Alliance Party
Chinese name联盟 Liánméng
Malay nameParti Perikatan
AbbreviationAlliance
FounderTunku Abdul Rahman
Tan Cheng Lock
V.T. Sambanthan
Founded1952
Legalised30 October 1957 (as fully registered)
Dissolved1 July 1973
Succeeded byBarisan Nasional
HeadquartersKuala Lumpur
MembershipUnited Malays National Organisation (UMNO)
Malaysian Chinese Association (MCA)
Malaysian Indian Congress (MIC)
Sarawak National Party (SNAP)
IdeologySocial conservatism
National liberalism
Anti-communism
Multiracialism
Political positionCentre-right to right-wing
ColoursRoyal blue and white

The Alliance Party (Malay: Parti Perikatan) was a political coalition in Malaysia. The Alliance Party, whose membership comprised United Malays National Organisation (UMNO), Malaysian Chinese Association (MCA) and Malaysian Indian Congress (MIC), was formally registered as a political organisation on 30 October 1957. It was the ruling coalition of Malaya from 1957 to 1963, and Malaysia from 1963 to 1973. The coalition became the Barisan Nasional in 1973.

History

Origin

The Alliance Party had its origin in an ad hoc and temporary electoral arrangement set up between the local branches of UMNO and MCA to contest the Kuala Lumpur municipal election in 1952. The UMNO-MCA candidates won in 9 of the 12 seats contested, beating the non-communal Independence of Malaya Party (IMP) which won 2 seats and Selangor Labour Party which won none.[1] Their success in this election led to firmer association between the two parties and further successes in other municipal elections that the UMNO-MCA alliance contested (the only state the two parties did not contest together was Penang where UMNO was allied with the Muslim League). In 1954, the alliance was joined by MIC that previously supported IMP.[2] Although for a time other parties were also associated with the Alliance Party, these three parties (UMNO, MCA, MIC) remained the core of the coalition until 1971.

In 1955, in the first general election for the Federal Legislative Council in what was then the British protectorate of the Federation of Malaya, the UMNO-MCA-MIC Alliance successfully gained the great majority of seats available for contest, winning 51 of the 52 seats contested with a vote of 81.7%. It formally registered as a political organisation on 30 October 1957.[2][3]

1957–1972

The Alliance played an important role in negotiating the transition from British rule to independence, and facilitating the preparation of its constitution. After the Malaya had gained independence on 31 August 1957, the General Election was held in 1959. The Alliance won 51.5% of the popular vote and 74 of the 104 seats contested, defeating the Pan Malaysian Islamic Party (PMIP, 21.2%) and the Socialist Front coalition (13%).[4]

The Alliance was also credited with securing the formation of the Federation of Malaysia on 16 September 1963. After Malaysia came into being, the Alliance Party of the Malay Peninsula became closely associated with other alliance parties in Sabah and Sarawak.

In the 1964 general election, boosted by the formation of Malaysia and the subsequent confrontation with Indonesia, the Alliance Party was even more successful, winning a majority (58.4%) of the votes and securing 89 of the 104 seats contested. The Alliance had strong support among rural Malays (apart from the east coast of Malaysia where support for PMIP was still significant), while other opposition parties had support among the Chinese urban population.[5]

In the 1969 general election, although the Alliance Party won the most seats, it garnered less than half the popular vote due to strong challenges from the opposition parties, in particular the newly formed Democratic Action Party and Gerakan. PMIP also gained support at the expense of UMNO but the number of seats gained was smaller. The unease and anxiety after the election led to the May 13 riots, and the declaration of a state of emergency. After the Malaysian Parliament reconvened in 1971, negotiations began with former opposition parties such as Gerakan and People's Progressive Party, both of which joined the Alliance in 1972, quickly followed by PMIP. In 1973, the Alliance Party was formally replaced by Barisan Nasional, a coalition of 9 parties, and the Barisan Nasional was registered in June 1974 to contest the 1974 general election.[6][7]

Component parties

Other associated alliances

Sabah Alliance

Sabah Alliance was a component party of Barisan Nasional from 1973 to several months before 1976 Sabah election. In that state election, Sabah Alliance clashed with federal BN-supported BERJAYA party. It disbanded after the election. USNO and BERJAYA joined Barisan Nasional after Double-Six Accident

Sarawak Alliance

Singapore Alliance (1963-1965)

Elected representatives

General election results

Election Total seats won Seats contested Total votes Share of votes Outcome of election Election leader
1955
51 / 52
52 818,013 81.7% Increase51 seats; Governing coalition Tunku Abdul Rahman
1959
74 / 104
104 800,944 51.8% Increase23 seats; Governing coalition Tunku Abdul Rahman
1964
89 / 159
159 1,204,340 58.4% Increase15 seats; Governing coalition Tunku Abdul Rahman
1969
77 / 144
144 1,063,238 48.4% Decrease12 seats; Governing coalition Tunku Abdul Rahman

State election results

State election State Legislative Assembly
Perlis State Legislative Assembly Kedah State Legislative Assembly Kelantan State Legislative Assembly Terengganu State Legislative Assembly Penang State Legislative Assembly Perak State Legislative Assembly Pahang State Legislative Assembly Selangor State Legislative Assembly Negeri Sembilan State Legislative Assembly Malacca State Legislative Assembly Johor State Legislative Assembly Total won / Total contested
2/3 majority
2 / 3
2 / 3
2 / 3
2 / 3
2 / 3
2 / 3
2 / 3
2 / 3
2 / 3
2 / 3
2 / 3
1959
12 / 12
24 / 24
2 / 30
7 / 24
17 / 24
31 / 40
23 / 24
23 / 28
20 / 24
20 / 20
28 / 32
1964
11 / 12
24 / 24
9 / 30
21 / 24
18 / 24
35 / 40
24 / 24
24 / 28
24 / 24
18 / 20
32 / 32
1969
11 / 12
14 / 24
11 / 30
13 / 24
4 / 24
19 / 40
20 / 24
14 / 28
16 / 24
15 / 20
30 / 32

See also

References

  1. ^ Saravanamuttu, Johan (2017). Power Sharing in a Divided Nation. ISEAS-Yusof Ishak Institute. ISBN 9789814762939.
  2. ^ a b Keat Gin Ooi, ed. (2004). Southeast Asia: A Historical Encyclopedia, from Angkor Wat to East Timor, Volume 1. ABC-CLIO. pp. 138–139. ISBN 978-1576077702.
  3. ^ Lee Hock Guan (30 July 2014). Ooi Kee Beng (ed.). ISEAS Perspective: Selections 2012-2013. ISEAS Publishing. p. 57. ISBN 978-9814519267.
  4. ^ Saravanamuttu, Johan (2017). Power Sharing in a Divided Nation. ISEAS. ISBN 9789814762939.
  5. ^ Saravanamuttu, Johan (2017). Power Sharing in a Divided Nation. ISEAS. ISBN 9789814762939.
  6. ^ Keat Gin Ooi (2010). The A to Z of Malaysia. Scarecrow Press. pp. ixvi–ixvii. ISBN 978-0810876415.
  7. ^ Joseph Liow, Michael Leifer (18 November 2014). Dictionary of the Modern Politics of Southeast Asia (4th ed.). Routledge. ISBN 978-0415625326.