Map of the Mongolian Plateau under Chinese administration.
Map of the Mongolian Plateau under Chinese administration.

The Qing dynasty of China ruled over the Mongolian Plateau, including Inner Mongolia and Outer Mongolia. Both regions, however, were separately administered within the empire.

The estate of Jebtsundamba Khutugtu, the Great Shabi (from Mongolian shabi, disciple) in 1723, became independent from the four aimags in the sense that its subjects were exempt from most taxes and corvees. The shabi did not—except the three Darkhad otog in Khövsgöl—control territory. Rather, its subjects mostly lived among the general population. Similar shabis existed for other high lamas.[1]

Direct control

The direct-controlled Mongols (Chinese: 內屬蒙古) were banners (khoshuu) controlled by provinces, generals and ambasa. The following regions were directly controlled by the Manchu:

Inner Mongolia

Map of Inner Mongolia khoshuu during Qing rule.
Map of Inner Mongolia khoshuu during Qing rule.

Inner Mongolia's[2] original 24 aimags (ᠠᠶᠢᠮᠠᠭ) were replaced by 49 banners (khoshuus) that would later be organized into six leagues (chuulgans, assemblies). The eight Chakhar banners and the two Tümed banners around Guihua were directly administered by the Manchu.

Outer Mongolia (Khalkha)

Outer Mongolia aimags under Qing rule (1820 years)
Outer Mongolia aimags under Qing rule (1820 years)

The Khalkha aimags were preserved—with the notable exception of the establishment of Sain Noyan aimag in 1725. Each aimag had a chigulgan, usually named after the place (mountains or rivers) where it convened. The aimags were divided into banners - whose number increased from originally eight eventually to 86—and further into sums.[3] A sum consisted of 150 men fit for military service, a bag of 50.[4] A military governor was installed in Uliastai, and two civil governors (amban) in Khüree and in Kobdo.

Tannu Uriankhai

Western Hetao Mongolia

Other Mongolian banners

Kobdo

Thirty khoshuu:

Qinghai Mongols

Xinjiang

13 banners (in modern-day Xinjiang)

References

  1. ^ Bawden, Charles R. (2002). Modern History of Mongolia. Kegan Paul Internat. pp. 106f. ISBN 9780710307781.
  2. ^ Michael Weiers (editor) Die Mongolen. Beiträge zu ihrer Geschichte und Kultur, Darmstadt 1986, p. 416ff
  3. ^ Weiers 1986, p.446
  4. ^ S. Demberel et al., BNMAU-yn tüükhiin zarim ner tomyoo, on tsagiin tailbar toli, Ulaanbaatar 1991, p. 18, 65