AGR-20 (APKWS II)
APKWS.jpg
1)top picture: standard Hydra-70 2)bottom picture: APKWS
TypeRocket
Place of originUnited States
Service history
In service2012-present
Used bySee Future and potential users
Production history
ManufacturerBAE Systems
Unit cost$22,000[1]
No. built50,000[2]
Specifications
Mass32 lb (15 kg)[3]
Length73.8 in (1.87 m)[3]
Diameter2.75 in (70 mm) (unfired)[4]

Muzzle velocity1,000 m/s (3,600 km/h; 2,200 mph; Mach 2.9) at max[4]
Effective firing range1,100–5,000 m (0.68–3.11 mi) (rotary wing);
2–11 km (1.2–6.8 mi) (fixed wing)[5][3]

Maximum speed 2,425 ft/s (739 m/s)[6]
Guidance
system
Distributed Aperture Semi-Active Laser Seeker
Launch
platform
See Launch platforms

The AGR-20 Advanced Precision Kill Weapon System (APKWS) is a design conversion of Hydra 70 unguided rockets with a laser guidance kit to turn them into precision-guided munitions (PGMs).[7] APKWS is approximately one-third the cost and one-third the weight of the current inventory of laser-guided weapons, has a lower yield more suitable for avoiding collateral damage, and takes one quarter of the time for ordnance personnel to load and unload.

Development

Where possible the system utilizes existing Hydra 70 components such as launchers, rocket motors, warheads and fuzes. The weapon bridges the gap between the Hydra 70 and AGM-114 Hellfire systems and provides a cost-effective method of engaging lightly armored point targets. APKWS is the U.S. government's only program of record for the semi-active, laser-guided 2.75-inch (70 millimeter) rocket. It converts the Hydra 70 unguided rocket into a precision guided munition through the addition of a mid-body guidance unit developed by BAE Systems. The APKWS has also been successfully tested in live fire exercises with the Forges de Zeebrugge unguided rocket, converting it into a precision guided munition and demonstrating the technology can be used on other rocket types than the Hydra 70.[8]

Design

U.S. Marines of the Marine Aviation Weapons and Tactics Squadron 1 demonstrating the conversion of a Hydra 70 into a APKWS II and loading into a Bell AH-1Z Viper.

The winning bidder for the APKWS II contract was the team of BAE Systems, Northrop Grumman and General Dynamics,[9] beating out the offerings from Lockheed Martin and Raytheon Systems.[10]

The APKWS II uses the Distributed Aperture Semi-Active Laser Seeker (DASALS) technology. This system allows a laser seeker to be located in the leading edge of each of the forward control canards, working in unison as if they were a single seeker. This configuration allows existing warheads from the Hydra 70 system to be used without the need for a laser seeker in the missile nose.

The APKWS II system is composed of the launch platform, rockets equipped with the WGU-59/B mid-body guidance unit, the lengthened 7-tube LAU-68 F/A rocket launcher, the SCS 7 aiming cue (not needed for attack helicopters), and Fastpack PA-140 and CNU-711/E storage kits for rockets and guidance kits, respectively, to ensure they are safe in the field. The WGU-59/B mid-body guidance unit is equipped with DASALS seeker optics which deploy 0.5 seconds after launch and are attached in between the Mk 66 Mod 4 rocket motor and a warhead and fuze, which increases length by 18.5 in (47 cm) and weight by 9 lb (4.1 kg) over the legacy Hydra system. Firing ranges are 1,100-5,000 meters, the former of which can be hit less than 5 seconds after firing.[5] Maximum range is constrained by use of the existing Hydra 70 motor, but since the seeker can see as far as 14 km (8.7 mi), a more powerful motor could extend range while retaining accuracy;[11] Nammo is working on a modified rocket motor that can extend range to 12–15 km (7.5–9.3 mi).[12]

A software upgrade of the APKWS will be applied starting in late 2021; the upgrade increases range by 30% by means of an optimized flight trajectory to engage targets at a steeper angle of attack, while also being qualified on both fixed- and rotary-wing aircraft in a single variant and improving the surface danger zone logic for better training range options.[13][14]

In June 2021, BAE successfully tested the APKWS in a counter-unmanned aerial systems (C-UAS) role. An APKWS-equipped rocket was fitted with a proximity fuze and destroyed a Class 2 UAS. The proximity fuze enables it to intercept UAS at a lower cost than other methods, and due to the rocket's laser guidance that activates on launch it does not require locking on to the target before launch.[15][16]

Specifications

Program status

Deployment

Future and potential users

On 14 April 2014, the U.S. Navy signed an agreement with the Jordanian Air Force for the first international sale of the APKWS for use on the CN-235 gunship.[45] Jordan received 110 units in late November 2015.[46]

In November 2014, the State Department approved the sale of up to 2,000 APKWS rockets to Iraq.[47]

In June 2015, a deal to sell 6 A-29 Super Tucano light attack aircraft to the Lebanese Air Force was approved that included the sale of 2,000 APKWS rockets for use on the turboprops. The US$462 million sale was financed by Saudi Arabia.[48][49]

In April 2018, The U.S. State Department approved the future sale of APKWS units to the Mexican Navy at the same time that they approved the sale of eight MH-60R helicopters.[50]

In December 2019, the 85th Test and Evaluation Squadron at Eglin AFB, Florida, conducted a test using APKWS rocket against a drone representing a cruise missile. By adapting the rocket for cruise missile defense, it can serve the same role as the much more expensive AIM-120 missile, according to an Air Force release. "The test was unprecedented and will shape the future of how the Air Force executes CMD," Col. Ryan Messer, commander of the 53d Wing at Eglin, said in a release. "This is a prime example of how the 53d Wing is using resources readily available to establish innovative ways that enhance combat capabilities for our combat units."[51]

