nord ("Northern").[51] That same month, the League per Salvini Premier was founded as a sister party to promote Salvini's candidature as Prime Minister. Political commentators have since described it as a parallel party of the League, with the aim of politically replacing the latter, which had been burdened by a statutory debt of €49 million.[52][53][54]

In September 2017, Luigi Di Maio was selected as candidate for Prime Minister and political head of the M5S, replacing Grillo;[55][56] in the following months, Grillo was accused by critics of continuing to play his role as de facto leader of the party, while an increasingly important, albeit unofficial, role was assumed by Davide Casaleggio, son of Gianroberto, a web strategist who founded the M5S along with Grillo in 2009 and died in 2016.[57][58][59] In January 2018, Grillo separated his own blog from the movement; his blog was used in the previous years as an online newspaper of the M5S and the main propaganda tool.[60] This event was seen by many as the proof that Grillo was slowly leaving politics.[61]

The autumn registered some major developments to the left of the political spectrum. In November, the RI, Forza Europa, and individual liberals launched a joint list named More Europe (+E), led by the long-time RI leader Emma Bonino.[62] In December, the MDP, SI, and Possible launched a joint list named Free and Equal (LeU) under the leadership of Pietro Grasso, the president of the Senate and former anti-mafia prosecutor.[63] That same month, the Italian Socialist Party, the Federation of the Greens, Civic Area, and Progressive Area formed a list named Together in support of the PD,[64] and the Communist Refoundation Party, the Italian Communist Party, social centres, minor parties, local committees, associations, and groups launched a far-left joint list named Power to the People (PaP) under the leadership of Viola Carofalo.[65][66]

In late December 2017, the centrist post-NCD Popular Alternative (AP), which had been a key coalition partner for the PD, divided itself among those who wanted to return into the centre-right's fold and those who supported Renzi's coalition. Two groups of AP splinters (one led by Maurizio Lupi and the other by Enrico Costa) formed, along with Direction Italy, Civic Choice, Act!, Cantiere Popolare, and the Movement for the Autonomies, a joint list within the centre-right named Us with Italy (NcI).[67] The list was later enlarged to the Union of the Centre and other minor parties.[68] The remaining members of the AP, Italy of Values, Centrists for Europe, Solidary Democracy, and minor groups joined forces in the pro-PD Popular Civic List (CP) led by Minister of Health Beatrice Lorenzin.[69]

On 28 December 2017, President Mattarella dissolved the parliament and a new general election was called for 4 March 2018.[70]

On 21 February 2018, Marco Minniti, the Italian Minister of the Interior, warned: "There is a concrete risk of the mafias conditioning electors' free vote."[71] The Sicilian Mafia have been active in Italian election meddling; the Camorra and 'Ndrangheta organisations have also taken an interest.[72]

In late February 2018, Berlusconi indicated Antonio Tajani, the president of the European Parliament, as his candidate for the premiership if the centre-right coalition won the general election,[73] and if FI achieved a plurality of the votes inside the coalition, condition that did not occur, resulting in a victory of the League, the party led by Salvini.[74]

Campaign

The first phase of the electoral campaign was marked by the statement of President Mattarella to parties for the presentation of "realistic and concrete" proposals during the traditional end of the year's message, in which he also expressed the wish for a high participation in the ballot.[75]

Electoral programmes

Renzi speaking at Lingotto convention
Renzi speaking at Lingotto convention

The electoral programme of the PD included, among the main points, the introduction of a minimum hourly wage of €10, a measure that would affect 15% of workers, that is those workers who do not adhere to the national collective agreements, plus a cut of the contributory wedge for permanent contracts, a relocation allowance and an increase in subsidies for the unemployed, a monthly allowance of €80 for parents for each minor child, fiscal detraction of €240 for parents with children, and the progressive reduction of the rates of IRPEF and IRES, respectively the income tax and the corporate tax.[76][77][78] Regarding immigration, which had been a major problem in Italy for the previous years, the PD advocated a reduction in migrant flows through bilateral agreements with the countries of origin and pretended to a halt to European Union funding for countries like Hungary and Poland that have refused to take in any of the 600,000 migrants who have reached Italy through the Mediterranean over the past four years.[79] Among the PD's allies, the CP proposed free nursery schools, a tax exemption for corporate welfare, and other measures regarding public health, including the contrast to the long waiting list in hospitals, the abolition of the so-called "supertickets", and an extension of home care for the elderly.[80] +E advocated the re-launch of the process of European integration and federalisation of the European Union towards the formation of the United States of Europe.[81] This was also supported by the PD, with the PD's leader Renzi saying the United States of Europe is the future.[82] In opposition to the PD's policies implemented by Minister of Interior Marco Minniti, +E advocated the social integration of migrants.[83]

Berlusconi in Trento during the electoral campaign
Berlusconi in Trento during the electoral campaign

The main proposal of the centre-right coalition was a tax reform based on the introduction of a flat tax; for Berlusconi, it was initially based on the lowest current rate (23%) with the threshold raised to €12,000, then proceeding to a gradual reduction of the rate, while according to Salvini the tax rate should be only 15%. The economic newspaper Il Sole 24 Ore estimated the cost of this measure at around €25 billion per year calculated with a 20% rate, or €40 billion with 15%.[84] Berlusconi also proposed the cancellation of IRAP, a tax on productivity, plus increase of minimum pensions to €1,000, the introduction of a "dignity income" to fight poverty, the end of contribution on youth recruitment, changes to the Fornero Law, which regulated pensions, and the launch of a Marshall Plan for Africa to reduce illegal immigration to Italy.[85] Within FI, there were some representatives of the Animalist Movement led by Michela Vittoria Brambilla, whose main focus was the banning of fur clothing and stricter controls in circuses, free veterinary care, and the establishment of an ombudsman for animal rights.[86] The League proposed the complete replacement of the Fornero Law and the possibility of retirement with 41 years of contributions, the "scrapping" of tax records for taxpayers in difficulty, an operation that should yield up to €35 billion to the state, and the disbandment of Equitalia, the company that deals with the collection of taxes, plus the abolition of the limit on the use of cash and the regularization of prostitution;[87] moreover, Salvini's main aim was a drastic reduction of illegal immigration by reintroducing border controls, blocking arrivals, and repatriating all migrants who have no right to stay in Italy.[88] The FdI proposed free nurseries, a check for €400 per month for newborns up to the six years old to increase population growth, parental leave paid to 80% up to the sixth year of birth, increase in salaries and equipment to law enforcement, the increased use of the Italian Army as a measure to fight crime, and a new law on self-defense.[89]

The M5S presented a programme whose main points are the introduction of a basic income, known as "income of citizenship", to fight poverty, a measure that would cost between €15 and €20 billion annually, plus the cut of the public debt by 40 points in relation to GDP in ten years, the adoption of measures to revitalise youth employment, a cut in pensions of over €5,000 net not entirely based on the contribution method, the reduction of IRPEF rates and the extension of the income tax threshold, the increase in spending on family welfare measures from 1.5 to 2.5% of GDP, and a constitutional law that obliges members of parliament to resign if they intend to change party.[90] Di Maio also proposed a legislative simplification, starting with the elimination of almost 400 laws with a single legislative provision.[91]

LeU focused on the so-called right to study, proposing in particular the abolition of tuition fees for students who take the exams regularly, with the estimated cost for the state budget of €1.6 billion. LeU also proposed the reintroducing the Workers' Statute, which offered protections that were eliminated by the Renzi government's Jobs Act, plus fighting tax evasion, corruption, and organised crime.[92]

Macerata murder and subsequent attack

See also: Macerata shooting and Murder of Pamela Mastropietro

Salvini speaking at the final rally of his electoral campaign in Milan
Salvini speaking at the final rally of his electoral campaign in Milan

On 3 February 2018, a drive-by shooting event occurred in the city of Macerata, Marche, in Central Italy, where six African migrants were seriously wounded.[93] Luca Traini, a 28-year-old local man, was arrested and charged with attempted murder, and was also charged for the attack against the local headquarters of the ruling PD party.[94] After the attack, Traini reportedly had an Italian flag draped on his shoulders and raised his arm in the fascist salute.[95] Traini stated that the attack was "revenge" for Pamela Mastropietro, an 18-year-old Roman woman whose dismembered body had been found few days earlier, stuffed into two suitcases and dumped in the countryside; for this, three Nigerian drug dealers were arrested, the main suspect being Innocent Oseghale, a 29-year-old failed asylum seeker.[96][97][98] Missing body parts had sparked allegations of the murder having been a muti killing also involving cannibalism.[99][100][101]

The case sparked anger and anti-immigrant sentiment in Macerata. Traini's lawyer reported "alarming solidarity" for Traini expressed by the populace,[102] while Mastropietro's mother publicly thanked Traini for "lighting a candle" for her daughter.[103] A second autopsy of the girl's remains, published after the attack against the African migrants, revealed that Mastropietro had been strangled, stabbed, and then flayed while still alive.[104][105] The murder of Mastropietro and the attack by Traini, and their appraisal by Italian media and the public were "set to become a decisive factor" in the national elections.[106]

Traini was a member and former local candidate of the League, and many political commentators, intellectuals, and politicians criticized Salvini in connection with the attack, accusing him of having "spread hate and racism" in the country. Roberto Saviano, the notable anti-mafia writer, labeled Salvini as the "moral instigator" of Traini's attack.[107] Salvini responded to critics by accusing the centre-left government of responsibility for Mastropietro's death through allowing migrants to stay in the country and having "blood on their hands", asserting that the blame lies with those who "fill [Italy] with illegal immigrants".[108]

Prime Minister Gentiloni stated that he "trusts in the sense of responsibility of all political forces. Criminals are criminals and the state will be particularly harsh with anyone that wants to fuel a spiral of violence." Gentiloni added that "hate and violence will not divide Italy".[109] Minister Minniti condemned the attack against the Africans, saying that any political party must "ride the hate".[110] Renzi, whose party was also accused about its position on immigration, stated that "calm and responsibility" from all political forces would now be necessary.[111] In the constituency of Macerata, the centre-right coalition, led by the League, won a plurality of the votes in the ballot, electing candidate Tullio Patassini, and showed an increase from 0.4% of the vote in 2013 to 21% in 2018, five years later.[112]

