Advisory Council

資政院
Flag of the Qing Empire
Type
Type
History
Founded6 November 1906 (1906-11-06)
Disbanded12 February 1912 (1912-02-12)
Succeeded byProvisional Senate of the Republic of China
Leadership
President
Xu Dinglin
since 26 January 1912
Vice President
Dashou
since 30 October 1911
Secretary General
Jin Bangping
since 3 October 1910
Structure
Seats200
Political groups
Election result
  •   Constitutionalists (116)
  •   Revolutionaries (8)
  •   Independents (72)
  •   Vacant (4)
Length of term
3 years
Elections
Last election
October 1909
Meeting place
Advisory Council Building, Beijing
Constitution
Principles of the Constitution (1908–12)
Nineteen Articles (1911–12)
Rules
Charter of Advisory Council
Advisory Council
Traditional Chinese資政院
Simplified Chinese资政院

The Advisory Council (Chinese: 資政院), also known as the Government Advisory Council,[1] Political Advisory Council,[2] or Political Advisory Board,[3] was a preparatory body for the parliament established in 1910. It was part of the New Policies in the late Qing dynasty, of which the Qing court was moving toward the implementation of a constitution. In September 1907, the Guangxu Emperor promulgated a decree on the setting up of the Advisory Council, following by the provincial Consultative Bureaus in October.

The Advisory Council was established on 6 November 1906, and formally opened on 10 October 1910, after the first parliamentary election in last October. The council was dissolved on 12 February 1912 along with the end of the Qing dynasty, and was replaced by the Provisional Senate of the Republic of China.[4][5][6]

History

After the Boxer Protocol was signed in 1901, the Qing court returned to its capital of Beijing eager to reform the realm's governance. In around August 1906, the Guangxu Emperor declared the start of preparative constitutionalism after the study by the Constitutionalism Commission on foreign politics. Two months later, Yikuang, Prince Qing, recommended forming an Advisory Council to prepare for the institution of a parliament.[7] On 6 November 1906, the Emperor issued an edict to revamp the governmental institutions, including the establishment of Advisory Council.[8]

On 20 September 1907, the Emperor appointed Pulun and Sun Jialun as joint Presidents of the council,[8] and delegated to them the writing of its charter. In August 1908, the electoral system of the Council and the Provincial Assemblies were approved and governors of provinces were asked to hold relevant elections within a year. Half of the Council members were elected by members of the Assemblies, while the other half were appointed by the imperial court.[7]

The Council and the Commission further jointly agreed to a nine-year plan for installing constitutionalism. Provincial Assemblies were formed in 1908, with elections of the Assemblies and the Council to be held a year later. The council was to be convened and formally opened in 1910. The constitution of the state, Parliamentary Law, Parliamentary Election Law, and election of the bicameral members were expected in 1916. By then constitutional monarchy would have formally replaced absolute monarchy.[7]

The elections of the Council and Provincial Assemblies held as laid down in the plan. The bicameral parliament, however, did not come into existence as Qing dynasty was overthrown and Emperor Puyi forced to abdicate in 1912.

Session

The Council convened for the first time on 3 October 1910, with the President declaring it as "the unprecedented grand ceremony" in the Chinese history. All 196 members of the council were divided evenly in 6 divisions, followed by election of division head (股長) and director (理事).[9]

The second meeting marked the state opening of the council, attending by the regent and virtually all ministers of the court. Attendants first kowtowed to the throne. The regent then announced the edict and addressed the council. The Council agreed the President and the Vice President to present a humble address to thank His Majesty on behalf of the members. The meeting subsequently ended.[10]

A total of 42 meetings were held, 9 of which was after the extension of the council's session.

