Accession of Moldova to the European Union
StatusCandidate negotiating
Earliest possible entry2030
Application
Potential candidate17 June 2022
Membership application3 March 2022
Candidate status23 June 2022
Screened & negotiations commence25 June 2024
Clusters unopen35
Chapters unopen6
Clusters open0
Chapters open0
Clusters closed0
Chapters closed0
Memberships & Treaties
Association Agreement
1 July 2016
Economic and monetary policy
EU Free Trade AgreementFree trade area part of the Moldova-EU Association Agreement
World Trade Organization (WTO)The Republic of Moldova has been a member of WTO since 26 July 2001[1]
Euro & the EurozoneThe euro is widely accepted in Moldova, although it has no formal approval, and the official currency of the country is the Moldovan leu
Travel
Energy
Energy CommunityMember since March 2010
EuratomThe Republic of Moldova has no nuclear power plants and research reactors and has no plans to introduce in the near future nuclear energy as an option for power generation or any research instrument.[2]
ENTSO-EMoldelectrica has been an Observer Member since 22 November 2023[3]
Foreign and military policy
North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)
  • Individual Partnership Action Plan since 19 May 2006
  • Neutrality is enshrined in Moldova's Constitution, meaning NATO accession is unlikely, excluding a constitutional reform
Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE)Member since 30 January 1992
Human rights and international courts
Council of Europe (CoE)Moldova became a member of the Council of Europe on 13 July 1995[4]
International Criminal Court (ICC)On 12 October 2010, the Republic of Moldova confirmed ratification of the Rome Statute.[5]
International Court of Justice (ICJ)Moldova has been entitled to appear before the Court since 2 March 1992.
Impact (27+1)
Population446,828,803450,900,630
Increase 0.5%
Area4,233,262 km2
1,634,472 mi2
4,267,105 km2
1,647,539 mi2
Increase 1%
incl. Transnistria
HDI0.8960.891 Decrease 0.5%
GDP (PPP)$25.399 trillion$25.821 trillion Increase 1.6%
GDP per capita (PPP)$56,928$57,625 Increase 1.2%
GDP$17.818 trillion$17.834 trillion Increase 0.1%
GDP per capita$39,940$39,552 Decrease 0.1%
Gini30.029.86 Positive decrease 0.1%
Official Languages2424 (no changes)
Romanian is the official language of Moldova and it is already an official language of the EU since Romania acceded to the EU in 2007.

The accession of Moldova to the European Union (EU) is on the current agenda for future enlargement of the EU.

Following an application by Moldova in March 2022, Moldova was officially granted candidate status by EU on 22 June 2022.

Moldova set a target date of 2030 for EU Accession.[6]

On 14 December 2023, the European Council decided to open accession negotiations with Moldova.[7] It is one of nine current EU candidate countries, together with Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Georgia, Montenegro, North Macedonia, Serbia, Turkey and Ukraine. Accession negotiations officially began on 25 June 2024, simultaneously as those with Ukraine.[8]

History

Main article: Moldova–European Union relations

European perspective

The European Parliament passed a resolution in 2014 stating that "in accordance with Article 49 of the Treaty on European Union, Georgia, Moldova and Ukraine, as well as any other European country, have a European perspective and can apply for EU membership in compliance with the principles of democracy, respect for fundamental freedoms and human rights, minority rights and ensuring the rule of rights".[9]

Membership application

After the outbreak of the 2022 Russian invasion in Ukraine, President of Moldova Maia Sandu signed on 3 March 2022 the application for EU membership, together with Igor Grosu, President of the Moldovan Parliament; and Natalia Gavrilița, Prime Minister of Moldova.[10]

Questionnaire

On 11 April 2022, the Minister of Foreign Affairs and European Integration of Moldova Nicu Popescu received a questionnaire from the European Commission (EC) following a meeting with the European Commissioner for Neighbourhood and Enlargement Olivér Várhelyi as a result of Moldova's application for candidacy.[11] The response to the first part of the questionnaire was submitted back to the EC through the Delegation of the European Union to Moldova's head Janis Mazeiks by the Prime Minister of Moldova Natalia Gavrilița on 22 April,[12] while the responses to the second part were submitted on 12 May 2022.[13]