Main parties' slogans

Party Original slogan English translation Refs
Democratic Party Avanti, insieme "Forward, Together" [113][114]
Five Star Movement Partecipa, Scegli, Cambia "Participate, Choose, Change" [115][116]
Forza Italia Onestà, Esperienza, Saggezza "Honesty, Experience, Wisdom" [117][118]
League Prima gli Italiani "Italians First" [119][120]
Free and Equal Per i molti, non per i pochi "For the Many, Not the Few" [121][122]
Brothers of Italy Il voto che unisce l'Italia "The Vote that Unites Italy" [123][124]
More Europe Più Europa, serve all'Italia "More Europe, Italy Needs It" [125][126]
Together Insieme è meglio "Together Is Better" [127][128]
Popular Civic List Il vaccino contro gli incompetenti "The Vaccine Against the Incompetents" [129][130]
Power to the People Potere al Popolo "Power to the People" [131][132]
CasaPound Vota più forte che puoi "Vote As Strong As You Can" [133][134]

Electoral debates

Differently from many other Western world countries, electoral debates between parties' leaders are not so common before general elections in Italy;[135][136] the last debate between the two main candidates to premiership dated back to the 2006 Italian general election between Silvio Berlusconi and Romano Prodi.[137] With few exceptions, almost every main political leader had denied his participation to an electoral debate with other candidates,[138] preferring interviews with TV hosts and journalists;[139][140][141] however, many debates took places between other leading members of the main parties.[142]

2018 Italian general election debates
Date Organiser Moderator     P  Present    NI  Non-invitee   A  Absent invitee 
Centre-left Centre-right M5S LeU
7 November La7
(Di Martedì)
Giovanni Floris P
Renzi
NI A
Di Maio
NI
12 December Rai 3
(#cartabianca)
Bianca Berlinguer P
Martina
P
Brunetta
NI NI
16 January Rai 3
(#cartabianca)
Bianca Berlinguer P
Orlando
P
De Girolamo
NI NI
30 January Rai 3
(#cartabianca)
Bianca Berlinguer P
Emiliano
P
Fedriga
NI NI
13 February La7
(Otto e mezzo)
Lilli Gruber NI P
Salvini
NI P
Boldrini
13 February Rai 3
(#cartabianca)
Bianca Berlinguer P
Lorenzin
NI P
Giarrusso
NI
27 February Rai 3
(#cartabianca)
Bianca Berlinguer NI P
De Girolamo
NI P
Speranza

New electoral system

See also: Italian electoral law of 2017

Palazzo Montecitorio, seat of the Chamber of Deputies

As a consequence of the 2016 Italian constitutional referendum and of two different sentences of the Constitutional Court of Italy, the electoral laws for the two houses of the Italian Parliament lacked uniformity. In October 2017, the PD, AP, FI, the League, and minor parties agreed on a new electoral law,[143] which was approved by the Chamber of Deputies with 375 votes in favour and 215 against[144] and by the Senate with 214 votes against 61; the reform was opposed by the M5S, the MDP, SI, FdI and minor parties.[145]

The so-called Rosatellum bis,[146] named after Ettore Rosato (PD leader in the Chamber of Deputies), is a mixed electoral system, with 37% of seats allocated using a first-past-the-post (FPTP) voting and 63% using the proportional largest remainder method, with one round of voting.[147][148] The 630 deputies were to be elected as follows:[149]

The 315 elective senators were to be elected as follows:[149]

A small, variable number of senators for life were to be members of the Senate.

Electoral package sent to an Italian voter in South America
Electoral package sent to an Italian voter in South America

For Italian residents, each house members were to be elected in single ballots, including the constituency candidate and his/her supporting party lists. In each single-member constituency, the deputy or senator is elected on a plurality basis, while the seats in multi-member constituencies are allocated nationally. In order to be calculated in single-member constituency results, parties need to obtain at least 1% of the national vote. In order to receive seats in multi-member constituencies, parties need to obtain at least 3% of the national vote. Elects from multi-member constituencies would come from closed lists.[150]

The voting paper, which is a single one for the first-past-the-post and the proportional systems, shows the names of the candidates to single-member constituencies and in close conjunction with them the symbols of the linked lists for the proportional part, each one with a list of the relative candidates.[151] The voter was able to cast their vote in three different ways:[152]

Coalitions and parties

Lists with parliamentary representation

Below are the main electoral lists that are running in the election.[153]

Coalition List Main ideology Leader Contested
constituencies
Seats in 2013 Seats in 2018
C S C S Total C S Total
Centre-left coalition Democratic Party (PD)[c] Social democracy Matteo Renzi
28
20
297
111
408
281
98
379
Popular Civic List (CP)[d] Centrism Beatrice Lorenzin
28
0
29
29
58
Together (IEI)[e] Progressivism Giulio Santagata
27
19
6
3
9
More Europe (+E)[f] Liberalism Emma Bonino
28
20
6
0
6
6
1
7
Centre-right coalition Forza Italia (FI)[g] Liberal conservatism Silvio Berlusconi
27
19
98
98
196
56
48
104
Us with ItalyUDC (NcI–UDC)[h] Christian democracy Raffaele Fitto
28
20
31
20
51
League (Lega)[i] Right-wing populism Matteo Salvini
28
20
18
18
36
15
13
28
Brothers of Italy (FdI) National conservatism Giorgia Meloni
27
19
9
0
9
12
3
15
Five Star Movement (M5S) Populism Luigi Di Maio
29
21
109
54
163
88
35
123
Free and Equal (LeU)[j] Social democracy Pietro Grasso
28
20
37
7
44
46
19
65
Italian Republican PartyALA (PRI–ALA) Liberalism Denis Verdini
13
11
0
13
13
South Tyrolean People's PartyPATT (SVP–PATT) Regionalism Philipp Achammer
1
1
5
4
9
4
3
7

Lists without parliamentary representation

List Main ideology Leader Contested
constituencies
C S
Power to the People (PaP)[k] Communism Viola Carofalo
28
20
CasaPound (CPI) Neo-fascism Simone Di Stefano
28
20
The People of Family (PdF) Christian right Mario Adinolfi
26
18
Italy for the Italians (IAI)[l] Neo-fascism Roberto Fiore
21
14
Human Value Party (PVU) Humanism Pasquale Ruga
18
12
Communist Party (PC) Communism Marco Rizzo
16
13
For a Revolutionary Left (PSR)[m] Trotskyism Claudio Bellotti
13
10
10 Times Better (10VM) Liberalism Andrea Dusi
14
People's List for the Constitution (LdP) Left-wing populism Antonio Ingroia
9
7
National Bloc for Freedoms (BNL)[n] Monarchism Massimo Mallucci
5
Great North (GN) Regionalism Marco Reguzzoni
4
2
Autodetermination[o] Autonomism Anthony Muroni
1
1
Pact for Autonomy (PpA) Autonomism Massimo Moretuzzo
1
1

Opinion polling

Main article: Opinion polling for the 2018 Italian general election

Six-point average trend line of poll results from 25 February 2013 to election day, with each line corresponding to a political party .mw-parser-output .div-col{margin-top:0.3em;column-width:30em}.mw-parser-output .div-col-small{font-size:90%}.mw-parser-output .div-col-rules{column-rule:1px solid #aaa}.mw-parser-output .div-col dl,.mw-parser-output .div-col ol,.mw-parser-output .div-col ul{margin-top:0}.mw-parser-output .div-col li,.mw-parser-output .div-col dd{page-break-inside:avoid;break-inside:avoid-column}.mw-parser-output .legend{page-break-inside:avoid;break-inside:avoid-column}.mw-parser-output .legend-color{display:inline-block;min-width:1.25em;height:1.25em;line-height:1.25;margin:1px 0;text-align:center;border:1px solid black;background-color:transparent;color:black}.mw-parser-output .legend-text{}  PD   M5S   PdL/FI   NCD/AP   SC   LN   SEL/SI   FdI   UDC
Six-point average trend line of poll results from 25 February 2013 to election day, with each line corresponding to a political party
  PD
  M5S
  PdL/FI
  NCD/AP
  SC
  LN
  SEL/SI
  FdI
  UDC

Voter turnout

Voting at a polling station in Rome
Voting at a polling station in Rome
Region Time
12:00 19:00 23:00
Abruzzo 19.38% 61.29% 75.25%
Aosta Valley 21.24% 59.01% 72.27%
Apulia 17.97% 53.68% 68.94%
Basilicata 16.27% 53.12% 71.11%
Calabria 15.11% 49.55% 63.78%
Campania 16.96% 52.59% 68.20%
Emilia-Romagna 22.72% 65.99% 78.26%
Friuli-Venezia Giulia 22.56% 62.45% 75.11%
Lazio 18.88% 55.47% 72.58%
Liguria 21.78% 61.04% 71.96%
Lombardy 20.92% 62.29% 76.81%
Marche 19.81% 62.22% 77.28%
Molise 17.88% 56.46% 71.76%
Piedmont 20.44% 61.88% 75.17%
Sardinia 18.34% 52.49% 65.39%
Sicily 14.27% 47.06% 62.72%
Tuscany 21.17% 63.87% 77.34%
Trentino-Alto Adige 20.85% 60.57% 74.34%
Umbria 20.55% 64.86% 78.22%
Veneto 22.24% 64.61% 78.72%
Total 19.43% 58.42% 72.94%
Source: Ministry of the Interior

Results

The centre-right coalition emerged with a plurality of seats in the Chamber of Deputies and in the Senate, while the anti-establishment Five Star Movement became the party with the largest number of votes. The centre-left coalition came third. As no political group or party won an outright majority, the election resulted in a hung parliament.[3]

Chamber of Deputies

Overall results

Summary of the 4 March 2018 Chamber of Deputies election results
Italian Chamber of Deputies 2018.svg
Coalition Party Proportional First-past-the-post Overseas Total
seats
+/−
Votes % Seats Votes % Seats Votes % Seats
Centre-right coalition League (Lega) 5,698,687 17.35 73 12,152,345 37.00 49 240,072 21.43 2 125 +109
Forza Italia (FI) 4,596,956 14.00 59 46 1 104 +1
Brothers of Italy (FdI) 1,429,550 4.35 19 12 0 32 +25
Us with ItalyUDC (NcI–UDC) 427,152 1.30 0 4 11,845 1.09 0 4 New
Total seats 151 111 3 265
Five Star Movement (M5S) 10,732,066 32.68 133 10,732,066 32.68 93 197,346 17.57 1 227 +119
Centre-left coalition Democratic Party (PD) 6,161,896 18.76 86 7,506,723 22.85 21 297,153 26.45 5 112 −180
More Europe (+E) 841,468 2.56 0 2 64,350 5.73 1 3 New
Together 190,601 0.58 0 1 0 1 New
Popular Civic List (CP) 178,107 0.54 0 2 32.071 2.85 0 2 New
SVPPATT 134,651 0.41 2 2 0 4 −1
Total seats 88 28 6 122
Free and Equal (LeU) 1,114,799 3.38 14 1,114,799 3.39 0 64,523 5.74 0 14 New
Associative Movement of Italians Abroad (MAIE) 0 0 107,236 9.55 1 1 −1
South American Union of Italian Emigrants (USEI) 0 0 68,291 6.08 1 1
Total 630
Popular vote (party)
M5S
32.68%
PD
18.76%
Lega
17.35%
FI
14.00%
FdI
4.35%
LeU
3.39%
+E
2.56%
NcI
1.30%
PaP
1.13%
Others
4.48%
Seat distribution (party)
M5S
36.03%
Lega
19.84%
PD
17.78%
FI
16.51%
FdI
5.07%
LeU
2.22%
Others
2.55%
Popular vote (coalition)
CDX
37.00%
M5S
32.68%
CSX
22.86%
LeU
3.39%
PaP
1.13%
Others
2.96%
Seat distribution (coalition)
CDX
42.06%
M5S
36.03%
CSX
19.36%
LeU
2.22%
Others
0.33%