On 18 December, the Council presented humble address (palace memorial) to the court over forming cabinet as responsibilities of Grand Council were unclear, which the court denounced as "interference by councillors" and insisted the court shall decide on matters of such. On 30 December, the Council presented another address to urge ending the policy of Manchu hairstyle and clothing.[11]

According to the records of proceedings, the council was closed on 11 January 1911 without the attendance of the regent. The edict was announced and the President kowtowed to the throne, marking the end of the first session of the council.[12]

List of meetings in the first session with excerpted part of issues discussed:
  1. 23 September 1910, preparatory meeting and election of division heads and directors.
  2. 3 October 1910, state opening of the Council.
  3. 4 October 1910
  4. 6 October 1910
  5. 7 October 1910
  6. 14 October 1910
  7. 17 October 1910
  8. 19 October 1910
  9. 22 October 1910, adopted Motion on Petition for Expeditious Establishment of Parliament (陳情速開國會議案) with unanimous support.
  10. 26 October 1910
  11. 28 October 1910
  12. 31 October 1910
  13. 3 November 1910
  14. 7 November 1910
  15. 9 November 1910, meeting ended without agendum proceeded as Grand Councillors did not attend questioning session over not penalising Governor of Hunan for bypassing provincial assembly.
  16. 12 November 1910
  17. 15 November 1910
  18. 17 November 1910
  19. 18 November 1910
  20. 22 November 1910, agreed to draft a palace memorial on impeaching Grand Councillors for violating separation of powers after resolutions of the Council vetted by executive departments.
  21. 25 November 1910, impeachment attempt ended after agreed to draft another palace memorial on establishing cabinet.
  22. 30 November 1910
  23. 2 December 1910
  24. 10 December 1910, adopted Palace Memorial Draft on Demarcation of Responsibilities of Privy Councillors and Expeditious Establishment of Responsible Cabinet (明定樞臣責任並速設責任內閣具奏案折稿) with 129 ayes out of 151 members.
  25. 13 December 1910
  26. 15 December 1910, adopted Motion on Shaving hair and Changing Costume (剪髮易服議案) with 101 ayes, 27 noes, and 6 invalid ballots; division marred by irregularities after a ballot of an absent member was cast.
  27. 19 December 1910, agreed to draft another palace memorial on demarcation of responsibilities of Grand Councillors (synonym of Privy Councillors) with 102 ayes out of around 127 members; discussed requesting the palace to dissolve the Council after earlier Memorial was rejected by regent Tsai Feng.
  28. 21 December 1910, agreed to amend the drafted palace memorial over Grand Councillors with 86 ayes out of 127 members after the original draft defeated with only 63 ayes.
  29. 24 December 1910, adopted Palace Memorial Draft on Expeditious Establishment of Responsible Cabinet (速設責任內閣具奏案折稿) with 86 ayes out of around 142 members.
  30. 26 December 1910, revoked decision on presenting Palace Memorial to the Emperor over establishing cabinet with 85 ayes out of around 129 members after the court directed the Constitutionalism Commission to formulate structure of the cabinet; discussed the repeal of Company Law over alleged embezzlement in Sichuan Railway which would evolve into Railway Protection Movement.
  31. 28 December 1910, agreed to draft another palace memorial over impeachment of Grand Councillors without opposition.
  32. 29 December 1910, adopted palace memorial draft on extending meeting session for 10 days after 1 January 1911; meeting adjourned after one member short of two-third quorum.
  33. 30 December 1910, adopted written statement draft to the Constitutionalism Commission over cabinet set-up, palace memorial draft over impeachment with 88 ayes out of ~132 members, palace memorial draft over Sichuan Railway.
  34. 3 January 1911, agreed to draft the final palace memorial to explain the role of the Council after the palace memorial was ignored without reply from the Emperor.
  35. 4 January 1911, agreed to recommend the Ministry of Civil Affairs to ban the newspaper which insulted members of the Council as "homeless dog".
  36. 5 January 1911, adopted the final part of the budget.
  37. 6 January 1911
  38. 7 January 1911
  39. 8 January 1911
  40. 9 January 1911, meeting started late and adjourned as quorum not met.
  41. 10 January 1911, final day of meeting, adopted amendments to Assembly and Association Law including repealing restraints on size of assembly, which would encourage the emergency of political parties in the late Qing.
  42. 11 January 1911, closing of the Council.