Recommendation

On 17 June 2022, the European Commission formally recommended that the European Council grant the Republic of Moldova the perspective to become a member of the European Union and candidate status for accession, with a number of conditions for the opening of accession negotiations.[citation needed]

Candidacy

On 23 June 2022, Moldova received the status of candidate together with Ukraine. Both countries received candidate status under the commitment of structural reforms. Moldova's structural reforms include:

  1. improving economic efficiency
  2. reducing corruption
  3. better enforcing property rights
  4. reducing the size of state-owned enterprises
  5. improving energy efficiency
  6. improving the labor market

On 22 June 2023, EU Neighbourhood and Enlargement Commissioner Olivér Várhelyi provided an oral update on Moldova's progress toward the reforms.[14]

On 13 September 2023, during the State of the European Union Address, President of the European Commission, Ursula von der Leyen stated that the future of Moldova is "in our Union".[15]

Negotiations

The 2023 enlargement package report was released by the European Commission on 8 November 2023, including updates on Moldova's acquis alignment and a recommendation for the Council to open accession negotiations.[16][17]

On 14 December 2023, the European Council decided to open accession negotiations with Moldova.[7] Accession negotiations officially opened on 25 June 2024, at the same time as those with Ukraine.[18]

Chapter and screening dates
Progression 0 / 35 0 / 35 0 / 35 0 / 35
Acquis chapter[19] Screening started Screening completed Chapter opened Chapter closed
Overview 0 out of 35 0 out of 35 0 out of 35 0 out of 35
1. Free Movement of Goods
2. Freedom of Movement For Workers
3. Right of Establishment & Freedom To Provide Services
4. Free Movement of Capital
5. Public Procurement
6. Company Law
7. Intellectual Property Law
8. Competition Policy
9. Financial Services
10. Information Society & Media
11. Agriculture & Rural Development
12. Food Safety, Veterinary & Phytosanitary Policy
13. Fisheries
14. Transport Policy
15. Energy
16. Taxation
17. Economic & Monetary Policy
18. Statistics
19. Social Policy & Employment
20. Enterprise & Industrial Policy
21. Trans-European Networks
22. Regional Policy & Coordination of Structural Instruments
23. Judiciary & Fundamental Rights
24. Justice, Freedom & Security
25. Science & Research
26. Education & Culture
27. Environment & Climate Change
28. Consumer & Health Protection
29. Customs Union
30. External Relations
31. Foreign, Security & Defence Policy
32. Financial Control
33. Financial & Budgetary Provisions
34. Institutions
35. Other Issues
Report history
Clusters Acquis Chapter February 2023 Report[20] November 2023 Report[21]
1. Fundamentals Public administration reform - Some level of preparation
23. Judiciary & Fundamental Rights - Some level of preparation
24. Justice, Freedom & Security Some level of preparation Some level of preparation
Economic criteria - Some level of preparation†
5. Public Procurement Early stage Some level of preparation
18. Statistics Some level of preparation Some level of preparation
32. Financial Control Early stage Early stage
2. Internal Market 1. Free Movement of Goods Some level of preparation Some level of preparation
2. Freedom of Movement For Workers Early stage Early stage
3. Right of Establishment & Freedom To Provide Services Some level of preparation Some level of preparation
4. Free Movement of Capital Some level of preparation Moderately prepared††
6. Company Law Early stage Some level of preparation†
7. Intellectual Property Law Some level of preparation Some level of preparation
8. Competition Policy Some level of preparation Some level of preparation
9. Financial Services Early stage Some level of preparation
28. Consumer & Health Protection Some level of preparation Some level of preparation
3. Competitiveness
and inclusive growth
10. Digital transformation & Media Some level of preparation Some level of preparation
16. Taxation Early stage Some level of preparation
17. Economic & Monetary Policy Some level of preparation Some level of preparation
19. Social Policy & Employment Early stage Some level of preparation
20. Enterprise & Industrial Policy Some level of preparation Some level of preparation
25. Science & Research Moderately prepared Moderately prepared
26. Education & Culture Some level of preparation Some level of preparation
29. Customs Union Some level of preparation Moderately prepared††
4. Green agenda
and sustainable connectivity
14. Transport Some level of preparation Some level of preparation
15. Energy Some level of preparation Moderately prepared††
21. Trans-European Networks Some level of preparation Some level of preparation
27. Environment & Climate Change Early stage Early stage
5. Resources, agriculture
and cohesion
11. Agriculture & Rural Development Early stage Early stage
12. Food Safety, Veterinary & Phytosanitary Policy Some level of preparation Some level of preparation
13. Fisheries Early stage Early stage
22. Regional Policy & Coordination of Structural Instruments Early stage Early stage
33. Financial & Budgetary Provisions Early stage Early stage
6. External relations 30. External Relations Moderately prepared Moderately prepared
31. Foreign, Security & Defence Policy Moderately prepared Good level of preparation†††
34. Institutions - -
35. Other Issues - -
Legend:

Chapters in bold indicate completed chapters.

indicates chapters in which the European Commission has simultaneously awarded the chapter both "early stage" AND "some level of preparation".

†† indicates chapters in which the European Commission has simultaneously awarded the chapter both "some level of preparation" AND "moderately prepared".

††† indicates chapters in which the European Commission has simultaneously awarded the chapter both "moderately prepared" AND "Good level of preparation".

  totally incompatible   early stage   considerable efforts needed   some level of preparation   further efforts needed   moderately prepared   no major difficulties expected   good level of preparation   well prepared / well advanced

Treaties

Association Agreement

Main article: Moldova–European Union Association Agreement

The EU Association Agreement (AA) was initialed on 29 November 2013 in Brussels.[22] It was signed on 27 June 2014 and was being provisionally applied (in particular the DCFTA) starting 1 September 2014.

On 1 July 2016, the Association Agreement (AA) between the European Union and the Republic of Moldova fully came into force, following ratification by all 31 signatories.[23]

The parties committed to co-operate and converge economic policy, legislation, and regulation across a broad range of areas, including equal rights for workers, the exchange of information and staff in the area of justice, the modernisation of Moldova's energy infrastructure, and access to the European Investment Bank. The parties committed to regular summit meetings, and meetings among ministers, other officials, and experts.[citation needed]

The Association Agreement commits Moldova to economic, judicial and financial reforms to converge its policies and legislation to those of the European Union.[citation needed]

The 30 parties are Moldova, the EU and Euratom and the 27 EU members.[citation needed]