Proportional and FPTP results

Proportional
Party Votes % Seats
Five Star Movement (M5S) 10,732,066 32.68 133
Democratic Party (PD) 6,161,896 18.76 86
League (Lega) 5,698,687 17.35 73
Forza Italia (FI) 4,596,956 14.00 59
Brothers of Italy (FdI) 1,429,550 4.35 19
Free and Equal (LeU) 1,114,799 3.39 14
More Europe (+E) 841,468 2.56 0
Us with ItalyUDC (NcI–UDC) 427,152 1.30 0
Power to the People (PaP) 372,179 1.13 0
CasaPound (CPI) 312,432 0.95 0
The People of Family (PdF) 219,633 0.67 0
Together (IEI) 190,601 0.58 0
Popular Civic List (CP) 178,107 0.54 0
South Tyrolean People's PartyPATT (SVP–PATT) 134,651 0.41 2
Italy for the Italians (IAI) 126,543 0.39 0
Communist Party (PC) 106,816 0.33 0
Human Value Party (PVU) 47,953 0.15 0
10 Times Better (10VM) 37,354 0.11 0
For a Revolutionary Left (PSR) 29,364 0.09 0
Italian Republican PartyALA (PRI–ALA) 20,943 0.06 0
Great North (GN) 19,846 0.06 0
Autodetermination 19,307 0.06 0
People's List for the Constitution (LdP) 9,921 0.03 0
Pact for Autonomy (PpA) 7,079 0.02 0
National Bloc for Freedoms (BNL) 3,628 0.01 0
SìAmo 1,428 0.00 0
RenaissanceMIR 772 0.00 0
Italy in the Heart 574 0.00 0
Total 32,841,705 100.00 386
Invalid / blank / unassigned votes 1,471,727 4.33
Total turnout 33,923,321 72.94
Registered voters 46,505,499
Source: Ministry of the Interior
First-past-the-post
Party or coalition Votes % Seats
Centre-right coalition (CDX) 12,152,345 37.00 111
Five Star Movement (M5S) 10,727,567 32.68 93
Centre-left coalition (CSX) 7,506,723 22.85 28
Free and Equal (LeU) 1,114,799 3.39 0
Power to the People (PaP) 372,179 1.13 0
CasaPound (CPI) 312,432 0.95 0
The People of Family (PdF) 219,633 0.67 0
Italy for the Italians (IAI) 126,543 0.39 0
Communist Party (PC) 106,816 0.33 0
Human Value Party (PVU) 47,953 0.15 0
10 Times Better (10VM) 37,354 0.11 0
For a Revolutionary Left (PSR) 29,364 0.09 0
Italian Republican PartyALA (PRI–ALA) 20,943 0.06 0
Great North (GN) 19,846 0.06 0
Autodetermination 19,307 0.06 0
People's List for the Constitution (LdP) 9,921 0.03 0
Pact for Autonomy (PpA) 7,079 0.02 0
National Bloc for Freedoms (BNL) 3,628 0.01 0
SìAmo 1,428 0.00 0
RenaissanceMIR 686 0.00 0
Italy in the Heart 574 0.00 0
Total 32,841,025 100.00 231
Invalid / blank / unassigned votes 1,471,727 4.33
Total turnout 33,923,321 72.94
Registered voters 46,505,499
Source: Ministry of the Interior

Aosta Valley

Main article: 2018 Italian general election in Aosta Valley

The autonomous region of Aosta Valley, in northwestern Italy, elects one member to the Chamber of Deputies through a direct first-past-the-post election. Some parties that formed electoral coalitions in Italy, might have opted to run against one another (or form different coalitions) in this particular region.

Party/coalition Candidate Votes %
Five Star Movement Elisa Tripodi 15,999 24.1
Aosta Valley Alessia Favre 14,492 21.7
For All Giampaolo Marcoz 12,118 18.3
League Luca Distort 11,588 17.5
Forza ItaliaFdI–NVdA Edoardo Melgara 5,533 8.3
Other candidates 6,703 10.1
Total 66,370 100.0

Source: "Eligendo: Camera [Scrutini] Collegio uninominale VALLE D'AOSTA - 01 (Italia) - Camera dei Deputati del 4 marzo 2018". Ministero dell'Interno (in Italian). Retrieved 5 March 2018.

Overseas constituencies

Twelve members of the Chamber of Deputies are elected by Italians abroad. Two members are elected for North America and Central America (including most of the Caribbean), four members for South America (including Trinidad and Tobago), five members for Europe, and one member for the rest of the world (Africa, Asia, Oceania, and Antarctica). Voters in these regions select candidate lists and cast a preference vote for individual candidates. The seats are allocated by proportional representation. The electoral law allows for parties to form different coalitions on the lists abroad, compared to the lists in Italy; Forza Italia, the League, and Brothers of Italy formed a unified list for abroad constituencies.[154]

Party or coalition Votes % Seats
Democratic Party (PD) 297,153 26.45 5
LeagueForza ItaliaBrothers of Italy (Lega–FI–FdI) 240,702 21.43 3
Five Star Movement (M5S) 197,346 17.57 1
Associative Movement of Italians Abroad (MAIE) 107,236 9.55 1
South American Union of Italian Emigrants (USEI) 68,291 6.08 1
Free and Equal (LeU) 64,523 5.74 0
More Europe (+E) 64,350 5.73 1
Popular Civic List (CP) 32,071 2.85 0
Latin America Tricolor Union (UniTAL) 25,555 2.27 0
Us with ItalyUDC (NcI–UDC) 12,396 1.10 0
Freedom Movement 10,590 0.94 0
Italian Republican PartyALA (PRI–ALA) 2,270 0.20 0
Free Flights to Italy 946 0.08 0
Total 1,123,429 100.00 12
Invalid / blank / unassigned votes 156,755 12.42
Total turnout 1,262,422 29.84
Registered voters 4,230,854
Source: Ministry of the Interior

Senate of the Republic

Overall results

Summary of the 4 March 2018 Senate of the Republic election results
Italian Senate 2018.svg
Coalition Party Proportional First-past-the-post Overseas Total
seats
+/−
Votes % Seats Votes % Seats Votes % Seats
Centre-right coalition League (Lega) 5,321,537 17.61 37 11,327,549 37.50 21 226,885 21.98 0 58 +39
Forza Italia (FI) 4,358,004 14.43 33 23 2 57 –41
Brothers of Italy (FdI) 1,286,606 4.26 7 9 0 18 +18
Us with ItalyUDC (NcI–UDC) 361,402 1.20 0 4 10,404 1.04 0 4 New
Total seats 77 58 2 137
Five Star Movement (M5S) 9,733,928 32.22 68 9,733,928 32.22 44 174,948 17.64 0 112 +58
Centre-left coalition Democratic Party (PD) 5,783,360 19.14 43 6,947,199 23.00 8 279,489 27.08 2 53 –57
More Europe (+E) 714,821 2.37 0 1 55,625 5.39 0 1 New
Together 163,454 0.54 0 1 1 New
Popular Civic List (CP) 157,282 0.52 0 1 31,293 3.15 0 1 New
SVPPATT 128,282 0.42 1 2 3 –1
Aosta Valley (VdA) 1 1 ±0
Total seats 44 14 2 60
Free and Equal (LeU) 991,159 3.28 4 991,159 3.28 0 55,279 5.57 0 4 New
Associative Movement of Italians Abroad (MAIE) 0 0 110,879 10.74 1 1
South American Union of Italian Emigrants (USEI) 0 0 68,233 6.61 1 1
Total 315
Popular vote (party)
M5S
32.22%
PD
19.14%
Lega
17.61%
FI
14.43%
FdI
4.26%
LeU
3.28%
+E
2.37%
NcI
1.20%
PaP
1.06%
Others
4.43%
Seat distribution (party)
M5S
35.56%
Lega
18.41%
FI
18.09%
PD
16.83%
FdI
5.71%
LeU
1.27%
NcI
1.27%
Others
2.86%
Popular vote (coalition)
CDX
37.50%
M5S
32.22%
CSX
23.00%
LeU
3.28%
Others
4.00%
Seat distribution (coalition)
CDX
42.86%
M5S
35.56%
CSX
18.41%
LeU
1.27%
Others
1.90%