However, the Council continued deliberation. On 25 January 1911, part of the new criminal code was promulgated after adoption by the council. Two days later, the standardised treasury regulation was adopted by the council, along with the 1911 (Xuantong Year 2) budget on the next day. During the Railway Protection protest, the Council passed resolution against government's nationalisation plan, which was in turn rejected.[11]

The second session of the Council started on 22 October 1911, days after outbreak of 1911 revolution. The Council recommended sacking of Sheng Xuanhuai as Minister of Mail for "violating rights, breaking laws, deceiving the Emperor", and calling him as the one "damaging the empire the most", which was agreed by the Emperor. Eight days later, the Council called for replacing the cabinet of Princes and to be completely responsible with non-royals as ministers of state, which was agreed by the court. On 3 November, Nineteen Articles were announced by the court after the Council voiced support for constitutional monarchy. The Charter of the council was amended on 20 November. On 27 October, upon recommendation from the council, the court finally repealed ban on Han hairstyle and costume and replaced lunar calendar with solar calendar.[11]

One of the last acts of the council was the election of Yuan Shikai as the Prime Minister.[11] The council was dissolved upon the end of the Qing dynasty.

Power

According to the Charter of the Council amended on 3 July 1911 –[13]

Article 14

Advisory Council shall decide on matters of –

  1. Financial budgets on income and expenditure of the state;
  2. Final accounts on income and expenditure of the state;
  3. Taxation and public debt;
  4. Legislations and amendments thereof, except constitution; and
  5. Other issues upon directives by extraordinary edicts.

Article 15

Motions under subsection 1 to 4 of the aforesaid article shall be drafted and presented by cabinet ministers, and submit to the Council at meetings. Advisory Council, however, can draft and present motions at its initiative for matters under subsection 3 and subsection 4.

Article 16

Resolutions on matters particularised in Article 14 by the Advisory Council shall be presented by President or Vice President upon consultation with cabinet ministers for decisions by the Emperor.

Members

Some members resigned during the session and the vacancies were filled according to the precedence list.

