RegionSindh, Pakistan
Native speakers
(100 cited 1998)[1]
  • Jikrio Goth
  • Jamesabad
Arabic script
Language codes
ISO 639-3aeq

Aer (/ˈaɪər/ YRE) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by around 100 people in Sindh, Pakistan and Gujarat, India.[1] It is one of the smallest languages of Pakistan in terms of number of speakers,[2][3] and is spoken in rural areas of Sindh including Hyderabad, Kot Ghulam Muhammad, and Kunri. Some speakers are also reported to be living in Shaheed Benazirabad, but they have a different culture.[4]


After the Partition of India in 1947, the Muslim speakers of the language migrated to Pakistan, while the Hindu speakers stayed in India. Most of the Aer speakers in Pakistan live in Deh 333,[5] near Hyderabad in lower Sindh. The language was formed in the Indian subcontinent during the Delhi Sultanate and Mughal Empire due to the influence of Persian, Arabic, and Turkish on Indian languages.[6]

A 1998 estimate concluded there were around 200 native speakers.[7] Current estimates, however, put the number of speakers at 150, further cementing its 'endangered' status.[8]


Aer has been classified as one of the Gujarati languages. Ethnologue reports that the closest language is Kachi Koli and especially its dialects Katai Meghwar and Kachi Bhil,[1] and that most Aer speakers are bilingual in Sindhi. Two varieties of Aer are Jikrio Goth Aer and Jamesabad Aer.[7]


Aer is commonly not written, but when it is, it is written in a variety of the Arabic script.[9]

Aer Perso-Arabic alphabet
Letter Name of Letter Transcription IPA
ا alif a /a/
ب be b /b/
پ pe p /p/
ت te t /t/
ٹ ṭe /ʈ/
ث se (s) /s/
ج jīm j /d͡ʒ/
چ če č /t͡ʃ/
ح he (h) /h/
خ khe kh /kʱ/
د dāl d /d/
ڈ ḍāl /ɖ/
ۮ ɗāl ɗ /ɗ/
ذ zāl (z) /z/
ر re r /r/
ڑ ṛe /ɽ/
ۯ ɭe ɭ /ɭ/
ز ze z /z/
ژ je j /d͡ʒ/
س sīn s /s/
ش šīn š /ʃ/
ص swād (s) /s/
ض zwād (z) /z/
ط to'e (t) /t/
ظ zo'e (z) /z/
ع ‘ayn ʿ /ʔ/
غ ghayn gh /gʱ/
ف fe f /f/
ق kāf k /k/
ک kāf k /k/
گ gāf g /g/
ل lām l /l/
م mīm m /m/
ن nūn n /n/
ݨ ṇūn /ɳ/
ں ˜ ˜ /˜/
و waw w /w/
ہ he h /h/
ھ _he _h /ʰ/
ۿ ɦ ɦ /ɦ/
ء hamza ʿ /ʔ/
ی ye y /j/, /i/
ے ye e, ē /ɛ/


  1. ^ a b c Aer at Ethnologue (25th ed., 2022) Closed access icon
  2. ^ Torwali, Zubair (28 July 2015). "Saving local languages". The News International. Retrieved 2022-08-31.
  3. ^ Arshad, Muhammad (2021-09-06). "How Many Languages Are Spoken In Pakistan". Retrieved 2022-08-31.
  4. ^ Parekh, Rauf (2018-01-02). "Some endangered Pakistani languages". Dawn. Retrieved 2022-08-31.
  5. ^ Rahman, Tariq (January 2004). "Language Policy and Localization in Pakistan: Proposal for a Paradigmatic Shif". ResearchGate.
  6. ^ Bukhari, Syed Muhammad Azeem Shah (7 April 2019). "معدوم ہوتی پاکستانی زبانیں" [Endangered Pakistani languages]. Express News. Retrieved 31 August 2022.
  7. ^ a b "Did you know Aer is endangered?". Endangered Languages. Retrieved 2022-08-31.
  8. ^ Parekh, Rauf (2017-03-13). "Literary notes: How many languages are spoken in Pakistan?". Dawn. Retrieved 2022-08-31.
  9. ^ "ScriptSource - Entry - Aer language keyboard". Retrieved 2022-08-31.