Proportional and FPTP results

Proportional
Party Votes % Seats
Five Star Movement (M5S) 9,733,928 32.22 68
Democratic Party (PD) 5,783,360 19.14 43
League (Lega) 5,321,537 17.61 37
Forza Italia (FI) 4,358,004 14.43 33
Brothers of Italy (FdI) 1,286,606 4.26 7
Free and Equal (LeU) 991,159 3.28 4
More Europe (+E) 714,821 2.37 0
Us with ItalyUDC (NcI–UDC) 361,402 1.20 0
Power to the People (PaP) 320,493 1.06 0
CasaPound (CPI) 259,718 0.86 0
The People of Family (PdF) 211,759 0.70 0
Together (IEI) 163,454 0.54 0
Popular Civic List (CP) 157,282 0.52 0
Italy for the Italians (IAI) 149,907 0.50 0
South Tyrolean People's PartyPATT (SVP–PATT) 128,282 0.42 1
Communist Party (PC) 101,648 0.34 0
Human Value Party (PVU) 38,749 0.12 0
For a Revolutionary Left (PSR) 32,623 0.11 0
Italian Republican PartyALA (PRI–ALA) 27,384 0.09 0
Autodetermination 20,468 0.07 0
Great North (GN) 17,507 0.06 0
People's List for the Constitution (LdP) 10,356 0.03 0
United Right – Pitchforks 6,229 0.02 0
Christian Democracy (DC) 5,532 0.02 0
Pact for Autonomy (PpA) 5,015 0.02 0
SìAmo 1,402 0.00 0
Modern and Solidary State (SMS) 1,384 0.00 0
RenaissanceMIR 552 0.00 0
Total 30,210,561 100.00 193
Invalid / blank / unassigned votes 1,398,216 4.48
Total turnout 31,231,814 73.01
Registered voters 42,780,033
Source: Ministry of the Interior
First-past-the-post
Party or coalition Votes % Seats
Centre-right coalition (CDX) 11,327,549 37.50 58
Five Star Movement (M5S) 9,733,928 32.22 44
Centre-left coalition (CSX) 6,947,199 23.00 14
Free and Equal (LeU) 991,159 3.28 0
Power to the People (PaP) 320,493 1.06 0
CasaPound (CPI) 259,718 0.86 0
The People of Family (PdF) 211,759 0.70 0
Italy for the Italians (IAI) 149,907 0.50 0
Communist Party (PC) 101,648 0.34 0
Human Value Party (PVU) 38,749 0.12 0
For a Revolutionary Left (PSR) 32,623 0.11 0
Italian Republican PartyALA (PRI–ALA) 27,384 0.09 0
Autodetermination 20,468 0.07 0
Great North (GN) 17,507 0.06 0
People's List for the Constitution (LdP) 10,356 0.03 0
United Right – Pitchforks 6,229 0.02 0
Christian Democracy (DC) 5,532 0.02 0
Pact for Autonomy (PpA) 5,015 0.02 0
SìAmo 1,402 0.00 0
Modern and Solidary State (SMS) 1,384 0.00 0
RenaissanceMIR 354 0.00 0
Total 30,210,363 100.00 116
Invalid / blank / unassigned votes 1,398,216 4.48
Total turnout 31,231,814 73.01
Registered voters 42,780,033
Source: Ministry of the Interior

Aosta Valley

Party/coalition Candidate Votes %
Aosta Valley Albert Lanièce 15,958 25.8
Five Star Movement Luciano Mossa 14,398 23.2
League Paolo Sammaritani 11,004 17.8
For All Luisa Trione 9,659 15.6
Forza ItaliaFdI–NVdA Orlando Navarra 5,223 8.4
Other candidates 5,696 9.2
Total 61,938 100.0

Source: "Eligendo: Senato [Scrutini] Collegio uninominale VALLE D'AOSTA - 01 (Italia) - Senato della Repubblica del 4 marzo 2018". Ministero dell'Interno (in Italian). Retrieved 5 March 2018.

Overseas constituencies

Party or coalition Votes % Seats
Democratic Party (PD) 279,489 27.08 2
LeagueForza ItaliaBrothers of Italy (Lega–FI–FdI) 226,885 21.98 2
Five Star Movement (M5S) 182,715 17.70 0
Associative Movement of Italians Abroad (MAIE) 110,879 10.74 1
South American Union of Italian Emigrants (USEI) 68,233 6.61 1
Free and Equal (LeU) 57,761 5.60 0
More Europe (+E) 55,625 5.39 0
Popular Civic List (CP) 32,660 3.16 0
Us with ItalyUDC (NcI–UDC) 10,856 1.05 0
Freedom Movement 6,960 0.67 0
Total 1,032,063 100.00 6
Invalid / blank / unassigned votes 146,430 12.61
Total turnout 1,160,985 30.27
Registered voters 4,230,854
Source: Ministry of the Interior

Leaders' races

Di Maio and Renzi run in a single-member constituency, respectively in Acerra, near Naples, for the Chamber of Deputies and in Florence for the Senate. Salvini ran in many multi-member constituencies through the country and he was elected in Calabria due to the mechanism of the electoral law,[155] while Meloni was elected in the single-member constituency of Latina, Lazio, for the Chamber of Deputies.[156]

2018 general election (C): Acerra
Candidate Coalition Party Votes %
Luigi Di Maio None M5S 95,219 63.4
Vittorio Sgarbi Centre-right FI 30,596 20.4
Antonio Falcone Centre-left PD 18,018 12.0
Others 6,315 4.1
Total 150,148 100.0
Turnout 153,528 69.9
2018 general election (S): Florence
Candidate Coalition Party Votes %
Matteo Renzi Centre-left PD 109,830 43.9
Alberto Bagnai Centre-right Lega 61,642 24.6
Nicola Cecchi None M5S 49,925 19.9
Others 28,797 11.4
Total 250,194 100.0
Turnout 256,879 78.6
2018 general election (C): Latina
Candidate Coalition Party Votes %
Giorgia Meloni Centre-right FdI 70,268 41.0
Leone Martellucci None M5S 62,563 36.5
Federico Fauttilli Centre-left DemoS 26,293 15.3
Others 12,269 7.2
Total 171,393 100.0
Turnout 239,838 74.1

Maps

Analysis of proportionality

Using the Gallagher index, the disproportionality of the Chamber of Deputies in the election was 5.50, while for the Senate of the Republic it was 6.12.

Chamber of Deputies
Coalition Vote share Seat share Difference Difference²
Centre-right coalition 37.00 42.06 +5.06 25.60
Five Star Movement 32.68 36.03 +3.35 11.22
Centre-left coalition 22.85 19.36 −3.49 12.18
Free and Equal 3.39 2.22 −1.17 1.37
Power to the People 1.13 0.00 −1.13 1.28
Others 2.97 0.00 −2.97 8.82
TOTAL 60.47
TOTAL /2 30.24
TOTAL /2 5.50
Senate of the Republic
Coalition Vote share Seat share Difference Difference²
Centre-right coalition 37.49 42.86 +5.37 28.84
Five Star Movement 32.22 35.56 +3.34 11.16
Centre-left coalition 22.99 18.41 −4.58 20.98
Free and Equal 3.28 1.27 −2.01 4.04
Power to the People 1.05 0.00 −1.05 1.10
Others 2.97 0.00 −2.97 8.82
TOTAL 74.93
TOTAL /2 37.47
TOTAL /2 6.12

Electorate demographics

Sociology of the electorate
Demographic Centre-right M5S Centre-left LeU Others Turnout
Total vote 37.0% 32.7% 22.9% 3.4% 4.0% 72.9%
Sex
Men 36.8% 32.8% 22.9% 3.5% 4.0% 72.5%
Women 37.1% 32.9% 22.9% 2.7% 3.7% 68.3%
Age
18–34 years old 34.4% 35.3% 21.5% 5.0% 3.8% 70.1%
35–49 years old 37.4% 35.4% 20.3% 2.7% 4.2% 72.2%
50–64 years old 38.3% 34.0% 20.1% 3.2% 4.4% 72.4%
65 or older 36.9% 27.1% 30.1% 3.0% 2.9% 66.3%
Occupation
Student 29.9% 32.3% 24.4% 8.2% 5.2% 66.8%
Unemployed 41.8% 37.2% 15.1% 0.6% 5.3% 63.7%
Housewife 41.1% 36.1% 17.4% 1.8% 3.6% 65.9%
Blue-collar 42.6% 37.0% 14.1% 1.3% 5.0% 72.0%
White-collar 29.4% 36.1% 25.4% 5.6% 3.5% 75.6%
Self-employed 46.9% 31.8% 15.1% 2.3% 3.9% 73.3%
Manager 31.8% 31.2% 29.5% 3.3% 4.2% 77.9%
Retired 36.6% 26.4% 30.5% 3.7% 2.8% 68.8%
Work sector
Public sector 29.7% 41.6% 24.0% 1.7% 3.9% 71.8%
Private sector 35.6% 34.0% 22.0% 4.3% 4.1% 72.7%
Education
Elementary school 36.1% 30.0% 28.5% 2.3% 3.1% 64.9%
Middle school 42.7% 33.3% 18.4% 2.2% 3.4% 70.5%
High school 34.9% 36.1% 20.3% 4.7% 4.0% 74.1%
University 28.8% 29.3% 31.4% 5.5% 5.0% 72.0%
Religious service attendance
Weekly or more 38.2% 30.9% 26.0% 2.2% 2.7% 68.9%
Monthly 44.6% 31.4% 18.5% 2.6% 2.9% 72.0%
Occasionally 38.6% 34.9% 20.0% 3.2% 3.3% 71.2%
Never 30.8% 33.7% 24.8% 5.2% 5.5% 69.9%
Source: Ipsos Italia[157]

Government formation

See also: 2018 Italian government formation

Giorgia Meloni, Matteo Salvini, and Silvio Berlusconi at the Quirinal Palace

After the election's results were known, both Luigi Di Maio and Matteo Salvini stated that they must receive from President Sergio Mattarella the task of forming a new cabinet because they led the largest party and the largest coalition, respectively.[158] On 5 March, Matteo Renzi announced that the Democratic Party (PD) would be in the opposition during this legislature and he would resign as party leader when a new cabinet is formed.[159] On 6 March, Salvini repeated his campaign message that his party would refuse any coalition with the Five Star Movement (M5S).[160] On 14 March, Salvini offered to govern with the M5S, imposing the condition that the League ally Forza Italia, led by the former prime minister Silvio Berlusconi, must also take part in any coalition. Di Maio rejected this proposal on the grounds that Salvini was "choosing restoration instead of revolution" because "Berlusconi represents the past".[161]

On 12 March, Renzi resigned as party leader and was replaced by deputy secretary Maurizio Martina.[162][163] On 24 March, the centre-right coalition and the M5S agreed on the election of presidents of the houses of parliament, Roberto Fico of the M5S for the Chamber of Deputies and Maria Elisabetta Alberti Casellati of FI for the Senate of the Republic.[164][165]

On 7 April, Di Maio made an appeal to the PD to "bury the hatchet" and consider a governing coalition with the M5S.[166] On 18 April, President Sergio Mattarella gave newly-elected Senate president Casellati a so-called "exploratory mandate" to form a government of M5S and the centre-right coalition, with a two-day deadline.[167] On 23 April, President Mattarella gave newly-elected Chamber of Deputies president Fico an "exploratory mandate" to form a government between M5S and the PD, with a three-day deadline. The decision came after the previous attempt by Casellati failed to show any progress.[168] On 30 April, following an interview of Renzi, who expressed his strong opposition to an alliance with the M5S, Di Maio called for new elections.[169][170][171]