List of senior officials of the Advisory Council[14]
Position Member Portrait Term start Term end
President Pulun [zh] 20 September 1907 22 March 1911
Sun Jianai [zh] 20 September 1907 30 November 1909
Suolehuojin Shixu [zh] 22 March 1911 30 October 1911
Li Jiaju [zh] 30 October 1911 26 January 1912
Xu Dinglin [zh] 26 January 1912 12 February 1912
Vice President Shen Jiaben 15 September 1910 28 January 1911
Li Jiaju [zh] 22 March 1911 30 October 1911
Dashou [zh] 30 October 1911 2 February 1912
Assistant Vice President
(協理)
Jing Xing [zh] 20 January 1907 December 1909
Lu Yuanding [zh] 20 January 1907 6 July 1908
Ding Zhenduo [zh] 20 January 1907 1911
Yu Liansan [zh] 20 January 1907 1911
Li Jiaju [zh] 23 September 1909 14 April 1910
Cao Hongxun [zh] ? ?
Manager
(幫辦)
Aixinjueluo Baoxi [zh] 1908 1911
Shen Yunpei [zh] 1908 1911
Gu Huang [zh] 1908 1911
Secretary General Jin Bangping [zh] ? 2 February 1912
List of members of the Advisory Council[15]
No. Member
Peerage
Portrait Constituency Party[a] Notes
1 Kuibin [zh]
Prince Rui
Princes of Imperial Family  Nonpartisan 
2 Zaigong [zh]
Prince Zhuang
Princes of Imperial Family  Continuous 
3 Nalehe
Prince Shuncheng
Princes of Imperial Family  Nonpartisan 
4 Zaiying [zh]
Venerable Prince
Princes of Imperial Family  Nonpartisan 
5 Zairun [zh]
Venerable Prince
Princes of Imperial Family  Nonpartisan 
6 Puyu [zh]
Defender Duke by Grace
Princes of Imperial Family  Continuous 
7 Aixinjueluo Quanrong [zh]
Defender Duke by Grace
Princes of Imperial Family  Continuous 
8 Aixinjueluo Shouquan [zh]
Bulwark Duke by Grace
Princes of Imperial Family  Continuous 
9 Zaikai [zh]
Duke
Princes of Imperial Family  Continuous 
10 Zaizhen
Banner Prince,
Defender General
Princes of Imperial Family  Nonpartisan 
11 Yuying [zh]
Defender General
Princes of Imperial Family  Nonpartisan 
12 Zaiyan [zh]
Supporter General
Princes of Imperial Family  Nonpartisan 
13 Sheng Kun [zh]
Defender General
Princes of Imperial Family  Nonpartisan 
14 Shengkun [zh]
General
Princes of Imperial Family  Continuous 
15 Nayantu [zh]
Prince of the Blood
Princes of Feudatories  Nonpartisan 
16 Suotenamuzha Muchai [zh]
Prince of the Blood
Princes of Feudatories  Nonpartisan 
17 Dorzipalamu [zh]
Prince of Commandery
Princes of Feudatories  Nonpartisan 
18 Gungsangnorbu
Prince of Commandery
Princes of Feudatories  Science 
19 色凌敦魯布
Prince of Commandery
Princes of Feudatories  Nonpartisan 
20 色隆托濟勒
Prince of Commandery
Princes of Feudatories  Nonpartisan 
21 勒旺諾爾布
Prince of Commandery
Princes of Feudatories  Nonpartisan 
22 特古斯阿勒坦呼雅克圖
Prince of Commandery
Princes of Feudatories  Nonpartisan 
23 巴勒珠爾那布坦
Prince of Commandery
Princes of Feudatories  Nonpartisan 
24 綳楚克車林
Banner Prince
Princes of Feudatories  Nonpartisan  Resigned
Mijiddorjiin Khanddorj
Prince of the Blood
 Nonpartisan  Succeeded in 27th meeting
25 博迪蘇
Bulwark Duke
Princes of Feudatories  Nonpartisan 
26 達木黨蘇倫
Defender Duke
Princes of Feudatories  Nonpartisan 
27 司迪克
Bulwark Duke
Princes of Feudatories  Nonpartisan 
28 那木濟勒錯布丹
Bulwark Duke
Princes of Feudatories  Nonpartisan 
29 希璋
Duke
Nobilities of Manchu and Han  Continuous 
30 黃懋澄
Duke
Nobilities of Manchu and Han  Nonpartisan 
31 志鈞
Duke
Nobilities of Manchu and Han  Nonpartisan 
32 榮泉
Duke
Nobilities of Manchu and Han  Nonpartisan 
33 榮墪
Duke
Nobilities of Manchu and Han  Nonpartisan 
34 延秀
Marquess
Nobilities of Manchu and Han  Nonpartisan 
35 曾廣鑾
Marquess
Nobilities of Manchu and Han  Nonpartisan 
36 存興
Marquess
Nobilities of Manchu and Han  Nonpartisan 
37 李長祿
Viscount
