An export variant of the missile
TypeCruise missile
Anti-ship missile
Anti-submarine missile
Submarine-launched cruise missile
Air-launched cruise missile
Land-attack missile
Surface-to-surface missile
Place of originRussia
Service history
In service1994
Used bySee Operators
WarsSyrian Civil War
Russo-Ukrainian War
Production history
ManufacturerNovator Design Bureau, KTRV, MKB Fakel, NPO Mash, Raduga, NPO Zvezda Strela (Orenburg)
Unit cost$6.5 million (export), $980,000 (domestic)[1]
MassVaries on variant, from 1,300 kg-1,780 kg-2,300 kg
LengthVaries on variant, from 6.2 m to 8.9 m
Diameter0.533 m
Warhead400–500 kg HE or thermonuclear[2][3][4]

EngineMulti-stage solid-fuel rocket, turbojet engine for 3M-54/E/TE/E1/TE1, -14/E/TE, solid fuel rocket for 91RE1/RTE2
91RE1: 50 km

3M-54E (export version): 220 km
3M-54E1/3M-14E (export version): 300 km
3M-54/3M-54T: 660 km (estimate)

3M-14/3M-14T: 1,500–2,500 km
Kalibr-M (under development): 4,500 km
Flight ceiling1,000 m
Flight altitude50–150 m AGL
20 m over water[2]
Maximum speed 0.8–2.5–3.0 Mach
Inertial guidance plus terminal active radar homing, by satellites[citation needed], DSMAC
Accuracy50 m CEP (Club-T, claimed) [5]
naval ships, submarines, containers, airplanes, TEL

The 3M-54 Kalibr, (Калибр, caliber), also referred to it as 3M54-1 Kalibr, 3M14 Biryuza (Бирюза, turquoise), (NATO reporting name SS-N-27 Sizzler and SS-N-30A) is a family of Russian cruise missiles developed by the Novator Design Bureau (OKB-8). It first saw service in 1994. There are ship-launched, submarine-launched and air-launched versions of the missile, and variants for anti-ship, anti-submarine and land attack use. Some versions have a second propulsion stage that initiates a supersonic sprint in the terminal approach to the target, reducing the time that target's defense systems have to react, while subsonic versions have greater range than the supersonic variants. The missile can carry a warhead weighing up to 500 kilograms (1,100 lb) of explosive or a thermonuclear warhead.


The missile is a modular system with five versions: two anti-shipping types, one for land attack and two anti-submarine types. The missile is designed to share common parts between the surface and submarine-launched variants but each missile consists of different components, for example, the booster. The missile can be launched from a surface ship using a vertical launching system (VLS).

It has a booster with thrust vectoring capability. The missile launched from a submarine torpedo tube has no need for such an addition but has a conventional booster instead. The air launched version is held in a container that is dropped as the missile launches, detaching from the container.

There are several claims about the maximum range of Kalibr land attack versions in use by Russia. The U.S. Department of Defense estimates its range at 1,400 km (870 mi), and Russian Defence Minister Sergei Shoigu put its range at "almost 1,500 km (930 mi)." Following its first operational firing in October 2015, Russian Ministry of Defence statements suggested a range of 2,000 km (1,200 mi), while a December 2015 Office of Naval Intelligence report gathered a number of Russian statements projecting ranges between 1,500-2,500 km (1,600 mi).[2][6]

Discrepancies in range values may be political declarations for strategic effect,[2] or potentially longer 2,500 km-range claims could be associated with a thermonuclear armed variant while shorter 1,500 km-range estimates are for the conventionally armed missile.[6]

Launch of production of a submarine-variant of the 3M14TE Kalibr-NK called the Kalibr-PL missile occurred in 2012, according to state television news (broadcast of 11.10.2015).[7] Details of this version – a maximum speed of Mach 3, a range of 4,000 km, basing in the air, on land, on water and under water.[8] The missile can make in-flight maneuvers 147 times or more (in any direction), it has a minimum height of 10 meters, an average one of 20 – 50 meters (up to 1000 m), it will automatically follow terrain, it can be controlled in flight.[9]