On 7 May, President Mattarella held a third round of government formation talks, after which he formally confirmed the lack of any possible majority (the M5S rejecting an alliance with the whole centre-right coalition, the PD rejecting an alliance with both the M5S and the centre-right coalition, and the League's Salvini refusing to start a government with the M5S without Berlusconi's FI, whose presence in the government was explicitly vetoed by M5S's Di Maio); on the same circumstance, he announced his intention to soon appoint a "neutral government" (irrespective of the M5S and the League's refusal to support such an option) to take over from the Gentiloni Cabinet, which was considered unable to lead Italy into a second consecutive election, as it was representing a majority from a past legislature, and offering an early election in July as a realistic option to take into consideration due to the deadlock situation.[172]

Carlo Cottarelli at the Quirinal Palace
Carlo Cottarelli at the Quirinal Palace

On 9 May, after a day of rumours, both the M5S and the League officially requested President Mattarella to give them 24 more hours to strike a government agreement between the two parties.[173] Later in the evening that same day, Berlusconi publicly announced that FI would not support a M5S–League government on a vote of confidence but would still maintain the centre-right alliance, opening the doors to a possible majority government between the two parties.[174]

On 13 May, the M5S and the League reached an agreement on a government program, clearing the way for the formation of a governing coalition between the two parties, while they still negotiated the members of a government cabinet, including the prime minister. The M5S and League leaders were slated to meet with President Mattarella on 14 May to guide the formation of a new government.[175] On 17 May, the M5S and the League agreed to the details regarding the government program, officially clearing the way for the formation of a governing coalition between the two parties.[176] The final draft of their program was then published on 18 May.[177]

On 18 May, 44,796 members of the M5S cast their vote online on the matter concerning the government agreement, with 42,274, more than 94%, voting in favour.[178][179] A second vote sponsored by the League then took place on 19 May and 20 May, and was open to the general public.[180] On 20 May, it was announced that approximately 215,000 Italian citizens had participated in the League election, with around 91 percent supporting the government agreement.[181]

On 21 May, the M5S and the League proposed law professor Giuseppe Conte as Prime Minister.[182][183] On 23 May, Conte was invited to the Quirinal Palace to receive the task of forming a new cabinet and was granted a mandate by President Mattarella.[184][185] On 27 May, the designated Prime Minister Conte renounced to his office due to contrasts between the League's leader Salvini and President Mattarella. Salvini proposed the university professor Paolo Savona as Minister of Economy and Finances, but Mattarella opposed him, considering Savona too Eurosceptic and anti-German.[186] In his speech after Conte's resignation, Mattarella declared that the two parties wanted to bring Italy out of the eurozone; as the guarantor of the Constitution of Italy and country's interest and stability, he could not allow this.[187][188] On the following day, Mattarella gave Carlo Cottarelli, an economist and former IMF director, the task of forming a new government.[189]

Giuseppe Conte at the Quirinal Palace
Giuseppe Conte at the Quirinal Palace

In the statement released after the designation, Cottarelli specified that in case of confidence by the Italian Parliament, he would contribute to the approval of the budget law for 2019, then Parliament would be dissolved and a new general election would be called for the beginning of 2019. In the absence of confidence, the government would deal only with the so-called current affairs and lead the country toward new elections after August 2018. Cottarelli also guaranteed the neutrality of the government and the commitment not to run for the next election.[190] He ensured a prudent management of Italian national debt and the defense of national interests through a constructive dialogue with the European Union.[191]

On 28 May 2018, the PD announced that they would vote the confidence to Cottarelli, while the M5S and the centre-right parties FI, the League, and Brothers of Italy (FdI) announced their vote against.[192][193] Cottarelli was expected to submit his list of ministers for approval to President Mattarella on 29 May. On 29 May and 30 May, he held only informal consultations with Mattarella. According to the Italian media, he was facing difficulties due to the unwillingness of several potential candidates to serve as ministers in his cabinet and may even renounce. Meanwhile, Salvini and Di Maio announced their willingness to restart the negotiations to form a political government, and the FdI leader Giorgia Meloni gave her support to the initiative.[194][195][196] The government was formed the following day.[197]

See also

Pre-2018 general election
Post-2018 general election

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d Only running in abroad constituencies.
  2. ^ Only running in Aosta Valley.
  3. ^ Including the Moderates.
  4. ^ List composed of Popular Alternative (AP), Centrists for Europe (CpE), Italy of Values (IdV), Union for Trentino (UpT) and Italy is Popular (IP).
  5. ^ List composed of Italian Socialist Party (PSI), Federation of the Greens (FdV) and Civic Area (AC).
  6. ^ Including Italian Radicals (RI), Forza Europa (FE) and Democratic Centre (CD).
  7. ^ Including Pensioners' Party (PP), New Italian Socialist Party (NPSI) and Animalist Movement (MA).
  8. ^ Including Direction Italy (DI), Civic Choice (SC), Act!, Cantiere Popolare (CP), the Movement for the Autonomies (MpA), splinters from Popular Alternative, Identity and Action (IdeA) and New CDU.
  9. ^ Including National Movement for Sovereignty (MNS), Italian Liberal Party (PLI) and Sardinian Action Party (PSd'Az).
  10. ^ List composed of Article One (Art.1), Italian Left (SI) and Possible (Pos).
  11. ^ List including Communist Refoundation Party (PRC), Italian Communist Party (PCI), Anticapitalist Left (SA), Party of the South (PdS), Socialist Rebirth (RS) and Atheist Democracy (DA).
  12. ^ List composed of New Force (FN) and Tricolour Flame (FT).
  13. ^ List composed of Workers' Communist Party (PCL) and Left Class Revolution (SCR).
  14. ^ List composed of Royal Italy (IR) and Christian Democracy (DC).
  15. ^ List composed of Red Moors (RM), Sardos, Comunidades, Independence Republic of Sardinia (iRS), Sardigna Natzione Indipendentzia (SNI), Liberu, Possible Sardinia and Gentes.