Nobilities of Manchu and Han  Continuous 
38 敬昌
Viscount
Nobilities of Manchu and Han  Nonpartisan 
39 劉能紀
Baron
Nobilities of Manchu and Han  Nonpartisan 
40 胡祖蔭
Baron
Nobilities of Manchu and Han  Continuous 
41 定秀
Uksun
Descendants of Emperor  Continuous 
42 世珣
Uksun
Descendants of Emperor  Nonpartisan 
43 榮普
Uksun
Descendants of Emperor  Continuous 
44 成善
Uksun
Descendants of Emperor  Nonpartisan 
45 景安
Gioro
Descendants of Emperor  Continuous 
46 宜純
Gioro
Descendants of Emperor  Nonpartisan 
47 奎濂 Government Officials  Nonpartisan 
48 陳懋鼎 Government Officials  Xinhai 
49 趙椿年 Government Officials  Xinhai 
50 錫嘏 Government Officials  Nonpartisan 
51 榮凱 Government Officials  Nonpartisan 
52 毓善 Government Officials  Continuous 
53 劉道仁 Government Officials  Tongmenghui 
 Xinhai  (1911–)
54 文哲琿 Government Officials  Continuous 
55 張緝光 Government Officials  Nonpartisan  Resigned in 7th meeting
崇芳  Nonpartisan  Succeeded in 17th meeting
56 李經畬 Government Officials  Continuous 
57 林炳章 Government Officials  Continuous 
58 慶蕃 Government Officials  Nonpartisan 
59 顧棟臣 Government Officials  Continuous 
60 何藻翔 Government Officials  Xinhai 
61 陳善同 Government Officials  Continuous 
62 劉澤熙 Government Officials  Xinhai  "Leading member of appointed members"
63 魏聯奎 Government Officials  Continuous 
64 趙炳麟 Government Officials  Continuous 
65 儼忠 Government Officials  Nonpartisan 
66 胡駿 Government Officials  Continuous 
 Xinhai  (1911–)
67 王璟芳 Government Officials  Xinhai 
68 文溥 Government Officials  Continuous 
69 吳敬修 Government Officials  Nonpartisan 
70 Ke Shaomin Government Officials  Continuous 
71 榮厚 Government Officials  Continuous 
72 胡礽泰 Government Officials  Science 
73 汪榮寶 Government Officials  Science 
74 劉華 Government officials  Nonpartisan  Resigned
Lu Zongyu  Science  Succeeded in 17th meeting
75 Changfu [zh] Government officials  Xinhai 
76 Cao Yuanzhong [zh] Government officials  Continuous 
77 Wu Weibing [zh] Government officials  Nonpartisan 
78 Guo Jiaji [zh] Government officials  Continuous 
79 Wu Shijian (吳士鑒) Scholars  Continuous 
80 Lao Naixuan [zh] Scholars  Continuous 
81 Zhang Zongyuan [zh] Scholars  Science 
82 Chen Baochen Scholars  Continuous 
83 Shen Jiaben Scholars  Preparative  Appointed as Vice President of the Council
84 Yen Fu Scholars  Preparative 
85 Jiang Han [zh] Scholars  Nonpartisan  Resigned
Wu Tingxie [zh]  Nonpartisan  Succeeded in 17th meeting
86 Yu Changlin [zh] Scholars  Continuous 
87 Shen Linyi [zh] Scholars  Continuous  (Conservative)
88 Tao Baolian [zh] Scholars  Continuous 
89 Sun Yifu [zh] Large Taxpayers  Nonpartisan 
90 Li Shiyu [zh] Large Taxpayers  Continuous 
91 Zhou Shunqing [zh] Large Taxpayers  Continuous 
92 Lin Shaoji [zh] Large Taxpayers  Nonpartisan 
93 Xi Shou [zh] Large Taxpayers  Tongmenghui 
 Xinhai  (1911–)
94 Wang Zuoliang [zh] Large Taxpayers  Continuous 
95 Song Zhensheng [zh] Large Taxpayers  Continuous 
96 Li Zhanyang [zh] Large Taxpayers  Tongmenghui 
 Continuous  (1911–)
97 Luo Naixin [zh] Large Taxpayers  Continuous 
98 Wang Hongtu [zh] Large Taxpayers  Continuous 
99 Chen Yingzhou [zh] Fengtian  Continuous 
100 Wang Yuquan [zh] Fengtian  Nonpartisan 
101 Shuming (書銘) Fengtian  Nonpartisan 
102 Qing Shan (慶山) Jilin  Continuous 
103 Xu Muru [zh] Jilin  Continuous 
104 Gui Shan (桂山) Heilongjiang  Nonpartisan 
105 Dahanga [zh] Heilongjiang  Nonpartisan 
106 Qi Shukai [zh] Zhili  Continuous 
107 Li Ju [zh] Zhili  CERA 
108 Liu Chunlin [zh] Zhili  Continuous 
109 Ji Zhongyin [zh] Zhili  CERA 
110 Yu Banghua [zh] Zhili  Continuous 
