Adolphus Greely
Adolphus Greely, 1895.jpg
Greely in 1895
Birth nameAdolphus Washington Greely
Born(1844-03-27)March 27, 1844
Newburyport, Massachusetts
DiedOctober 20, 1935(1935-10-20) (aged 91)
Washington, D.C.
Buried
Allegiance United States
Branch United States Army
Service years1861–1908
RankMajor General
Commands heldLady Franklin Bay Expedition
Chief Signal Officer of the U.S. Army
Pacific Division
Northern Division
Department of the Columbia
Department of Dakota
Battles/warsAmerican Civil War
American Indian Wars
Spanish–American War
Philippine–American War
AwardsMedal of Honor
Spouse(s)Henrietta Nesmith (m. 1878-1918, her death)
Children7 (including Rose Greely)
Signature
Greely A W signature.svg

Adolphus Washington Greely FRSGS (March 27, 1844 – October 20, 1935) was a United States Army officer and polar explorer. He attained the rank of major general and was a recipient of the Medal of Honor.

A native of Newburyport, Massachusetts and an 1860 graduate of Brown High School (now Newburyport High School), in 1861 he enlisted in the Union Army for the American Civil War. He received his commission as a second lieutenant in 1863 and was promoted to first lieutenant in 1864 and captain in 1865. At the end of the war he received a brevet promotion to major in recognition of his wartime accomplishments.

After the war, Greely accepted a second lieutenant's commission in the regular army. In 1881, he was appointed to command the Lady Franklin Bay Expedition, a 25-man expedition organized to carry out Arctic explorations. The expedition ran short of food and several resupply and rescue missions were unsuccessful, and by the time Greely and his men were rescued in 1884, there were only six survivors.

In March 1887, Greely was serving as a captain when President Grover Cleveland appointed him as the Army's Chief Signal Officer with the rank of brigadier general. As Signal chief, he was responsible for creating and maintaining the worldwide communications networks required during and after the Spanish–American War and during the Philippine–American War. Greely was promoted to major general in February 1906. In April 1906, he was assigned to command relief efforts following the San Francisco earthquake. Greely left the Army in 1908 after reaching the mandatory retirement age of 64.

In retirement, Greely authored numerous magazine articles and books on his Arctic experiences. In March 1935, he was awarded the Medal of Honor in recognition of "his life of splendid public service." Greely died in Washington, D.C. on October 20, 1935. He was buried at Arlington National Cemetery.

Early life

Greely was born in Newburyport, Massachusetts on March 27, 1844, the son of John Balch Greeley and Frances Dunn Cobb Greely.[1] He was educated in Newburyport and was an 1860 graduate of Brown High School (now Newburyport High School).[1] After having been rejected twice, on 26 July 1861, he joined the Union Army for the American Civil War, enlisting in the 19th Massachusetts Infantry Regiment.[1] Over the next two years he worked his way up the enlisted ranks to first sergeant.[1]

Early career

On 18 March 1863, he was commissioned as a second lieutenant in the 81st United States Colored Infantry.[1] He was promoted to first lieutenant on 26 April 1864 and to captain on 4 April 1865.[1] After the war he received a brevet promotion to major in recognition of his meritorious service.[1] He was mustered out of the Volunteer Army on 22 March 1867.[1]

During his Civil War service, Greely took part in several battles, including Ball's Bluff, Antietam, and Fredericksburg.[2] From 1865 to 1867, Greely took part in the post-war occupation of New Orleans.[2]

Continued career

He was commissioned as a second lieutenant in the 36th Infantry Regiment of the Regular Army on 7 March 1867 and was reassigned to the 5th Cavalry Regiment on 14 July 1869 after the 36th Infantry was disbanded.[1] Greely was detailed for service with the Signal Corps from 1871 to 1880, and he was promoted to first lieutenant on 27 May 1873.[1][3]

