Aihui
爱辉区
黑河中央街-2-2017.jpg
Aihui is located in Heilongjiang
Aihui
Aihui
Location in Heilongjiang
Coordinates: 50°14′28″N 127°29′36″E / 50.24111°N 127.49333°E / 50.24111; 127.49333Coordinates: 50°14′28″N 127°29′36″E / 50.24111°N 127.49333°E / 50.24111; 127.49333
CountryPeople's Republic of China
ProvinceHeilongjiang
Prefecture-level cityHeihe
Township-level divisions
  • 9 subdistricts
  • 8 towns
  • 1 township
  • 1 ethnic township
District seatHuayuan Subdistrict (花园街道)
Area
 • Total1,443 km2 (557 sq mi)
Elevation
134 m (440 ft)
Population
 • Total197,240
 • Density140/km2 (350/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+8 (China Standard)
Postal code
164300
Area code(s)0456

Aihui District (simplified Chinese: 爱辉区; traditional Chinese: 愛輝區; pinyin: Àihuī Qū), formerly known as Aihui (simplified Chinese: 瑷珲; traditional Chinese: 璦琿; pinyin: Àihuī), Aihun (simplified Chinese: 艾浑; traditional Chinese: 艾渾; pinyin: Àihún), Aihu (simplified Chinese: 艾浒; traditional Chinese: 艾滸; pinyin: Àihǔ), and Aihu (simplified Chinese: 爱呼; traditional Chinese: 愛呼; pinyin: Àihū), is an administrative district and the seat of the prefecture-level city of Heihe, Heilongjiang Province, China.[1] It is located on the right (south-western) bank of the Amur River, across which is Blagoveshchensk, Amur Oblast, Russia. Aihui District spans an area of 1,443 km2 (557 sq mi), and had a population of 192,764 as of 2000.[1]

Names

Aihui has undergone a number of name changes throughout its history.[1] Most recently, in 1956, the area's Chinese characters were changed from Aihui (simplified Chinese: 瑷珲; traditional Chinese: 璦琿; pinyin: Àihuī) to the present Aihui (simplified Chinese: 爱辉; traditional Chinese: 愛輝; pinyin: Àihuī), due to the uncommon nature of the former name's characters.[1]

History

Main article: Aigun

The area of present-day Aihui has been occupied on-and-off by various Chinese dynasties dating back to the Tang dynasty.[1]

Qing dynasty

To fend off military Russian military forces invading the area, Qing dynasty forces were stationed in present-day Aihui in 1683.[1]

In 1685, the city of Aihui (simplified Chinese: 瑷珲; traditional Chinese: 璦琿; pinyin: Àihuī) was built on orders from the Yamen of Heilongjiang.[1] In the subsequent two centuries since its founding, Aihui served as one of the most important towns of Northern Manchuria.[citation needed]

Following the Boxer Rebellion the city was briefly occupied by Russia, until 1906, when it was returned to the Qing dynasty.[1]

Republic of China

In 1913, Aihui incorporated as Aihui County (simplified Chinese: 瑷珲县; traditional Chinese: 璦琿縣; pinyin: Àihuī Xiàn).[1]

From December 1934 to 1945, the city was ruled by the Japanese puppet-state of Manchukuo.[1]

On December 11, 1956, was renamed Aihui County (simplified Chinese: 爱辉县; traditional Chinese: 愛輝縣, pronunciation unchanged).[1] On November 15, 1980, Heihe City was created, and on June 6, 1983, Aihui County was abolished, being merged into the Heihe City.[2]

To further complicate the situation, in 1993 the former Heihe City (a county-level administrative unit) was reorganized into Aihui District (also a county-level unit), while the former Heihe Prefecture (黑河地区) became Heihe Prefecture-level City (which consists of Aihui District and a number of counties).[2] This administrative division has been in effect ever since.

Geography

The Fabiela River [zh] and the Gongbiela River [zh] both run through the district.[3] Much of the district is forested, particularly in the west.[3] The primary trees of Aihui District are larch, red pine, poplar, and birch.[3]

The district shares a 184.3 kilometres (114.5 mi) border with Russia, and faces the Russian city of Blagoveshchensk.[4]

Administrative divisions

Aihui is divided into 4 subdistricts, 3 towns, 5 townships, 3 ethnic townships, and 23 other township-level divisions.[1][5]

Subdistricts

The district's four subdistricts are Huayuan Subdistrict [zh] , Xing'an Subdistrict [zh], Hailan Subdistrict [zh], and Xixing Subdistrict [zh].[1][5]

Towns

The district's three towns are Xigangzi [zh], Aigun, and Handaqi [zh].[1][5]

Townships

The district's five townships are Xingfu Township [zh], Shangmachang Township [zh], Zhangdiyingzi Township [zh], Xifengshan Township [zh], and Erzhan Township [zh].[1][5]

Ethnic townships

The district's three ethnic townships are Sijiazi Manchu Ethnic Township [zh], Kunhe Daur and Manchu Ethnic Township [zh], and Xinsheng Oroqen Ethnic Township [zh].[1][5]

Other township-level divisions

The district also has 23 other township-level divisions, which include mines, farms, forestry areas, and other similar operations which have township-level status.[1][5]

Demographics

About 18,500 persons (9.4% of the entire population) belong to ethnic minorites.[2] Aihui is home to 26 different ethnic groups, including Han Chinese, Manchu, Hui, Daur, Oroqen, Korean, and Mongol populations.[4]

As of the 1990s, the village of Dawujia (Chinese: 大五家子屯), located in the district, remained one of the few pockets where the Manchu language was commonly spoken.[6]

Economy

The district is home to proven reserves of 69 different types of minerals.[4] Provel coal reserves total 1.1 billion tons, proven gold reserves are 80 tons, proven silicon reserves are 1 million tons, and proven limestone reserves total 12 million tons.[4] There are also sizable reserves of marble, basalt, perlite, and quartz sand.[4]

Transportation

National Highway 202 runs through the district, as does the Bei'an-Heihe railway.[3]

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q 爱辉区历史沿革 [Aihui District Organizational History]. www.xzqh.org (in Chinese). 2013-02-21. Archived from the original on 2017-08-21. Retrieved 2021-02-10.
  2. ^ a b c "Archived copy" 爱辉区概况 (in Chinese (China)). Heihe People's Government. 2007-06-06. Archived from the original on 2012-12-25. Retrieved 2009-03-29.((cite web)): CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  3. ^ a b c d 爱辉区概况地图 [Aihui District Overview]. xzqh.org (in Chinese). 2013-02-21. Archived from the original on 2017-08-17. Retrieved 2021-02-10.
  4. ^ a b c d e 爱辉区概况 [Aihui District Overview] (in Chinese). Heihe Municipal People's Government. 2013-03-15. Archived from the original on 2021-02-10. Retrieved 2021-02-10.
  5. ^ a b c d e f 2020年统计用区划代码(爱辉区) [2020 Statistical Division Codes (Aihui District)] (in Chinese). National Bureau of Statistics of China. 2020. Archived from the original on 2020-11-29. Retrieved 2021-02-10.
  6. ^ Kane, Daniel (1997). "Language death and language revivalism The case of Manchu". Central Asiatic Journal. 41 (2): 231–249. ISSN 0008-9192 – via JSTOR.