111 Wu Dezhen [zh] Zhili  Continuous 
112 Chen Shukai [zh] Zhili  Continuous 
113 Li Yirong [zh] Zhili  Continuous 
114 Hu Jiaqi Zhili  Preparative 
115 Xu Dinglin [zh] Jiangsu  Continuous  (Moderate) Later appointed as President
116 Meng Zhaochang [zh] Jiangsu  Science 
 Preparative 
"Leading member amongst elected members"
117 Lei Fen [zh] Jiangsu  CERA  "Leading member of the Council"
118 Xia Yinguan [zh] Jiangsu  CERA 
119 Ma Shijie [zh] Jiangsu  Continuous 
120 Pan Hongding [zh] Jiangsu  Continuous 
121 Fang Huan (方还) Jiangsu  Continuous 
122 Jiang Qian Anhui  Continuous 
123 Jiang Xin Anhui  CERA 
124 Liu Rushi Anhui  Nonpartisan 
125 Li Guoyun [zh] Anhui  Nonpartisan 
126 Tao Rong [zh] Anhui  Petition 
 Tongmenghui  (1911–)
127 閔荷生 Kiangsi  Petition  (Conservative)
128 鄒國瑋 Kiangsi  Continuous 
129 汪龍光 Kiangsi  Continuous 
130 劉景烈 Kiangsi  Preparative 
131 喻兆蕃 Kiangsi  Nonpartisan  Resigned
黃象熙  Nonpartisan  Succeeded in 3rd meeting
132 文龢 Kiangsi  Nonpartisan 
133 陳敬第 Chekiang  CERA 
134 余鏡清 Chekiang  Preparative 
135 鄭際平 Chekiang  Xinhai 
136 王廷揚 Chekiang  Tongmenghui 
137 邵羲 Chekiang  CERA 
 Preparative 
138 王佐 Chekiang  Nonpartisan 
139 陶葆霖 Chekiang  Continuous 
140 康詠 Fukien  Continuous 
141 楊廷綸 Fukien  Continuous 
142 張選青 Fukien  Continuous 
143 李慕韓 Fukien  Continuous 
144 胡柏年 Hupeh  Continuous 
145 陳國瓚 Hupeh  Continuous 
146 鄭潢 Hupeh  Continuous 
147 談鉞 Hupeh  Continuous 
148 黃文潤 Hupeh  Nonpartisan  Charged and resigned
陶峻  Nonpartisan  Succeeded in 3rd meeting
149 羅傑 Hunan  Xinhai 
150 湯魯璠 Hunan  Nonpartisan 
151 馮錫仁 Hunan  Nonpartisan  Died in office
黎尚雯  Tongmenghui 
 Xinhai  (1911–)
Succeeded in 3rd meeting
152 唐右楨 Hunan  Nonpartisan 
153 易宗夔 Hunan  Xinhai  (Radical) Spoken the most in first session
154 陳命官 Shantung  Tongmenghui 
155 王昱祥 Shantung  Nonpartisan 
156 彭占元 Shantung  Tongmenghui 
 Friends  (1911–)
157 尹祚章 Shantung  Continuous 
158 鄭熙嘏 Shantung  Continuous 
159 蔣鴻斌 Shantung  Joint Assemblies 
160 王紹勛 Honan  Continuous 
161 張之銳 Honan  Nonpartisan 
162 彭運斌 Honan  Petition 
163 李時燦 Honan  Nonpartisan 
164 陶毓瑞 Honan  Continuous 
165 渠本翹 Shansi  Petition  Resigned in 12th meeting
劉懋賞  Tongmenghui  Succeeded in 14th meeting
166 李華炳 Shansi  CERA 
167 解榮輅 Shansi  Nonpartisan  Charged and resigned
王用霖  CERA  Succeeded in 3rd meeting
168 劉緜訓 Shansi  Tongmenghui  Charged and resigned
李素  Tongmenghui 
 Friends  (1911–)
Succeeded in 3rd meeting
169 劉志詹 Shansi  CERA 
170 周鏞 Shensi  Nonpartisan 
171 吳懷清 Shensi  Nonpartisan 
172 盧潤瀛 Shensi  Continuous 
173 梁守典 Shensi  Continuous 
174 王曜南 Kansu  Continuous 
175 楊錫田 Kansu  Continuous 
176 羅其光 Kansu  Continuous 
177 李文熙 Sichuan  Joint Assemblies 
 Friends  (1911–)
178 高凌霄 Sichuan  Continuous 
179 張政 Sichuan  Continuous 
180 劉緯 Sichuan  Nonpartisan 
181 郭策勳 Sichuan  Joint Assemblies 
182 萬慎 Sichuan  Continuous 
183 劉曜垣 Kwangtung  Nonpartisan 
184 周廷勵 Kwangtung  Nonpartisan 
185 王廷獻 Kwangtung  Kwangtung Autonomy 
186 黃毓棠 Kwangtung  Nonpartisan 
187 劉述堯 Kwangtung  Nonpartisan 
188 黃廼昌 Kwangsi  Nonpartisan  Died in office
黃晉蒲  Nonpartisan  Succeeded in 3rd meeting
189 馮汝梅 Kwangsi  Nonpartisan 
190 吳賜齡 Kwangsi  CERA  (Radical)
191 陳榮昌 Yunnan  Tongmenghui  Resigned before 3rd meeting
192 張之霖 Yunnan  Continuous 
193 顧視高 Yunnan  Xinhai 
194 范彭齡 Yunnan  Nonpartisan 
195 鍾振玉 Kweichow  Kweichow Autonomy  Died
劉榮勛  Kweichow Autonomy  Succeeded
196 牟琳 Kweichow  Kweichow Preparative 
 Xinhai  (1911–)
  1. ^ Key:  Constitutionalist party ;  Revolutionaries party ;  Nonpartisan . Translation for reference only. Party membership from[16]

