|19th Mayor of Manila|
June 30, 2007 – June 30, 2013
|Vice Mayor||Isko Moreno|
|Preceded by||Lito Atienza|
|Succeeded by||Joseph Estrada|
June 30, 1992 – March 27, 1998
|Vice Mayor||Lito Atienza|
|Preceded by||Mel Lopez|
|Succeeded by||Lito Atienza|
|Senator of the Philippines|
June 30, 2004 – June 30, 2007[a]
|Secretary of the Interior and Local Government|
January 8, 2000 – January 20, 2001
|Preceded by||Ronaldo Puno|
|Succeeded by||Jose Lina Jr.|
|Director of the |
National Bureau of Investigation
|Appointed by||Corazon Aquino|
|Preceded by||Antonio M. Cárpio|
|Succeeded by||Epimaco Velasco|
Alfredo Siojo Lim
December 21, 1929
Tondo, Manila, Philippine Islands
|Died||August 8, 2020 (aged 90)|
|Resting place||Manila North Cemetery|
|Political party||PDP–Laban (2018–2020)|
|People's Reform Party (1992–1998)|
Liberal Party (1998–1999, 2009–2018)
Pwersa ng Masang Pilipino (1999–2008)
(m. 1950; died 1994)
|Alma mater||University of the East|
National Defense College of the Philippines
Philippine College of Criminology
|Occupation||Police officer, politician, lawyer|
Alfredo "Fred" Siojo Lim (Chinese: 林雯洛; pinyin: Lín Wénluò; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: Lîm Bûn-lo̍k; December 21, 1929 – August 8, 2020) was a Filipino politician and police officer who served as a Senator of the Philippines from 2004 to 2007. He also served as the Mayor of Manila twice: first from 1992 to 1998, and again from 2007 to 2013.
Prior to entering politics, Lim was a policeman for three decades. During the administration of President Corazon Aquino, he was appointed as the Director of the National Bureau of Investigation (NBI), serving from 1989 to 1992. In 1992, he was elected Mayor of Manila, serving for two consecutive terms. He then unsuccessfully ran for President in 1998. Two years later, in 2000, he was appointed by President Joseph Estrada as the Secretary of the Interior and Local Government (DILG).
In 2001, he ran again for mayor of Manila but lost to then-incumbent Lito Atienza. In the 2004 elections, he ran for senator and won. Three years into his tenure in the Senate, he resigned in order to run for mayor of Manila, which he won and served two consecutive terms from 2007 to 2013. He then lost the 2013 and 2016 mayoral elections to former president Estrada. In 2019, both Lim and Estrada lost the mayoralty elections to Isko Moreno, who served as vice mayor during the two former mayors' respective terms.
Due to his tough stance against suspected criminals, Lim earned the nickname "Dirty Harry".
Lim was born on December 21, 1929 at the Emmanuel Community Hospital along Calle Manuguit, Tondo, Manila, to Rosario Siojo, a Filipina with Chinese ancestry from the Siojo family of San Miguel, Bulacan. His father, Alfredo Lim, Sr., returned to his hometown Antique. When he was in pre-school, his mother remarried and left him at the Hospicio de San Jose. When he was in the third grade, he was put under the care of his maternal grandmother, Flora Valisno-Siojo. After his grandmother's death in 1943, he lived with his godmother, Dolores La’o-Conde.
He finished primary school as a salutatorian at the P. Gomez Elementary School in 1943. While in high school, Lim studied in four different schools. He spent his first year at the Bohol Institute of Technology and the next year at San Beda College. He then transferred to UST High School for his third year and then at the Far Eastern University, where he graduated in 1948. He earned a degree of business administration in 1951 and a Bachelor of Law in 1963 at the University of the East. In 1981, he finished his master's degree in national security administration with honours at the National Defense College of the Philippines and pursued a Doctor of Philosophy in criminology. He graduated in 1998 from Philippine College of Criminology.
