Air Force Intelligence Directorate
إدارة المخابرات الجوية
Idarat al-Mukhabarat al-Jawiyya
Flag of the Syrian Air Force Intelligence Directorate.png
Agency overview
JurisdictionGovernment of Syria
HeadquartersDamascus, Syria
Agency executive
Parent agencyMilitary of Syria

The Air Force Intelligence Directorate (Arabic: إدارة المخابرات الجوية, Idarat al-Mukhabarat al-Jawiyya) is an intelligence service of Syria, possibly the country's most powerful,[1] owing its importance to Hafez al-Assad's role as the Air Force commander.[1] Despite its name, it is mainly involved with issues other than air force intelligence,[2] and took an active part in the suppression of the Muslim Brotherhood rebellion in the 1980s.[3] Agents of this service have frequently been stationed in Syrian embassies or branch offices of the national airline.[4]

The service was headed for nearly thirty years by Maj. Gen. Muhammad al-Khuli, who was trusted by Hafez al-Assad and had an office adjacent to the president's in the presidential palace.[3] In 1995, it was headed by Ibrahim Huwayji.[5]

As of 2019, it is headed by Gen Ghassan Jaoudat Ismail.[6][7] Hassan previously served as a security official in the eastern governorate of Deir ez-Zor. He is a part of Bashar al-Assad's inner circle,[8] though he has criticized "the decision of the leadership" to not immediately crush the 2011 Syrian uprising in its very beginning, making him a hardliner in the Syrian leadership.

The service also took part in the efforts to put down the 2011 Syrian uprising against Bashar al-Assad's government. It is known to have been active in the town of Talkalakh near the Lebanese border.[9]

Heads of Air Force Intelligence Directorate

Regional Heads of Air Force Intelligence Directorate

Paramilitary units

Other Syrian intelligence agencies


  1. ^ a b "Syria, Intelligence and Security". Archived from the original on 13 October 2008. Retrieved 13 October 2008.
  2. ^ "Erreur sur la page". Archived from the original on 13 January 2006. Retrieved 13 October 2008.
  3. ^ a b "Syria's Intelligence Services: A Primer". July 2000. Archived from the original on 22 December 2008.
  4. ^ "NSNL 61 – Intelligence profile : Syria". Retrieved 13 October 2008.
  5. ^ Zisser, Eyal (September 1995). "The Succession Struggle in Damascus – Middle East Quarterly". Middle East Quarterly. Retrieved 13 October 2008.
  6. ^ a b "Assad replaces high-ranking Intel chief". Al-Masdar News. 7 July 2019.
  7. ^ a b Al Hendi, Ahed (3 May 2011). "The Structure of Syria's Repression". Foreign Affairs. ((cite magazine)): Cite magazine requires |magazine= (help)
  8. ^ BBC News – Bashar al-Assad's inner circle. (18 May 2011). Retrieved on 12 April 2012.
  9. ^ Ana Maria Luca; Nadine Elali (30 April 2011). "The Syrian uprising's refugees". NOW Lebanon. Archived from the original on 9 May 2011.
  10. ^ a b Rathmell, Andrew (Fall 1997). "Syria's Intelligence Services: Origins and Development". Journal of Conflict Studies. XVI (2). Archived from the original on 22 July 2011.
  11. ^ Gambil, Gary (February 2002). "The Military-Intelligence Shakeup in Syria". Middle East Intelligence Bulletin. 4 (2).
  12. ^ Bar, Shmuel (2006). "Bashar's Syria: The Regime and its Strategic Worldview" (PDF). Comparative Strategy. 25 (5): 424. doi:10.1080/01495930601105412. S2CID 154739379. Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 July 2011.
  13. ^ "Ali Mamluk: Syria's new security chief - Region - World - Ahram Online". Retrieved 5 November 2014.
  14. ^ "Syria's Assad 'reshuffles security chiefs'". UPI. 21 October 2010.
  15. ^ a b "The Syrian President Reshuffles Security, Intelligence Leaders". 28 September 2010. Middle East Transparent. Archived from the original on 12 March 2012.
  16. ^ a b L_2012016EN.01000101.xml. (19 January 2012). Retrieved on 12 April 2012.
  17. ^ "Council Regulation concerning restrictive measures in view of the situation in Syria and repealing Regulation (EU) No 442/2011".
  18. ^ a b c d "Torture Archipelago". Human Rights Watch. 3 July 2012. Retrieved 3 July 2012. ((cite journal)): Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  19. ^ a b c[bare URL PDF]
  20. ^ Syria: Turkish embassy closed, senior intel officer assassinated. Al Bawaba (26 March 2012). Retrieved on 12 April 2012.
  21. ^ Aymenn Jawad Al-Tamimi (14 December 2016). "Usud Al-Cherubim: A Pro-Assad Christian Militia". Syria Comment.
  22. ^ Aymenn Jawad Al-Tamimi (3 January 2016). "The Syrian National Resistance: Liwa Khaybar". Syria Comment.
  23. ^ Aymenn Jawad Al-Tamimi (24 December 2016). "The Fifth Legion: A New Auxiliary Force". Syria Comment.