With the Signal Corps, which also included the Weather Bureau, Greely was recognized as an expert weather forecaster.[1] His efforts helped establish the floodplains of the Mississippi, Missouri, and Ohio Rivers, which facilitated Corps of Engineers flood control projects.[1] In addition, he oversaw planning, construction, and maintenance of several telegraph lines, including lines in remote areas of Indian Territory, Texas, Dakota Territory, and Montana Territory.[1]

Lady Franklin Bay Expedition

Main article: Lady Franklin Bay Expedition

Steamer Proteus in Arctic 1881
Steamer Proteus in Arctic 1881
The Explorers of Lady Franklin Bay prior to departure in 1881. Photograph by Moses Rice.
The Explorers of Lady Franklin Bay prior to departure in 1881. Photograph by Moses Rice.

In 1881, First Lieutenant Greely was named to command the Lady Franklin Bay Expedition.[1] Promoted by Henry W. Howgate, its purpose was to establish one of a chain of meteorological-observation stations as part of the First International Polar Year.[4] The expedition also was commissioned by the US government to collect astronomical and polar magnetic data, which was carried out by the astronomer Edward Israel, who was part of Greely's crew.[5] Another goal of the expedition was to search for any clues of USS Jeannette, lost in the Arctic two years earlier.[6]

The expedition sailed on the steamship SS Proteus.[1] Greely was without previous Arctic experience, but he and his party succeeded in discovering and exploring many much of the coast of northwest Greenland.[1] The expedition also crossed Ellesmere Island from east to west, and James B. Lockwood and David Legge Brainard achieved a new "farthest north" record of 83° 23' 8" on Lockwood Island.[7] In 1882, Greely sighted a mountain range during a dog sledding exploration to the interior of northern Ellesmere Island and named it the Conger Range.[8] He also sighted the Innuitian Mountains from Lake Hazen.[9]

Greely's party ran into difficulty when two supply parties failed to reach Greely's encampment at Fort Conger on Ellesmere Island in 1882 and 1883.[1] In accordance with his instructions, Greely decided in August 1883 to abandon Fort Conger and travel south.[10] His team reached Cape Sabine expecting to find food and equipment left by the supply ships, but these had not been provided.[1] With winter setting in Greely and his men were forced to remain at Cape Sabine with inadequate rations and little fuel.[11]

The six survivors of the U.S. Army's Greely Arctic expedition with their U.S. Navy rescuers, at Upernavik, Greenland, 2–3 July 1884. Probably photographed on board the USS Thetis. (22: Adolphus Greely, 23: Julius Frederick, 24: David L. Brainard, 25: Henry Bierderbick, 26: Maurice Connell, 27: Francis Long
The six survivors of the U.S. Army's Greely Arctic expedition with their U.S. Navy rescuers, at Upernavik, Greenland, 2–3 July 1884. Probably photographed on board the USS Thetis. (22: Adolphus Greely, 23: Julius Frederick, 24: David L. Brainard, 25: Henry Bierderbick, 26: Maurice Connell, 27: Francis Long

A rescue expedition, led by Capt. Winfield Scott Schley on USRC Bear (a former whaler built in Greenock, Scotland), was sent to rescue the Greely party.[1] By the time Bear and the ships Thetis and Alert arrived on June 22, 1884, 18 of Greely's 25 men had perished from starvation, drowning, hypothermia, and, in one case, a gunshot from the execution of a soldier ordered by Greely as punishment for repeatedly for stealing food.[12][13]

Stereoscopic image of the Greely expedition exhibition at the Columbian Exposition, 1893
Stereoscopic image of the Greely expedition exhibition at the Columbian Exposition, 1893

Greely and the other survivors were near death; one died on the homeward journey.[14] They were venerated as heroes, though the heroism was temporarily tainted by sensational accusations of cannibalism, which Greely denied.[15][16] An exhibition on the Greely expedition was part of the Columbian Exposition in 1893 and was captured on stereoscopic images.[17]

Later career

Greely receives the Medal of Honor from Secretary of War George Dern (1935)
Greely receives the Medal of Honor from Secretary of War George Dern (1935)