In June 2020, BAE announced they had completed test firings of the APKWS from a ground launcher for the first time. Several rockets were fired from an Arnold Defense-built launcher called the Fletcher designed specifically for ground vehicles, demonstrating the weapon's ability to address a demand for standoff ground-to-ground precision munitions for small ground units.[52][53]

Ukraine is being supplied with APKWS rockets.[54][55]

Launch platforms

APGWS II launched from SH-60S/MH-60S Seahawk
APGWS II launched from SH-60S/MH-60S Seahawk

See also

References

  1. ^ US DoD Contracts for June 27, 2018
  2. ^ APKWS Upgrade Extends Range By 30 Percent: BAE. Breaking Defense. 3 August 2021.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g "APKWS II Update" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-12-15. Retrieved 2015-11-05.
  4. ^ a b c d e Advanced Precision Kill Weapon System Archived November 7, 2015, at the Wayback Machine - NAVAIR.Navy.mil
  5. ^ a b c Advanced Precision Kill Weapon System II (APKWS II) Goes to War - Defensemedianetwork.com, 9 July 2012
  6. ^ BAE Systems adapts rocket to provide soldiers with their own air support. New Atlas. 1 June 2020.
  7. ^ "APKWS® Laser-Guided Rocket".
  8. ^ a b c d Stevenson, Beth (13 April 2015). "APKWS hits 10-for-10 in rocket tests from Australian Tiger". Flightglobal.com. Retrieved 13 April 2015.
  9. ^ "U.S. ARMY SELECTS BAE SYSTEMS FOR APKWS II CONTRACT - BAE". Archived from the original on 2016-03-03. Retrieved 2011-10-27.
  10. ^ APKWS II: Laser-Guided Hydra Rockets in Production At Last
  11. ^ BAE Conducts First APKWS Flight Test on Aussie Helo; U.S. Army Contract Expected Soon - News.USNI.org, 27 April 2015
  12. ^ New rocket launcher for combat vehicles makes Middle East debut. Defense News. 10 May 2018.
  13. ^ Next-generation BAE Systems APKWS guidance kits improve rocket range and impact. Air Recognition. 3 August 2021.
  14. ^ "BAE Systems enhances APKWS II range by 30%". Jane's Information Group. 16 August 2021. Archived from the original on 21 August 2021.
  15. ^ BAE Systems successfully tests APKWS laser-guided rockets against UAS. Air Recognition. 12 October 2021.
  16. ^ BAE Looks to Adapt Rocket to Counter-UAS Mission. National Defense Magazine. 12 October 2021.
  17. ^ "APKWS II - Deagel". Archived from the original on 2006-09-28. Retrieved 2006-09-30.
  18. ^ a b Air-Launched 2.75-Inch Rockets - Designation Systems
  19. ^ BAE SYSTEMS 70MM LASER-GUIDED ROCKET ACHIEVES TWO DIRECT HITS - BAE Archived October 15, 2006, at the Wayback Machine
  20. ^ APKWS II "Hellfire Jr." Hydra Rockets Enter SDD Phase
  21. ^ Army Proposes Major Weapons Cuts - military.com
  22. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2007-06-24. Retrieved 2007-02-06.((cite web)): CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) US Army 2008 R&D Budget Request (Page 4)
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  26. ^ Eshel, Tamir. "APKWS Enters Full Rate production." Defense Update, 13 August 2012.
  27. ^ BAE Systems to Integrate Advanced Precision Kill Weapon System on MQ-8B Fire Scout UAV - sUASNews.com, September 18, 2012
  28. ^ BAE to demonstrate APKWS on fixed-wing aircraft - Flightglobal.com, October 23, 2012
  29. ^ "BAE gets more work for laser-guided missiles." - Unionleader.com, 15 January 2013
  30. ^ A-10 Fires First-Ever Laser-Guided Rocket Archived July 1, 2013, at the Wayback Machine - AF.mil, April 3, 2013
  31. ^ a b c d BAE’s APKWS rockets integrated on Bell’s new Model 407GT - Flightglobal.com, March 5, 2013
  32. ^ BAE’s APKWS rocket validates strike capabilities against maritime targets - Navy-Technology.com, April 10, 2013
  33. ^ APKWS Laser-Guided Rocket Successfully Qualified on US Army Apache Helicopters - Deagel.com, 22 October 2013
  34. ^ Scott, Richard (31 March 2014). "USN adds anti-FIAC capability to MH-60S to meet urgent operational need". www.janes.com. IHS Jane. Retrieved 2 April 2014.
  35. ^ Interest grows in APKWS - Shephardmedia.com, 17 July 2014
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  42. ^ US Forces Bank on New Weapon to Protect Civilians in Next Mosul Battle - Military.com, 1 February 2017
  43. ^ USMC & NAVAIR Complete First F/A-18 / APKWS Operational Flights. Navy Recognition. 23 April 2018.
  44. ^ "F-16 downs drone during cruise missile defense testing". Air Force News Service. December 26, 2019. Retrieved December 30, 2019.
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  47. ^ Iraq orders 2,000 BAE Systems' Advanced Precision Kill Weapon Systems for its Air Force - Airrecognition.com, 13 November 2014
  48. ^ Lebanon Getting Armed Super Tucanos Despite Instability
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  51. ^ https://www.airforcemag.com/f-16-downs-drone-with-rocket-for-cruise-missile-defense-test Air Force Magazine Dec 2019
  52. ^ BAE successfully tests ground-launched APKWS rockets for first time. Defense News. 1 June 2020.
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1963 United States tri-service rocket designations and post-1963 undesignated rockets