References

  1. ^ Verderami, Francesco (13 December 2017). "Elezioni 2018, si punta al 27 dicembre per lo scioglimento delle Camere: si vota il 4 marzo". Corriere della Sera (in Italian). Retrieved 17 February 2022.
  2. ^ "Election day il 4 marzo: si vota anche per Lazio e Lombardia". Il Messaggero (in Italian). 5 January 2018. Retrieved 18 February 2022.
  3. ^ a b c "Italy election to result in hung parliament". Deutsche Welle. 5 March 2018. Retrieved 17 February 2022.
  4. ^ "Elezioni politiche: vincono M5s e Lega. Crollo del Partito democratico. Centrodestra prima coalizione. Il Carroccio sorpassa Forza Italia". La Repubblica (in Italian). 4 March 2018. Retrieved 17 February 2022.
  5. ^ Sala, Alessandro (3 April 2018). "Elezioni 2018: M5S primo partito, nel centrodestra la Lega supera FI". Corriere della Sera (in Italian). Retrieved 17 February 2022.
  6. ^ "Italy: Conte to lead 'government of change'" (in Italian). ANSAMed. 1 June 2018. Retrieved 17 February 2022.
  7. ^ Giuffrida, Angela (20 August 2019). "Italian PM resigns with attack on 'opportunist' Salvini". The Guardian. Retrieved 17 February 2022.
  8. ^ Tidey, Alice (5 September 2019). "Conte PM & Di Maio foreign minister as new Italian government sworn in". Euronews. Retrieved 17 February 2022.
  9. ^ Fusaro, Carlo (22 September 2019). "Italia Viva, Party System Reform Morta: What Matteo Renzi's split from the PD means for democracy and stability in Italy and beyond". Verfassungsblog: On Matters Constitutional. doi:10.17176/20190922-232352-0. Retrieved 13 February 2022.
  10. ^ Pianta, Mario (April 2021). "Italy's Political Turmoil and Mario Draghi's European Challenges". Intereconomics. 56 (2): 82–85. doi:10.1007/s10272-021-0958-9. PMC 8021634. PMID 33840824. Retrieved 13 February 2022.
  11. ^ Dionisi, Brenda (9 May 2013). "It's a governissimo!". The Florentine. Archived from the original on 10 December 2014. Retrieved 10 December 2014.
  12. ^ "Berlusconi breaks away from Italian government after party splits". Reuters. 16 November 2013. Archived from the original on 2 December 2013.
  13. ^ Lorenzo, Fuccaro (16 November 2013). "È rottura tra Berlusconi e Alfano Il vicepremier annuncia i nuovi gruppi". Corriere della Sera (in Italian). pp. 8–9. Archived from the original on 3 December 2013. Retrieved 18 February 2022.
  14. ^ Romano, Lucio (16 December 2013). "Così i popolari per l'Italia si preparano alle Europee. Parola di Lucio Romano". Formiche (in Italian). Retrieved 18 February 2022.
  15. ^ Argano, Fabrizia (9 January 2014). "Tutte le proposte dei Popolari 'Per l'Italia' a Letta". Formiche (in Italian). Retrieved 18 February 2022.
  16. ^ Argano, Fabrizia (28 January 2014). "Lo schema delle alleanze dei Popolari di Mauro". Formiche (in Italian). Retrieved 18 February 2022.
  17. ^ "In Pictures: The defining moments of Renzi's time as PM". The Local. 5 December 2016. Retrieved 11 February 2022. Updated 8 December 2016.((cite web)): CS1 maint: postscript (link)
  18. ^ "Renzi: con 47, 8 anni di media, è il governo più giovane di sempre". Corriere Della Sera (in Italian). 21 February 2014. Retrieved 23 February 2014.
  19. ^ "Update 2-Renzi's triumph in EU vote gives mandate for Italian reform". Reuters. 26 May 2014. Retrieved 9 June 2015.
  20. ^ Finzi, Fabrizio (6 December 2021). "Quirinale 2015: Mattarella al Colle, il capolavoro di Renzi" (in Italian). ANSA. Retrieved 17 February 2022.
  21. ^ "Perché l'Italicum è incostituzionale". Il Post (in Italian). 10 February 2017. Retrieved 19 February 2022.
  22. ^ Rubino, Monica (26 October 2017). "Il Rosatellum bis è legge dello Stato: via libera definitivo al Senato con 214 sì". La Repubblica (in Italian). Retrieved 19 February 2022.
  23. ^ Colarusso, Gabriella (26 September 2018). "Sentenza sul Jobs Act, ecco cosa cambia". La Repubblica (in Italian). Retrieved 9 February 2022.
  24. ^ Martino, Enzo (3 October 2018). "Jobs act, il criterio di indennizzo è incostituzionale. Così crolla uno dei pilastri della riforma Renzi". Il Fatto Quotidiano (in Italian). Retrieved 9 February 2022.
  25. ^ Covelli, Roberta (9 November 2018). "La Corte Costituzionale ha smontato il Jobs act di Renzi (e anche il decreto Di Maio)". Fanpage (in Italian). Retrieved 9 February 2022.
  26. ^ "Consulta: no indennità licenziamento ancorata ad anzianità servizio". Sky TG24 (in Italian). 16 July 2020. Retrieved 9 February 2022.
  27. ^ "Corte Costituzionale, la firma storica di tre donne sulla sentenza del Jobs Act". Sky TG24 (in Italian). 16 July 2020. Retrieved 9 February 2022.
  28. ^ Totaro, Lorenzo (15 October 2015). "Renzi Gives Italians Lower Taxes, Higher Cash Use to Back Growth". Bloomberg. Retrieved 9 February 2022.
  29. ^ Kirchgaessner, Stephanie (22 February 2016). "'They need a possibility of a future': has Matteo Renzi given Italy what it needs?". The Guardian. Retrieved 9 February 2022.
  30. ^ Balmer, Crispian (28 September 2016). "Renzi's reforms leave Italian economy and voters flat". Reuters. Retrieved 11 February 2022.
  31. ^ "Italy PM Renzi attacks northern regions for refusing migrants". BBC. 8 June 2015. Retrieved 17 February 2022.
  32. ^ "Italy coastguard: 3,000 migrants rescued in one day in Mediterranean". The Guardian. Agence France-Presse. 23 August 2015. Retrieved 17 February 2022.
  33. ^ "L'analisi del sondaggista: 'Con l'immigrazione, Renzi perde tra i 2 e i 4 milioni di voti'". Il Giornale (in Italian). 25 August 2015. Retrieved 4 March 2018.
  34. ^ "Sondaggio Bidimedia – 25 Febbraio: le due nuove forze a Sinistra del PD superano il 10%". Sondaggi Bidimedia (in Italian). 25 August 2016. Retrieved 17 February 2022.
  35. ^ Negri, Fedra; Rebessi, Elisa (January 2018). "Was Mattarella Worth the Trouble? Explaining the Failure of the 2016 Italian Constitutional Referendum". Italian Political Science Review. Cambridge University Press. 48 (2): 177–196. doi:10.1017/ipo.2017.29. hdl:2434/562060. S2CID 158906172.
  36. ^ Di Mauro, Danilo; Memoli, Vincenzo (February 2018). "Targeting the Government in the Referendum: The Aborted 2016 Italian Constitutional Reform". Italian Political Science Review. Cambridge University Press. 48 (2): 133–157. doi:10.1017/ipo.2017.31. S2CID 158555880.
  37. ^ "Italian parties reach deal on Senate reform". Reuters. 21 June 2014. Retrieved 25 June 2014.
  38. ^ Politi, James (13 October 2015). "Renzi wins Senate victory over Italy's political gridlock". Financial Times. ISSN 0307-1766. Retrieved 6 August 2016.
  39. ^ "Italy's constitutional reform gets the green light from the Senate, the opposition leaves the floor". Il Sole 24 Ore (in Italian). Retrieved 6 August 2016.
  40. ^ Gianfreda, Stella (2021). Where Do the Parties Stand?: Political Competition on Immigration and the EU in National and European Parliamentary Debates. Springer Nature. p. 21. ISBN 978-3-030-77588-9. Retrieved 9 February 2022.
  41. ^ Rovelli, Michela (11 December 2016). "Governo, Gentiloni accetta l'incarico di governo: 'Un grande onore'". Corriere della Sera (in Italian). Retrieved 11 December 2016.
  42. ^ Stefanoni, Franco (25 February 2017). "Ecco il nome degli ex Pd: Articolo 1 Movimento dei democratici e progressisti". Corriere della Sera (in Italian). Retrieved 4 March 2018.
  43. ^ "'Democratici e progressisti' il nuovo nome degli ex Pd. Speranza: lavoro è nostra priorità". Il Sole 24 Ore (in Italian). 25 February 2017. Retrieved 4 March 2018.
  44. ^ "Ncd finisce, nasce Alternativa Popolare" (in Italian). ANSA. 18 March 2017. Retrieved 20 February 2022.
  45. ^ "Primarie Pd, Renzi vince nettamente: 'Al fianco del governo'". La Repubblica (in Italian). 30 April 2017. Retrieved 4 March 2018.
  46. ^ "I dati definitivi delle primarie: Renzi 70%, Orlando 19,5%, Emiliano 10,49%". L'HuffPost (in Italian). May 2017. Retrieved 4 March 2018.
  47. ^ "Primarie". Primerie PD 2017 (in Italian). Partito Democratico. Archived from the original on 25 March 2019. Retrieved 27 April 2019.
  48. ^ "Primarie Lega, Salvini centra l'obiettivo: con l'82,7% resta segretario. L'attacco di Bossi: 'Con lui la Lega è finita'". La Repubblica (in Italian). 14 May 2017. Retrieved 4 March 2018.
  49. ^ "Lega, Salvini avverte Berlusconi: 'Maggioritario se vuoi davvero vincere'". Affari Italiani (in Italian). Retrieved 4 March 2018.
  50. ^ "Continent of Fear: The Rise of Europe's Right-Wing Populists". Der Spiegel. 28 September 2010. Retrieved 3 January 2015.
  51. ^ "Lega. Ecco il simbolo, via Nord ma con Salvini premier" (in Italian). Rai. 21 December 2017. Retrieved 4 March 2018.
  52. ^ "Centrodestra. Salvini seppellisce il vecchio Carroccio e fonda un altro partito" (in Italian). Rai. 24 January 2018. Retrieved 18 February 2022.
  53. ^ Vecchi, Davide (24 January 2018). "Lega, Salvini schiera il 'partito parallelo' per seppellire il vecchio Carroccio su cui pendono sequestri e confische". Il Fatto Quotidiano (in Italian). Retrieved 18 February 2022.
  54. ^ Cremonesi, Marco (26 October 2018). "Salvini, via alla nuova Lega: sovranista per statuto e senza Alberto da Giussano". Corriere della Sera (in Italian). Retrieved 18 February 2022.
  55. ^ "M5s, Di Maio eletto candidato premier e nuovo capo politico. Ma alle primarie votano solo in 37 mila". La Repubblica (in Italian). 23 September 2017. Retrieved 4 March 2018.
  56. ^ Imarisio, Marco (23 September 2017). "Movimento 5 Stelle: l'incoronazione gelida. E Di Maio promette a tutti 'disciplina e onore'". Corriere della Sera (in Italian). Retrieved 4 March 2018.
  57. ^ "Chi comanda ora nel Movimento 5 Stelle? Il ruolo di Davide Casaleggio". Polisblog (in Italian). 19 April 2016. Retrieved 18 April 2017.
  58. ^ "M5s, la prima volta di Davide Casaleggio". La Repubblica (in Italian). 21 September 2016. Retrieved 18 April 2017.
  59. ^ "Il nuovo regolamento M5S e il ruolo di Davide Casaleggio nelle espulsioni". NextQuotidiano (in Italian). 26 September 2016. Retrieved 18 April 2017.
  60. ^ "Il blog di Beppe Grillo è cambiato". 23 January 2018.
  61. ^ "Grillo si riprende il blog e continua il suo distacco dal M5S". L'Espresso (in Italian). 15 January 2018. Retrieved 4 March 2018.