Russia has improved the targeting system of its ship- and submarine-launched Kalibr cruise missiles to improve their ability to conduct time sensitive attacks. Defence Minister Sergei Shoigu revealed the development, which was initiated as a result of combat experience in Syria, in an interview with the Moskovsky Komsomolets newspaper on 22 September 2019.[10][11]

Terminal supersonic flight

3M-54E mockup
3M-54E mockup

The Russian domestic variant (3M54T / 3M54K) and export variants (3M54TE/3M54KE) fly at sub-sonic speeds while achieving supersonic speed (Mach 3.0) as they near their target. They are also capable of performing very high angled defensive high speed maneuvers in contrast to the common linear flight path of other anti-ship cruise missiles.[12] The terminal speed of these weapons means that modern defense systems have a harder time to repel them and their precision makes them lethal to mobile targets such as destroyers.[13]

Launch platforms

A Club-K erected in a standard shipping container
A Club-K erected in a standard shipping container

'Club-K' – a Russian container complex of missile weapons, placed in the standard 20- and 40-foot sea container. It is designed to defeat surface and ground targets. The complex can be mounted on shorelines, vessels of various classes, rail platforms and trucks. It is a modification of the Kalibr missile system.

Russian submarines of the Kilo class, Lada class, Amur[14] class, Akula class, Yasen class, and Borei class are launch platforms for the missiles.

Indian Navy frigate INS Tabar firing the Club missile
Indian Navy frigate INS Tabar firing the Club missile

The Russian Admiral Gorshkov class, Admiral Grigorovich class, and Gepard class frigates are able to carry these missiles. Also the Indian Talwar class frigate is another shipborne launch platform for the Club missile system.

The Russian Gremyashchy class, Buyan-M class, the second batch of Steregushchy class corvettes and the Karakurt class are low displacement platforms with Kalibr system ability.[citation needed]

It is believed by some analysts that an air-launched variant will be developed to arm the Tu-142s currently in service with the Russian navy.[citation needed]

A Club-K variant, which is disguised as a shipping container that can be placed on a truck, train, or merchant vessel, was advertised in 2010 and was shown for the first time at the MAKS 2011 air show.[15][16][17] Putting the launcher system into a standard shipping container allows the missiles to be moved and stored without arousing suspicion, which in turn renders pre-emptive strikes against the launcher very difficult.

Operational history

Russian military intervention in the Syrian civil war

Main article: Russian military intervention in the Syrian civil war

2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine

Main article: 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine

Kalibr cruise missiles have been widely used by Russian forces since the start of the 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine on 24 February 2022. The opening assault is said to have included at least 30 cruise missiles, targetting command and control points, air bases, and air-defense batteries. The missiles were likely fired by the Buyan-class corvettes, Admiral Grigorovich-class frigates and Kilo-class submarines of the Russian Black Sea Fleet.[47] Ukraine's military command reported widespread usage of Kalibr cruise missiles in strikes against strategic and non-combat targets across Ukraine.[48][49] According to military analyst Brent Eastwood, Kalibr is an equivalent to the American Tomahawk missile and can easily overcome Ukrainian air defences.[47] Most notable incidents were:


Domestic variants are basic versions of this missile family; these are the 3M54 and 3M14. The export model is called Club (formerly Klub). There are two major launch platforms: the Kalibr-PL (export Club-S), designed for use from submarines, and the Kalibr-NK (export Club-N), designed for surface ships. These two launch platforms can be equipped with the following warhead and guidance combinations:[57]

Domestic variants

Export variants

3M-54E1 mockup
3M-54E1 mockup


3M-14E mockup
3M-14E mockup
91RE1 mockup
91RE1 mockup


91RTE2 mockup
91RTE2 mockup


Land-based anti-ship (3M-54E2) and land-attack (3M-14E1) self-propelled missile system for coastal defense. Both missile variants in the system arsenal weigh 1,700 kg and feature a 450 kg warhead and flight speed of 240 m/s. According to the manufacturer, in land-attack mode, the system has a CEP of 50 m.[5]



Map of Kalibr operators
Map of Kalibr operators

See also


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