An air-jet loom is a shuttleless loom that uses a jet of air to propel the weft yarn through the warp shed.[1] It is one of two types of fluid-jet looms, the other being a water-jet loom, which was developed previously.[1] Fluid-jet looms can operate at a faster speed than predecessor looms such as rapier looms, but they are not as common.[1] The machinery used in fluid-jet weaving consists of a main nozzle, auxiliary nozzles or relay nozzles, and a profile reed.

Air-jet looms are capable of producing standard household and apparel fabrics for items such as shirts, denim, sheets, towels, and sports apparel, as well as industrial products such as printed circuit board cloths.[2] Heavier yarns are more suitable for air-jet looms than lighter yarns. Air-jet looms are capable of weaving plaids, as well as dobby and jacquard fabrics.[3]


In an air-jet loom, yarn is pulled from the supply package, and the measuring disc removes a length of yarn of the width of fabric being woven. A clamp holds the yarn and an auxiliary air nozzle forms it into the shape of a hairpin. The main nozzle blows the yarn, the clamp opens, and the yarn is carried through the shed. At the end of the insertion cycle, the clamp closes, the yarn is beaten in and cut, and the shed is closed.[3] The jets are electronically controlled, with an integrated database.[4]

Research has been done to analyze factors that contribute to compressed air use, a major source of energy consumption, in air-jet looms.[5]

History and production

The air-jet loom was invented in Czechoslovakia in the 20th century and was later refined by Swiss, Dutch, and Japanese companies.[3]

Companies that produce air-jet looms include Toyota Industries[6] and Tsudakoma,[7] both based in Japan; Picanol,[8] based in Belgium; Dornier,[9] based in Germany; RIFA,[10] based in China; and Itema,[11] based in Italy.


  1. ^ a b c "Britannica Academic". Retrieved 2016-09-29.
  2. ^ "Toyota Industries' Air-Jet Looms Undergoing Evolution Together with Customers Worldwide" (PDF). Toyota Industries annual reports. 2014. Retrieved September 29, 2016.
  3. ^ a b c Sayed, Mohammed Abu (August 2014). "Operation principle of an air jet loom". Textile Apex. Retrieved September 29, 2016.
  4. ^ Rouette, Hans-Karl (2001). "Air-jet weaving machines". Encyclopedia of Textile Finishing. Woodhead. p. 48. ISBN 978-1-84-569415-9.
  5. ^ Jabbar, Abdul (September 1, 2014). "Statistical Model for Predicting Compressed Air Consumption on Air-Jet Looms". Journal of Engineered Fabrics & Fibers. 9 (3).
  6. ^ "Textile Machinery - TOYOTA INDUSTRIES CORPORATION". Retrieved 2016-09-29.
  7. ^ "TSUDAKOMA HOME PAGE". Archived from the original on 2016-10-03. Retrieved 2016-09-29.
  8. ^ "OMNIplus Summum airjet weaving machine". Picanol. Archived from the original on 2016-10-02. Retrieved 2016-09-29.
  9. ^ "A1 Air-jet weaving machine — Lindauer DORNIER GmbH". Archived from the original on 2016-10-01. Retrieved 2016-09-29.
  10. ^ "RFJA20 Air Jet Loom, Electronic Jacquard Loom Manufacturer, RIFA Weaving Loom". Retrieved 2016-09-29.
  11. ^ "Itema America, Inc. | Headquartered in Spartanburg SC". Retrieved 2016-09-29.

Further reading