In June 1886, Greely was promoted to captain.[2] In March 1887, President Grover Cleveland appointed him as Chief Signal Officer of the U.S. Army with the rank of brigadier general.[2] During his tenure as Chief Signal Officer of the Army, he oversaw construction, operation, and maintenance of numerous telegraph lines during and after the Spanish–American War, including: Puerto Rico, 800 miles (1,300 kilometers); Cuba, 3,000 mi (4,800 km); and the Philippines, 10,200 mi (16,400 km).[18] Greely also oversaw construction under adverse conditions a telegraph system for Alaska consisting of nearly 4,000 mi (6,400 km) of submarine cables, land cables and 107 mi (172 km) of wireless telegraphy, which at the time was the longest regularly working commercial system in the world.[18]

Greely's innovations as Chief Signal Officer led to the Army's fielding of wireless telegraphy, airplanes, motorized automobiles and trucks, and other modern equipment.[2] He represented the United States at the 1903 International Telegraph Congress in London and the 1903 International Wireless Telegraph Congress in Berlin.[2] As an expert on the telegraph, Greely worked on some of the first international telecommunication treaties.[2]

On February 10, 1906, he was promoted to major general and assigned to command the Pacific Division.[2] In 1906, he commanded the relief effort that followed the San Francisco earthquake.[2] As commander of the Northern Division, Greely was responsible for negotiating an end to the 1905-1906 Ute Rebellion.[2] Greely commanded the Department of the Columbia in 1907.[2] His terminal assignment was commander of the Department of Dakota in late 1907 and early 1908.[19] In 1908, Greely reached the mandatory retirement age of 64.[2]

Civic and fraternal memberships

In 1890, Greely was a founding member of the District of Columbia Society of the Sons of the American Revolution (SAR) and was elected vice president.[20] Upon the death of Admiral David D. Porter in February 1891, Greely became president, and he served until the end of 1892.[20] Greely was a companion of the District of Columbia Commandery of the Military Order of the Loyal Legion of the United States.[21] He was also a member of the General Society of the War of 1812[22] and Grand Army of the Republic.[23]

Greely was member of Washington's Cosmos Club.[24] In 1904, he was elected a member of the American Philosophical Society.[25] In 1905, he was selected as the first president of The Explorers Club.[26] In 1911, Greely represented the Army at the coronation of King George V.[19]

Death and legacy

Greely died in Washington, D.C. on October 20, 1935.[27] He was buried at Arlington National Cemetery.[27] Honorary pallbearers included David L. Brainard, Charles McKinley Saltzman, George Sabin Gibbs, Irving J. Carr, Leon Kromer, Billy Mitchell, and Gilbert Hovey Grosvenor.[28]

USS General A. W. Greely (AP-141), a 20th Century transport ship operated first by the United States Navy and later the Army and the Military Sea Transportation Service, was named for Greely.[29] Fort Greely, located 100 miles southeast of Fairbanks, Alaska, was named for Greely in 1942.[30] An earlier Fort Greely, also named for Adolphus Greely, was located on Kodiak Island, Alaska.[31] With Kodiak Naval Operating Base and Fort Abercrombie, it is now part of Coast Guard Base Kodiak and one of eight national historic landmarks that commemorate World War II in Alaska.[31]

Family

Henrietta Nesmith
Henrietta Nesmith

In 1878, Greely married Henrietta Nesmith, and they remained married until her death in 1918.[2][32] Henrietta Greely was a member of the Daughters of the American Revolution and one of the founding vice presidents general of the Children of the American Revolution.[33][34] The Greelys were the parents of seven children, of whom six lived to adulthood:[27][35]

Awards

Military awards

Greely received the Medal of Honor in 1935: "For his life of splendid public service, begun on March 27, 1844, having enlisted as a private in the U.S. Army on July 26, 1861, and by successive promotions was commissioned as major general February 10, 1906, and retired by operation of law on his 64th birthday."[37]

Greely was the second person (after Frederick W. Gerber) to receive the award for lifetime achievement rather than for acts of physical courage at the risk of one's own life.[38]