  62. ^ "I radicali alle elezioni da soli: la nuova lista si chiamerà '+ Europa'". La Stampa (in Italian). 23 November 2017. Retrieved 4 March 2018.
  63. ^ "Liberi e Uguali, Grasso si presenta bene". Il Manifesto (in Italian). Retrieved 4 March 2018.
  64. ^ "Ritorna, in piccolo, L'Ulivo e l'avversario è sempre lo stesso: 'Siamo gli unici che hanno battuto due volte Berlusconi'". L'HuffPost (in Italian). 14 December 2017. Retrieved 4 March 2018.
  65. ^ Pollice, Adriana (16 December 2017). "Debutta Potere al popolo: 'Non siamo la terza lista di sinistra, ma l'unica'". Il manifesto (in Italian). Retrieved 19 February 2022.
  66. ^ Carofalo, Viola (10 February 2018). "In risposta a Luciana Castellina e il suo articolo 'L'errore di strategia della lista Potere al Popolo'" (in Italian). Potere al Popolo. Retrieved 4 March 2018.
  67. ^ "Nasce Noi con l'Italia, la 'quarta gamba' del centrodestra". Il Giornale (in Italian). 19 December 2017. Retrieved 4 March 2018.
  68. ^ "Simbolo e liste: è pronta la 'quarta gamba'". Il Giornale (in Italian). 19 December 2017. Retrieved 4 March 2018.
  69. ^ "Nasce 'Civica popolare', lista centrista alleata col Pd: sarà guidata dalla Lorenzin". La Repubblica (in Italian). 29 December 2017. Retrieved 4 March 2018.
  70. ^ Ball, Deborah; Legorano, Giovanni (28 December 2017). "Italy's President Calls National Elections, as Country Grapples With Economic Pain". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 18 February 2022.
  71. ^ "Italians warned of Mafia meddling in the upcoming election". Holly Ellyatt. CNBC. 22 February 2018. Retrieved 22 February 2018.
  72. ^ "Mafia risk on elections – Minniti (3)" (in Italian). ANSA. 21 February 2018. Retrieved 22 February 2018.
  73. ^ Cooper, Harry (23 February 2018). "Berlusconi indicates Tajani will be his choice for PM". Politico. Retrieved 4 March 2018.
  74. ^ "Centrodestra, Salvini condurrà la trattativa sulle presidenze di Camera e Senato". La Repubblica (in Italian). 13 March 2018. Retrieved 17 February 2022.
  75. ^ "Mattarella, il discorso di fine anno: 'I partiti hanno il dovere di programmi realistici. Fiducia nei giovani al voto'". Il Fatto Quotidiano (in Italian). 31 December 2017. Retrieved 4 March 2018.
  76. ^ "Programma PD – Elezioni Politiche 2018" (in Italian). Partito Democratico. 7 February 2018. Retrieved 7 February 2018.
  77. ^ "Porta a Porta 2017/18 – Puntata del 10/01/2018" (in Italian). Rai. Retrieved 4 March 2018.
  78. ^ "Pd, Renzi ecco il programma elettorale: 240 euro al mese per figlio. 'Taglio contributi tempo indeterminato'". La Repubblica (in Italian). 2 February 2018. Retrieved 4 March 2018.
  79. ^ Cooper, Harry (13 February 2018). "Italian election pledges: Pizza or pazza?". Politico. Retrieved 4 March 2018.
  80. ^ "Porta a Porta 2017/18 – Puntata del 16/01/2018" (in Italian). Rai. Retrieved 4 March 2018.
  81. ^ "Radicali italiani, ecco la lista europeista di Bonino e Della Vedova". La Repubblica (in Italian). 23 November 2017. Retrieved 4 March 2018.
  82. ^ "Renzi: il futuro sono gli Stati Uniti d'Europa". Il Sole 24 Ore (in Italian). 20 January 2018. Retrieved 4 March 2018.
  83. ^ "Migranti e legittima difesa, è campagna sulla sicurezza". Il Sole 24 Ore (in Italian). 13 February 2018. Archived from the original on 14 February 2018. Retrieved 4 March 2018.
  84. ^ "Dalla flat tax all'abolizione della legge Fornero, quanto costano le promesse elettorali dei partiti". Il Sole 24 Ore (in Italian). 1 January 2018. Retrieved 4 March 2018.
  85. ^ "Porta a Porta 2017/18 – Puntata del 11/01/2018" (in Italian). Rai. Retrieved 4 March 2018.
  86. ^ "'Stop agli allevamenti per le pellicce e interventi nei circhi': il programma animalista di Berlusconi". La Stampa (in Italian). 20 January 2018. Retrieved 4 March 2018.
  87. ^ "Porta a Porta 2017/18 – Puntata del 18/01/2018" (in Italian). Rai. Retrieved 4 March 2018.
  88. ^ "Immigrati occupano la Statale, Salvini: 'Stanno male? Rispediamoli a casa loro!'". Il Populista (in Italian). 16 January 2018. Archived from the original on 19 February 2018. Retrieved 4 March 2018.
  89. ^ "Porta a Porta 2017/18 – Puntata del 17/01/2018" (in Italian). Rai. Retrieved 4 March 2018.
  90. ^ "Porta a Porta 2017/18 – Puntata del 09/01/2018" (in Italian). Rai. Retrieved 4 March 2018.
  91. ^ "M5S, Di Maio: 'Ridurre la burocrazia, aboliremo 400 leggi'. E lancia un sito ad hoc aperto a tutti". La Repubblica (in Italian). 10 January 2018. Retrieved 4 March 2018.
  92. ^ "Grasso: 'Eliminare il canone Rai? Noi vogliamo abolire le tasse per l'università come in Germania. E cancellare il Jobs Act'". Il Fatto Quotidiano (in Italian). 24 October 2017. Retrieved 4 March 2018.
  93. ^ Povoledo, Elisabetta (3 February 2018). "'Racial Hatred' Cited After African Immigrants Are Shot in Italy". The New York Times. Retrieved 4 March 2018.
  94. ^ "Raid razzista a Macerata, colpita anche la sede Pd". La Repubblica (in Italian). 3 February 2018. Retrieved 4 March 2018.
  95. ^ Birnbaum, Michael; Pitrelli, Stefano (3 February 2018). "Man shoots, wounds at least 6 'people of color' in Italian city amid tensions". The Washington Post. Retrieved 18 February 2022.
  96. ^ "Macerata, spari da auto in corsa, sei feriti: sono tutti di colore. Una vendetta per Pamela: bloccato un uomo avvolto nel tricolore". Il Messaggero (in Italian). 3 February 2018. Retrieved 4 March 2018.
  97. ^ "Nigerian charged over dismembered teen (4)". ANSA. 1 February 2018. Retrieved 18 February 2022.
  98. ^ Squires, Nick (3 February 2018). "Italian man arrested after African migrants injured in drive-by shootings". The Telegraph. Reuters. Archived from the original on 12 January 2022. Retrieved 18 February 2022.
  99. ^ "Macerata, donna fatta a pezzi e rinchiusa in due valigie: il corpo è della 18enne Pamela Mastropietro. Fermato un uomo". Il Fatto Quotidiano (in Italian). 31 January 2018. Retrieved 17 February 2022.
  100. ^ "L'omicidio di Pamela Mastropietro: caccia al quarto uomo nella casa di Macerata". Corriere della Sera. 21 February 2018. Retrieved 17 February 2022.
  101. ^ Bucchi, Giulio (23 February 2018). "Pamela Mastropietro, svolta clamorosa. A Macerata 'massimo riserbo', il nigeriano e le 'anomalie' che cambiano tutto". Libero Quotidiano (in Italian). Retrieved 17 February 2022.
  102. ^ "Raid Macerata, Traini voleva uccidere l'omicida di Pamela. Il legale: 'Ricevo allarmante solidarietà'". La Repubblica (in Italian). 5 February 2018. Retrieved 17 February 2022.
  103. ^ Legnani, Matteo (6 February 2018). "Pamela Mastropietro, parla la madre: 'Ringrazio Luca Traini per il cero acceso per mia figlia'". Libero Quotidiano (in Italian). Retrieved 17 February 2022.
  104. ^ Biccho, Michele (22 February 2018). "Pamela Mastropietro, l'orrore della seconda autopsia: 'I nigeriani l'hanno fatta soffrire, poi scuoiata'". Libero Quotidiano (in Italian). Retrieved 17 February 2022.
  105. ^ Bertocchi, Gabriele (22 February 2018). "I risultati choc dell'autopsia: 'Pamela Mastropietro senza il 20% di pelle'". Il Giornale (in Italian). Retrieved 17 February 2022.
  106. ^ Mowat, Laura (20 February 2018). "Italy election 2018: How immigration and a weak economy could decide the fate of Europe". Sunday Express. Retrieved 20 February 2018.
  107. ^ "Roberto Saviano: 'Il mandante morale dei fatti di Macerata è Salvini'". L'HuffPost (in Italian). 3 February 2018. Retrieved 4 March 2018.
  108. ^ "Raid razzista a Macerata, Salvini: 'Colpa di chi ci riempie di clandestini'. Renzi: 'Ora calma e responsabilità'". La Repubblica (in Italian). 3 February 2018. Retrieved 4 March 2018.
  109. ^ "Gentiloni: 'Odio e violenza non ci divideranno'. Renzi e Di Maio non cavalcano i fatti di Macerata: 'Ora calma, non strumentalizziamo'". L'HuffPost (in Italian). 3 February 2018. Retrieved 4 March 2018.
  110. ^ "Macerata: Minniti, nessuno cavalchi odio" (in Italian). Ansa. 27 January 2018. Retrieved 4 March 2018.
  111. ^ "Renzi: 'Servono calma e responsabilità'" (in Italian). Rai. 3 February 2018. Retrieved 4 March 2018.
  112. ^ Lilli, Manlio (6 March 2018). "Elezioni 2018, con il 21% Salvini è il nuovo ras di Macerata". Il Fatto Quotidiano (in Italian). Retrieved 17 February 2022.
  113. ^ "Avanti, insieme. Mozione congressuale di Matteo Renzi" (in Italian). Partito Democratico. 16 March 2017. Retrieved 16 March 2017.
  114. ^ "Avanti, insieme" (in Italian). Partito Democratico. 30 April 2017. Retrieved 30 April 2017.
  115. ^ De Rosa, Massimo (22 January 2018). "Partecipa, Scegli, Cambia". Massimo De Rosa (in Italian). Retrieved 4 March 2018.
  116. ^ Borrelli, David (24 January 2018). "Partecipa, Scegli, Cambia anche in Europa con la consultazione pubblica sulla sicurezza alimentare" (in Italian). Europe of Freedom and Direct Democracy. Archived from the original on 14 March 2018. Retrieved 4 March 2018.
  117. ^ "Forza Italia lancia primo manifesto: onestà, esperienza, saggezza" (in Italian). Askanews. 14 January 2018. Retrieved 14 January 2018.
  118. ^ "Coniato il primo manifesto di Forza Italia con lo slogan: 'Onestà, Esperiezna, Saggezza'". Il24 (in Italian). 2 February 2018. Archived from the original on 3 February 2018. Retrieved 4 March 2018.
  119. ^ "Con il Governo Salvini, prima gli Italiani" (in Italian). Facebook. 2 February 2018. Retrieved 4 March 2018.
  120. ^ "Prima gli italiani, Salvini invita Di Maio: 'Vieni alla nostra manifestazione di Milano'". Secolo d'Italia (in Italian). 23 February 1976. Retrieved 4 March 2018.
  121. ^ "Grasso adotta lo slogan di Corbyn: 'Per i molti, non per i pochi'". Il Messaggero (in Italian). 7 January 2018. Retrieved 4 March 2018.
  122. ^ "Assemblea Liberi e Uguali: 'Sinistra per i molti e non per i pochi', Grasso si ispira a Corbyn". Il Fatto Quotidiano (in Italian). 7 January 2018. Retrieved 4 March 2018.
  123. ^ "Fratelli d'Italia: Il voto che unisce l'Italia" (in Italian). YouTube. 26 January 2018. Retrieved 4 March 2018.
  124. ^ "Il voto che unisce l'Italia" (PDF) (in Italian). Fratelli d'Italia. 2 January 2018. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2 March 2018. Retrieved 27 April 2019.
  125. ^ "Manifesto" (in Italian). Più Europa. November 2017. Retrieved 4 March 2018.