When Lim began work in the police in the 1950s, one of his first accomplishments was arresting future senator Robert Barbers for illegal possession of firearms. Then Manila Vice Mayor James Barbers tried to negotiate with Lim to release Robert Barbers without charges, but Lim nevertheless proceeded to file charges. A decorated police officer, Lim earned numerous commendations and awards. During the late 1980s, Lim helped defend the government of then-President Corazon Aquino, such as leading the retaking of government installations from military rebels during one of the 1987 coup attempts. After retiring from the police, Lim was appointed Director of the National Bureau of Investigation, where he lobbied for more funding and pay increases for agents and other employees. Since regular agents had to be fairly half of the force's positions were vacant, and there were few takers because of the low salary. Lim also lobbied for the position of special investigator which was realized to complement regular agents.
In 1992, Lim beat six opponents in the election to become mayor of the city of Manila. As mayor, he worked on a strong law and order program which lessened crime. Lim worked on some projects to improve the city's image which had been bad when he assumed office. He pushed reforms in the city government. His slogan was "Magaling na Lider, Disiplinado" (lit. transl. "Excellent Leader, Disciplined").
Lim was re-elected in 1995. During his first two terms in office, he earned the nickname "Dirty Harry" for his tough anti-crime policies against suspected and convicted drug pushers, drug runners, and the city's red light districts, among others. He founded the City College of Manila that would serve to complement Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Maynila. He resigned on March 27, 1998 to focus on his presidential campaign.
Main article: 1998 Philippine presidential election
Lim ran a failed bid for the presidency as the Liberal Party nominee in the 1998 election, garnering only 8.7% of the vote and finishing fifth in a field of eleven candidates.
In January 2000, his rival in the presidential election, President Joseph Estrada, appointed him as Secretary of the Interior and Local Government. His stint was cut short when Estrada was ousted during the second EDSA Revolution the following year.
Lim ran against incumbent Mayor Lito Atienza, his former ally and vice mayor, in 2001. However, he lost to Atienza by almost 80,000 votes.
Lim was elected Senator in the 2004 election under PMP and the banner of the Koalisyon ng Nagkakaisang Pilipino (KNP). As a senator, Lim introduced legislation to bring back mandatory ROTC, but this bill did not receive any co-sponsors.
In 2007, Lim decided to run again for Mayor of Manila. He won and defeated Atienza's son, Ali Atienza; he thus gave up his Senate seat. Shortly after assuming office, he adopted the slogan "Linisin, Ikarangal (ang) Maynila" (transl. Clean, Dignify Manila, hence the acronym LIM). He ended the ban on holding rallies at Mendiola, which was initiated by his predecessor Lito Atienza, later modifying it by allowing rallies to be held there on weekends and holidays.
On July 16, 2007, Philippine National Police (PNP) Director General Oscar Calderon asked him to revoke his ban to prevent militants from marching there. The PNP would recommend having protesters take their rallies to freedom parks. Calderon warned that if Lim will not change his position, the PNP will enforce the "no permit, no rally" policy. He ordered the removal of all business establishments, including bars and restaurants, in the Baywalk area along Roxas Boulevard (also another Atienza project) in an attempt to make the area a "wholesome park for everyone", with an unobstructed view of the famed Manila sunset. He claimed that many of these establishments have no business permits and were selling liquor, which is a violation of applicable city ordinances.
In December 2007, he told MMDA Chairman Bayani Fernando not to conduct its sidewalk clearing operations in Manila since vendors were allowed to sell on sidewalks for humanitarian reasons. He stated: "I jokingly told Chairman Fernando that they are welcome anytime but I cannot guarantee their safety. Their problem is how they will get out."
On March 14, 2008, Lim's son, Manny Lim, and two other suspects were arrested in a hotel along Tomas Mapua Street by PDEA operatives during a buy–bust operation in Binondo. Manny had in his possession 100 grams of methamphetamine hydrochloride or shabu worth P600,000.