During the Civil War, Greely was wounded twice, once at the Battle of Glendale, and once at the Battle of Antietam.[19] When the Purple Heart was created in 1932, Greely received the medal with an oak leaf cluster in recognition of his wounds.[19]

Civilian awards

Greely was awarded the Royal Geographical Society's Founder's Medal in 1886.[39] In 1886, Greely also received the Roquette Medal of the Societe de Geographie.[2] His attendance at George V's coronation was commemorated with award of the King George V Coronation Medal.[19] In 1922, he received the American Geographical Society's Charles P. Daly Medal.[40]

Dates of Rank

Greely's effective dates of rank were:[3][41]

See also

Works

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s Men of Mark in America. Vol. I. Washington, DC: Men of Mark Publishing Company. 1905. pp. 396–400 – via Google Books.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n "Fire & Ice: Adolphus W. Greely". Army Heritage.org. Carlisle, PA: Army Heritage Center Foundation. Retrieved August 22, 2021.
  3. ^ a b Heitman, Francis B. Heitman (1903). Historical Register and Dictionary of the United States Army, 1789 to 1903. Vol. I. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. p. 473 – via Google Books.
  4. ^ Guttridge, Leonard F. (September 1, 2000). "Ghosts of Cape Sabine: the harrowing true story of the Greely expedition". Arctic Institute of North America of the University of Calgary. Retrieved April 14, 2008.
  5. ^ "Members of the Greely Expedition". American Experience. Boston, MA: WGBH Educational Foundation. Retrieved August 24, 2021.
  6. ^ Berton, Pierre (1988). The Arctic Grail: The Quest for the North West Passage and the North Pole. Toronto: Random House of Canada Ltd., p. 437
  7. ^ Geographical Items on North Greenland Encyclopedia Arctica 14: Greenland
  8. ^ Dick, Lyle (2001). Muskox Land: Ellesmere Island in the Age of Contact. Calgary, Alberta: University of Calgary Press. p. 197. ISBN 978-1-5523-8050-5 – via Google Books.
  9. ^ Bennett, Jack (199). Not Won in a Day: Climbing Canada's Highpoints. Calgary, Alberta: Rocky Mountain Books. p. 133. ISBN 978-0-9211-0270-0 – via Google Books.
  10. ^ Smucker, Samuel Mosheim (1886). Arctic Explorations and Discoveries During the Nineteenth Century. New York: John W. Lovell Company. p. 618 – via Google Books.
  11. ^ Lotz, J. 2009. Canada's Forgotten Arctic Hero: George Rice and the Lady Franklin Bay Expedition, 1881–1884. Breton Books, Wreck Cove, Nova Scotia. ISBN 1-895415-94-2
  12. ^ Schley, Winfield S Commander, US Navy [1887] 1884 Greely Relief Expedition Washington Printing Office (via American Libraries)
  13. ^ 'England's Present to America; The Steam-Ship Alert for the Greely Search Expedition' 4/23/1884 New York Times. (via NYT Archives)
  14. ^ "Surrounded by Ice: The Lady Franklin Bay Expedition". Army Heritage.org. Carlile, PA: Army Heritage Center Foundation. Retrieved August 24, 2021.
  15. ^ "American Experience: The Greely Expedition". pbs.org. Retrieved February 1, 2011.
  16. ^ Shattuck, George B., ed. (August 21, 1884). "Anthropophagy". The Boston Medical and Surgical Journal. Boston, MA: Houghton, Mifflin and Company. pp. 185–187 – via Google Books.
  17. ^ Scott (March 22, 2021). ""Farthest North": An Arctic Tableau at the 1893 World's Fair". Worlds Fair Chicago1893.com. The World's Fair: Chicago 1893.
  18. ^ a b Tucker, Spencer C., ed. (2009). The Encyclopedia of the Spanish-American and Philippine-American Wars. Vol. I. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC CLIO. p. 259. ISBN 978-1-8510-9952-8 – via Google Books.