  126. ^ "Più Europa – Con Emma Bonino" (in Italian). Facebook. 24 February 2018. Retrieved 4 March 2018.
  127. ^ "Comitati territoriali 'Insieme è meglio!'" (in Italian). Insieme 2018. December 2017. Retrieved 4 March 2018.
  128. ^ "Programma" (in Italian). Insieme 2018. January 2018. Retrieved 4 March 2018.
  129. ^ "Lorenzin presenta Civica Popolare: serve un vaccino contro l'incapacità e il populismo". Affari Italiani (in Italian). 9 January 2018. Retrieved 4 March 2018.
  130. ^ "Civica Popolare" (in Italian). Facebook. 18 January 2018. Retrieved 4 March 2018.
  131. ^ "Il programma" (in Italian). Potere al Popolo. December 2017. Retrieved 4 March 2018.
  132. ^ "Le liste di movimento di Potere al Popolo!". Il Manifesto (in Italian). 27 January 2018. Retrieved 4 March 2018.
  133. ^ "Simone Di Stefano – Vota più forte che puoi! Vota CasaPound!" (in Italian). YouTube. 13 February 2018. Retrieved 4 March 2018.
  134. ^ "Il 4 Marzo vota più forte che puoi" (in Italian). Facebook. February 2018. Retrieved 4 March 2018.
  135. ^ Maltoni, Francesco (26 February 2018). "Elezioni 2018, 4 motivi per cui questa è la peggior campagna elettorale di sempre". Leggi Oggi (in Italian). Retrieved 17 February 2022.
  136. ^ "La tv orfana dei faccia a faccia, sarà una campagna elettorale senza duelli". La Stampa (in Italian). 27 February 2018. Retrieved 4 March 2018.
  137. ^ "Prodi-Berlusconi, duello ad alta tensione". Corriere della Sera (in Italian). Retrieved 4 March 2018.
  138. ^ "Di Maio annulla faccia a faccia con Renzi: non è più lui il leader" (in Italian). Rai. 27 November 2013. Retrieved 4 March 2018.
  139. ^ "Quinta Colonna – L'intervista a Renzi" (in Italian). Mediaset. 7 December 2017. Retrieved 4 March 2018.
  140. ^ "Porta a Porta – Intervista a Berlusconi" (in Italian). Rai. 11 January 2019. Retrieved 4 March 2018.
  141. ^ "L'intervista a Luigi Di Maio, candidato premier del M5S" (in Italian). La7. 16 January 2018. Retrieved 4 March 2018.
  142. ^ Tentoni, Luca (24 February 2018). "Elezioni, la Tv ha ancora il suo peso". Mente Politica (in Italian). Retrieved 17 February 2022.
  143. ^ Acquavitu, Barbara (7 October 2017). "Il patto a quattro Pd-Ap-Lega-Fi regge. Primo ok al Rosatellum, ma da martedì in Aula entra nel mirino dei franchi tiratori". L'HuffPost (in Italian). Retrieved 4 March 2018.
  144. ^ "Rosatellum approvato alla Camera. Evitata la trappola dello scrutinio segreto. Via libera al salva-Verdini". La Repubblica (in Italian). 12 October 2017. Retrieved 4 March 2018.
  145. ^ "Il Rosatellum bis è legge dello Stato: via libera definitivo al Senato con 214 sì". La Repubblica (in Italian). 26 October 2017. Retrieved 4 March 2018.
  146. ^ Acquaviva, Mariano (20 February 2018). "Rosatellum bis: cos'è e come funziona". La Legge per Tutti (in Italian). Retrieved 19 February 2022.
  147. ^ Falci, Giuseppe Alberto (10 March 2017). "Rosatellum, come funziona la legge elettorale e cosa prevede". Corriere della Sera (in Italian). Retrieved 4 March 2018.
  148. ^ "Rosatellum 2.0, tutti i rischi del nuovo Patto del Nazareno". Il Sole 24 Ore (in Italian). 21 September 2017. Retrieved 4 March 2018.
  149. ^ a b Chughtai, Alia (4 March 2018). "Understanding Italian elections 2018". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 6 March 2018.
  150. ^ Cavallaro, Matteo; Pregliasco, Lorenzo (15 January 2018). "'Hand-to-hand' combat in Italy's election". Politico. Retrieved 6 March 2018.
  151. ^ "Elezioni, come si vota con il Rosatellum, debutta la nuova scheda elettorale". Today (in Italian). 20 October 2017. Retrieved 4 March 2018.
  152. ^ "Il Rosatellum bis è legge. Ma come funziona?" (in Italian). AGI. 23 July 2017. Retrieved 4 March 2018.
  153. ^ "Elezioni trasparenti. Politiche 2018" (in Italian). Italian Minister of the Interior.
  154. ^ "Elezioni, 'Salvini, Berlusconi, Meloni' e il tricolore, il simbolo del centro-destra per l'estero". Affaritaliani (in Italian). 21 January 2018. Retrieved 17 February 2022.
  155. ^ Binelli, Raffaello (6 March 2018). "Salvini vince la sua sfida: eletto anche in Calabria". Il Giornale (in Italian). Retrieved 17 February 2022.
  156. ^ "Elezioni Camera 4 marzo 2018 – Collegio di Latina". Eligendo Archivio (in Italian). 4 March 2018. Retrieved 17 February 2022.
  157. ^ Formigoni, Lucio; Forni, Mattia (March 2018). "Elezioni politiche 2018: Analisi post voto" (PDF) (in Italian). Ipsos. Retrieved 18 February 2022.
  158. ^ "Salvini: 'La Lega guiderà governo'. Di Maio: 'Inizia Terza Repubblica'". La Repubblica (in Italian). 5 March 2018. Retrieved 5 March 2018.
  159. ^ "Renzi: 'Lascerò dopo nuovo governo. Pd all'opposizione'. Ma è scontro nel partito: 'Via subito'". La Repubblica (in Italian). 5 March 2018. Retrieved 5 March 2018.
  160. ^ Rüb, Matthias (6 March 2018). "Was die Populisten wirklich wollen". Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung (in German).
  161. ^ "Italy's Salvini open to coalition with 5Stars". Politico. 14 March 2018. Retrieved 8 April 2018.
  162. ^ Tanner, Simon (8 March 2018). "Renzi resigns and hands over running of PD to Martina". Corriere della Sera. Retrieved 17 February 2022.
  163. ^ Zampano, Giada (12 March 2018). "Matteo Renzi, exit stage left". Politico. Retrieved 17 February 2022.
  164. ^ "Italienische Wahlsieger einigen sich auf Parlamentspräsidenten". Der Spiegel. 24 March 2018.
  165. ^ "Italienische Wahlsieger einigen sich auf Parlamentspräsidenten [1:10]". Südtirol News (in German). 25 March 2018. Archived from the original on 30 March 2018. Retrieved 29 March 2018.
  166. ^ "Five Star Movement (M5S) courts Democratic Party (PD) for Italian coalition". Deutsche Welle. Retrieved 8 April 2018.
  167. ^ "Italian president makes fresh push to form government". Financial Times. 18 April 2018. Retrieved 18 April 2018.
  168. ^ "Italy Picks New Mediator in Search for Government Majority". Bllomberg. 23 April 2018. Retrieved 24 April 2018.
  169. ^ "Fünf-Sterne-Bewegung fordert Neuwahlen". Die Zeit (in German). Retrieved 30 April 2018.
  170. ^ "Fünf-Sterne-Bewegung verlangt Neuwahlen". Der Spiegel (in German). 30 April 2018. Retrieved 30 April 2018.
  171. ^ "Ratlosigkeit in Rom: Sind Neuwahlen nötig?". OÖNachrichten (in German). Retrieved 2 May 2018.
  172. ^ "Italian president says 'neutral' government should lead until end of year". The Guardian. 7 May 2018. Retrieved 9 May 2018.
  173. ^ "Italy's populist parties given 24 hours to avert fresh elections". Financial Times. 9 May 2018. Retrieved 9 May 2018.
  174. ^ "Governo M5S-Lega, Berlusconi: nessun veto all'intesa ma no alla fiducia". La Repubblica (in Italian). 9 May 2018. Retrieved 9 May 2018.
  175. ^ "Italy's populist 5 Star, League parties reach deal on government program". MarketWatch. 13 May 2018. Retrieved 13 May 2018.
  176. ^ "Italian parties agree government program, say no threat to euro". Reuters. 18 May 2018. Retrieved 18 May 2018.
  177. ^ "Italy's 5-Star Movement and League publish anti-austerity government programme". France 24. Agence France-Presse. 18 May 2018. Retrieved 17 February 2022.
  178. ^ "Italy awaits PM nominee after populists unveil government programme". The Local. 19 May 2018. Retrieved 19 May 2018.
  179. ^ "Italy's 5-star members back coalition program with League in online..." Reuters. 18 May 2018.
  180. ^ "Italy's Populist League Gives Public a Say on Coalition Program". Bloomberg. 18 May 2018. Retrieved 26 September 2020.
  181. ^ "Italians back League, 5-Star plan as groups ready government team". Reuters. 20 May 2018. Retrieved 20 May 2018.
  182. ^ "Italy populists name PM candidate". BBC. 21 May 2018. Retrieved 22 May 2018.
  183. ^ Giorgio, Massimiliano Di. "Italian president hesitates as novice put forward as premier". U.S. Retrieved 21 May 2018.
  184. ^ "The Latest: Populists' premier gets presidential mandate". ABC News. Archived from the original on 24 May 2018. Retrieved 23 May 2018.
  185. ^ "Di Battista all'attacco di Mattarella: 'Non si opponga agli italiani'. La lunga giornata del Colle". La Repubblica (in Italian). 23 May 2018. Retrieved 23 May 2018.
  186. ^ "Governo, il giorno della rinuncia di Conte. Ecco come è fallita la trattativa su Savona". La Repubblica (in Italian). 27 May 2018. Retrieved 27 May 2018.
  187. ^ "L'ora più buia di Mattarella: la scelta obbligata di difendere l'interesse nazionale dopo il no dei partiti alla soluzione Giorgetti per l'Economia". L'Huffington Post (in Italian). 27 May 2018. Retrieved 27 May 2018.
  188. ^ "Governo, firme e tweet di solidarietà a Mattarella. Ma spuntano anche minacce di morte". Repubblica.it. 27 May 2018.
  189. ^ "Cottarelli accetta l'incarico: 'Senza fiducia il Paese al voto dopo agosto'". La Repubblica (in Italian). 28 May 2018. Retrieved 28 May 2018.
  190. ^ "Cottarelli accetta di formare il governo: con la fiducia al voto nel 2019, senza dopo agosto". Corriere della Sera (in Italian). Retrieved 29 May 2018.
  191. ^ "Governo, Mattarella dà l'incarico. Cottarelli: 'Senza fiducia elezioni dopo agosto'" (in Italian). ANSA. 28 May 2018. Retrieved 29 May 2018.
  192. ^ "Berlusconi: 'No alla fiducia e centrodestra unito al voto'. Ma Salvini: 'Alleanza con Fi? Ci penserò'". La Repubblica (in Italian). 28 May 2018. Retrieved 29 May 2018.
  193. ^ "Pd, Martina: 'Fiducia a Cottarelli'. Renzi: 'Salviamo il Paese'. E i dem: manifestazione nazionale a Roma il 1° giugno". La Repubblica (in Italian). 28 May 2018. Retrieved 29 May 2018.
  194. ^ "Incontro informale in corso tra Cottarelli e MattarellaI tre scenari possibili". Corriere della Sera (in Italian). Retrieved 30 May 2018.
  195. ^ "Governo, Cottarelli vede Mattarella. Ora al lavoro alla Camera. Riparte la trattativa giallo-verde". La Repubblica (in Italian). 30 May 2018. Retrieved 30 May 2018.
  196. ^ "Di Maio: 'Impeachment non più sul tavolo'. E si riapre l'ipotesi di un governo Lega-M5s". La Repubblica (in Italian). 29 May 2018. Retrieved 30 May 2018.
  197. ^ Di Giorgio, Massimiliano; Jones, Gavin. "Italy's Conte sworn in as PM of anti-establishment government". Reuters. Retrieved 17 February 2022.

Further reading