Ratification

Ratification history
Signatory Date Institution In favour Against AB Deposited[24] Reference
 Austria 8 July 2015 National Council Approved 28 August 2015 [25]
23 July 2015 Federal Council Approved [25]
Presidential Assent Granted
 Belgium
23 April 2015 Chamber of Representatives 102 17 18 1 February 2016 [26][27]
Royal Assent (federal law)
1 July 2015
Walloon
Parliament
(regional)
(community)
63 2 4 [28]
61 2 4 [28]
22 June 2015 German-speaking Community 16 2 1 [29]
24 June 2015 French Community 71 0 8 [30]
20 November 2015 Brussels Regional Parliament 69 3 3 [31][32]
20 November 2015
Brussels United
Assembly
[33]
(FR language)
(NL language)
53 3 1 [34][35]
14 0 2 [34][35]
17 June 2015
Flemish
Parliament
(regional)
(community)
83 18 [36]
88 19 [36]
24 June 2015 COCOF Assembly 71 0 8 [37][38]
 Bulgaria 24 July 2014 National Assembly 91 0 0 9 September 2014 [39]
28 July 2014 Presidential Assent Granted [40]
 Croatia 12 December 2014 Parliament 119 0 0 24 March 2015 [41]
18 December 2014 Presidential Assent Granted [42]
 Cyprus 7 May 2015 House of Representatives Approved 18 August 2015 [43]
22 May 2015 Presidential Assent Granted [44]
 Czech Republic 18 March 2015 Senate 53 0 10 12 June 2015 [45]
9 April 2015 Chamber of Deputies 122 0 6 [45]
19 May 2015 Presidential Assent Granted [46]
 Denmark 18 December 2014 Parliament 101 8 0 18 February 2015 [47]
 Estonia 4 November 2014 Assembly 62 0 0 12 January 2015 [48][49]
13 November 2014 Presidential Assent Granted [50]
European Union European Union and EAEC 13 November 2014 European Parliament 535 94 44 19 April 2016 (EAEC)
23 May 2016 (EU)
[51]
Council of the European Union
 Finland 10 March 2015 Parliament Approved 6 May 2015 [52]
24 April 2015 Presidential Assent Granted [53]
 France 3 March 2015 Senate Approved 3 July 2015 [54]
16 April 2015 National Assembly Approved [54]
27 April 2015 Presidential Assent Granted [54]
 Germany 8 May 2015 Bundesrat Approved 22 July 2015 [55]
26 March 2015 Federal Diet Approved [56]
27 May 2015 Presidential Assent Granted [57]
 Greece 18 November 2015 Parliament Approved 6 January 2016 [58]
24 November 2015 Presidential Promulgation Granted [59]
 Hungary 25 November 2014 National Assembly 133 0 6 7 April 2015 [60]
5 December 2014 Presidential Assent Granted [60]
Republic of Ireland Ireland 27 January 2015 Dáil Éireann 58 19 0 17 April 2015 [61]
 Italy 26 November 2015 Senate 151 35 11 3 February 2016 [62]
29 July 2015 Chamber of Deputies 314 88 36 [62]
7 December 2015 Presidential Assent Granted [63]
 Latvia 14 July 2014 Parliament 79 0 0 2 October 2014 [64]
18 July 2014 Presidential Assent Granted [65]
 Lithuania 8 July 2014 Parliament 84 0 1 29 July 2014 [66]
11 July 2014 Presidential Assent Granted [67]
 Luxembourg 18 March 2015 Chamber of Deputies 55 2 0 12 May 2015 [68]
12 April 2015 Grand Ducal Promulgation Granted [69]
 Malta 21 August 2014 House of Representatives Approved 29 August 2014 [70][71][72]
 Moldova 2 July 2014 Parliament 59 4 0 23 July 2014 [73]
8 July 2014 Presidential Assent Granted [74]
 Netherlands 7 July 2015 Senate Adopted 21 September 2015 [75]
7 April 2015 House of Representatives Adopted [76]
28 July 2015 Royal Promulgation Granted [75]
 Poland 18 December 2014 Senate 79 0 0 24 March 2015 [77]
5 December 2014 House of Representatives 420 0 0 [78][79]
29 December 2014 Presidential Assent Granted [80]
 Portugal 20 March 2015 National Assembly Approved 13 May 2015 [81]
22 April 2015 Presidential Assent Granted [82]
 Romania 2 July 2014 Chamber of Deputies 284 1 1 14 July 2014 [83]
3 July 2014 Senate 122 0 0 [84]
9 July 2014 Presidential Assent Granted [85]
 Slovakia 23 September 2014 National Council 117 0 0 21 October 2014 [86]
16 October 2014 Presidential Assent Granted [87]
 Slovenia 13 May 2015 National Assembly 70 3 0 27 July 2015 [88][89]
21 May 2015 Presidential Assent Granted [90]
 Spain 27 May 2015 Senate Approved 28 July 2015 [91]
30 April 2015 Congress of Deputies 303 0 1 [92]
Royal Assent Granted
 Sweden 26 November 2014 Parliament 249 44 0 9 January 2015 [93]
 United Kingdom 9 March 2015 House of Lords Approved 8 April 2015 [94]
23 February 2015 House of Commons Approved [95]
19 March 2015 Royal Assent Order Made [96]