On July 17, 2008, Councilor Dennis Alcoreza filed human rights complaints before the Commission on Human Rights, against Lim and other officials of the city of Manila. Alcoreza accused Lim of a violent takeover of a slaughterhouse in Tondo on 11 July, and illegal dispersal of protest. Meanwhile, 24 councilors resigned from their posts as members and heads of the different committees, prompting a reorganization. The councilors unanimously denounced the violent treatment by Lim's Manila Police Department (MPD) towards Alcoreza during the city government's takeover of the slaughterhouse.
Lim resigned as head of Joseph Estrada's Pwersa ng Masang Pilipino (PMP) in August 2008, following a PMP's executive committee resolution removing him as president of the party. He was replaced by Estrada, who is also the PMP chairman.
In October 2008, he made ROTC training mandatory for all students at the Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Maynila (PLM) and the City College of Manila (CCM, now the Universidad de Manila (UdM)), both city-owned colleges.
Lim ran for reelection in 2010, with Vice Mayor Isko Moreno as his running mate. Together, they defeated Lim's predecessor, Atienza, and his running mate, Councilor Bonjay Isip-Garcia. However, Atienza filed an electoral protest, citing discrepancies in the election returns and the consolidation and canvassing system. He later dropped his protest in January 2013.
On August 23, 2010, former police officer Rolando Mendoza hijacked a tourist bus full of tourists from Hong Kong in order to make demands on the government about a case against him at the Ombudsman that led to his dismissal from service. The government's failure to negotiate properly with Mendoza led to the killing of eight hostages and of Mendoza himself after almost ten hours of stand-off. Justice Secretary Leila De Lima was tasked to lead an investigation on the incident and determine whose negligence led to the tragedy. Her committee, the Incident Investigation and Review Committee (IIRC), found out that there were lapses on the part of Lim that led to the failed resolution of the hostage-drama, thereby recommending the filing of administrative and criminal cases against him and other officials. Malacañang, however, declared Lim's liability was neglect of duty and misconduct. But, according to a report conducted by the late DILG Secretary Jesse Robredo that was released on April 2013, he was found to have been "administratively liable" for the incident.
In 2013, he sought another term as mayor, with actor and Councilor Lou Veloso as his running mate but they were defeated by Estrada and Moreno, respectively.
From 2004 to 2010 during his term as a Senator, Lim anchored the public service radio program Katapat: Mayor Fred Lim at DZMM of ABS-CBN's DZMM. With his team onboard researcher Joseph Arcaya, Executive Producer Dingdong Marco, DZMM Station Manager Angelo Palmones, and attorney Rey Bagatsing, the radio program helped solve many unsolved cases which became the last resort of the victims of crimes not only in Metro Manila but the entire Philippines. He also anchored Aksyon Ngayon, also on DZMM, with Kaye Dacer.
In 2015, Lim returned to the radio airwaves as co-anchor of Katapat at Karancho, 8TriMedia's morning commentary program aired on DZRJ-AM.
In the 2016 mayoral elections, Lim ran again for mayor of Manila against the incumbent Joseph Estrada, who replaced him in 2013. He chose 1st district congressman Benjamin Asilo and later 5th district councilor Ali Atienza as his running mate for vice mayor, respectively. He lost to Estrada by a margin of 2,800 votes.
Lim attempted another comeback as mayor and ran in the 2019 elections, chasing a fifth non-consecutive term against Estrada again and his former vice-mayoral and running mate Isko Moreno. However, Lim placed third and Moreno emerged as the winner in the three-way race of notable candidates.
Lim, when not under the banner of a national political party, used the "Kapayapaan, Kaunlaran at Katarungan" (transl. Peace, Prosperity and Justice) label, the party he founded to stand for election.
On August 8, 2020, Lim died after having tested positive for COVID-19 during the COVID-19 pandemic in the Philippines. He was confined in a government-run hospital in Manila prior to his death. His remains were then cremated and on August 29, were inurned at the Manila North Cemetery.
Lim has appeared in films and television series. He was also portrayed by different actors in several films.