Supplementary members include:

Gallery

See also

References

  1. ^ Xiaoqun Xu (2020). Heaven Has Eyes: A History of Chinese Law. Oxford University Press. pp. 110–. ISBN 978-0-19-006004-6.
  2. ^ John Gillespie; Albert H.Y. Chen (13 September 2010). Legal Reforms in China and Vietnam: A Comparison of Asian Communist Regimes. Routledge. pp. 197–. ISBN 978-1-136-97842-5.
  3. ^ Joan Judge (1 March 1997). Print and Politics: 'Shibao' and the Culture of Reform in Late Qing China. Stanford University Press. pp. 295–. ISBN 978-0-8047-6493-3.
  4. ^ Wang Dezhi (2005). Origins of Constitutional Concepts in China. Shandong People's Publishing House. ISBN 978-7-209-03709-9.
  5. ^ Chinese Legal History. Shanghai People's Publishing House. 2003. ISBN 9787208047273.
  6. ^ Modern Chinese History Dictionary. Chinese Communist Party History Press. 1992. ISBN 978-7-80023-476-7.
  7. ^ a b c "志八十八/選舉八/新選舉" [Chapter of Events 88 / Elections 8 / New elections]. 清史稿 [Draft History of Qing] (in Chinese). Vol. 113.
  8. ^ a b "本紀二十四 德宗本紀二" [Chapter of Historiography 24, Dezong Historiography 2]. 清史稿 [Draft History of Qing] (in Chinese). Vol. 24.
  9. ^ 李 2011, pp. 1–3
  10. ^ 李 2011, pp. 4–5
  11. ^ a b c d "本紀二十五 宣統皇帝本紀" [Chapter of Historiography 25, Xuantung Historiography]. 清史稿 [Draft History of Qing] (in Chinese). Vol. 25.
  12. ^ 李 2011, pp. 716
  13. ^ "改訂資政院院章" [Amended Charter of Advisory Council] (in Chinese). 1911-07-03. Retrieved 2022-12-20.
  14. ^ 錢, 實甫 (1980). 清代職官年表. Beijing: 中華書局. p. 3093.
  15. ^ 李 2011, pp. 740–778
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Sources