Malta

The ratification was performed in accordance with article 4(2)(b) of the Maltese European Union Act,[70] which reads that:

"Provided that with regard to treaties and international conventions which Malta may accede to as Member State of the European Union, and treaties and international conventions which Malta is bound to ratify in its own name or on behalf of the European Community by virtue of its membership within the European Union, these shall come into force one month following their being submitted in order to be discussed by the Standing Committee on Foreign and European Affairs."[71]

As the treaty was submitted to the Standing Committee on Foreign and European Affairs on 21 July 2014,[72] the treaty came into force as part of the Maltese legislation on 21 August 2014.[citation needed]

United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

The ratification was based on The European Union (Definition of Treaties) (Association Agreement) (Moldova) Order 2015, made in accordance with section 1(3) of the European Communities Act 1972, after having been approved by a resolution of each House of Parliament.

The agreement applied to the United Kingdom as an EU-member state until Brexit on 31 January 2020. During the transition period that followed Brexit, the agreement until 31 December 2020, the agreement still applied to the UK. The UK and Moldova announced on 8 October 2020 an agreement replacing the EU-Moldova Association Agreement between them,[97] which was provisionally applied from 1 January 2021.[98]

Free trade area

The agreement established a Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Area (DCFTA) between the EU and Moldova, including "the removal of import duties for most goods traded between the EU and Moldova" and "broad mutual access to trade in services for both partners".[99]

Public opinion

A poll in June 2018 found that 46% preferred that Moldova join the EU versus 36% that preferred to join the Eurasian Economic Union.[100] A March 2022 survey conducted by Magenta Consulting found that, after president Maia Sandu announced that her government had officially submitted an application for membership of the European Union, 61% of Moldovans (40% 'totally', 21% 'rather') were in favour of EU membership, up from 52% before the start of the 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine.[101]

Date Question Totally support Rather support Rather don't support Don't support at all Don't know/No answer
March 2022 – Magenta[102] EU membership 40% 21% 10% 21% 8%

In May 2022, a poll in Moldova found that 56.1% supported EU membership.[103]

Two July 2023 polls in Moldova showed 63% support (strongly and somewhat) and 59% for EU membership.[104][105]

A referendum on joining the EU is planned for autumn 2024. There will be no voting stations in Transnistria; however, residents there will be free to travel to other areas of Moldova to vote.[106]

Gagauzia

On 2 February 2014, the Autonomous Territorial Unit of Gagauzia held two referendums on European integration. In one, 98.4% voted in favour of joining the Customs Union of Belarus, Kazakhstan, and Russia, while in the second 97.2% opposed further integration with the EU. 98.9% also supported the proposition that Gagauzia could declare independence if Moldova unified with Romania.[107] There is concern in Gagauzia that Moldova's integration with the EU could lead to such a unification with EU member Romania, which is unpopular in the autonomous region.[108]

Schengen visa liberalization

Moldova citizens have been able to travel to the Schengen area from 28 April 2014 without a visa. However from May 2025, Moldovans will need to comply with the EU's ETIAS system before entering any of the EU/Schengen member countries.[109]

Unification of Moldova and Romania

Main article: Unification of Moldova and Romania

There is some support for the unification of Moldova and Romania, which would incorporate the current territory of Moldova into Romania and thus into the EU.[110] About 44% of the Moldovans that were polled in 2021 supported such a scenario.[111]

Impact of joining

Member countries Population[112] Area (km2) GDP
(US$)[113]
GDP
per capita (US$)
Languages
Moldova Moldova 2,512,758 30,334 16 billion 6,410 Romanian
EU27 447,007,596 4,233,262 17,046 billion 38,134 24
EU27+1 449,520,896
(+0.56%)
4,263,113
(+0.71%)
17,062 billion
(+0.09%)
37,825
(-0.81%)
24

See also

References

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