  19. ^ a b c d e McSwain, John J. (March 18, 1935). "Address to the House: Adolphus W. Greely". Congressional Record. Vol. 79, Part 4. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. p. 3861 – via Google Books.
  20. ^ a b Rhees, William J., ed. (1896). Register of the District of Columbia Society, Sons of the American Revolution. Washington, DC: W. F. Roberts. p. viii – via Google Books.
  21. ^ Companions of the Military Order of the Loyal Legion of the United States (Second ed.). New York, NY: L. R. Hamersly. 1901. p. 69 – via Google Books.
  22. ^ "Celebrations and Proceedings: Society of the War of 1812". American Historical Register. Boston, MA: The Register Company. May 1896. p. 326 – via Google Books.
  23. ^ Official Programme: Grand Army of the Republic 36th Annual Encampment. Washington, DC: Costigan and Costello. 1902. p. 32 – via Google Books.
  24. ^ Committee on Printing (1904). The Twenty-fifth Anniversary of the Founding of the Cosmos Club. Washington, DC: Cosmos Club of Washington, DC. p. 309 – via Google Books.
  25. ^ "APS Member History". search.amphilsoc.org. Retrieved 2021-06-28.
  26. ^ "Personal Matters: Brigadier General A. W. Greely". Army and Navy Register. New York, NY. October 28, 1905. p. 18 – via Google Books.
  27. ^ a b c Urness, James (2014). 25 Brave Men: Tales of an Arctic Journey. Tucson, AZ: Wheatmark. p. 11. ISBN 978-1627870399 – via Google Books.
  28. ^ "Gen. A. W. Greely, Arctic Hero, Dies". The Evening Star. Washington, DC. October 21, 1935. pp. 1, 3 – via Newspapers.com.
  29. ^ "USNS General A.W. Greely (T-AP-141)". NavSource Online. NavSource Naval History. Retrieved August 22, 2021.
  30. ^ "Fort Greely". Alaska-Highway.org. Delta Junction, AK: Delta Junction: Official End of the Alaska Highway. Retrieved August 22, 2021.
  31. ^ a b "Fort Abercrombie". Crusty Old Joe's Kodiak Alaska Military History. Kodiak, AK: Kodiak Military History Museum. May 16, 2014. Retrieved August 22, 2021.
  32. ^ "Mrs. Greely Dies at Eastern Home". The San Diego Union. San Diego, CA. March 16, 1918. p. 1 – via GenealogyBank.com.
  33. ^ Denniston, Eliza Olver (October 1915). "Ready Reference D.A.R. Chronology". Daughters of the American Revolution Magazine. Washington, DC: Daughters of the American Revolution. p. 235 – via Google Books.
  34. ^ U.S. Senate (1903). "Report of the National Society of the Children of the American Revolution". U.S. Senate Documents: 57th Congress, 2nd Session. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office. p. 315 – via Google Books.
  35. ^ Putnam, William Lowell (2001). Arctic Superstars. Boulder, CO: American Alpine Club. p. 25. ISBN 978-0930410827 – via Google Books.
  36. ^ "Adolphus W. Greely (1844–1935) Papers, 1844–1871; 1908–1909" (PDF). Peabody Essex Museum. January 2012. Retrieved 2 October 2015.
  37. ^ "Medal of Honor Recipients: Adolphus W. Greely". MOH Convention.com. Mt. Pleasant, SC: Congressional Medal of Honor Society. Retrieved August 22, 2021.
  38. ^ Davis, Paul (May 11, 2021). "How to earn a Medal of Honor for lifetime achievement". We Are the Mighty. Palo Alto, CA: Mighty Networks. Retrieved August 22, 2021.
  39. ^ "List of Past Gold Medal Winners". Royal Geographical Society. Retrieved August 22, 2021.
  40. ^ "Charles P. Daly Medal Recipients". Medals and Awards. New York, NY: The American Geographical Society. Retrieved August 22, 2021.
  41. ^ U.S. Senate (1935). "Medal of Honor for Maj. Gen. Adolphus Washington Greely". Congressional Record. Vol. 79, Part 4. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. p. 3933 – via Google Books.

Further reading