Amanita pantherina
Amanita pantherina 2013 G1.jpg
Scientific classification edit
Kingdom: Fungi
Division: Basidiomycota
Class: Agaricomycetes
Order: Agaricales
Family: Amanitaceae
Genus: Amanita
Species:
A. pantherina
Binomial name
Amanita pantherina
(DC.) Krombh. (1846)
Amanita pantherina
View the Mycomorphbox template that generates the following list
gills on hymenium
cap is flat
hymenium is free
stipe has a ring and volva
spore print is white
ecology is mycorrhizal
edibility: poisonous or psychoactive

Amanita pantherina, also known as the panther cap, false blusher, and the panther amanita[1] due to its similarity to the true blusher (Amanita rubescens), is a species of fungus found in Europe and Western Asia.

Description

Amanita pantherina compared to closely related species
Amanita pantherina compared to closely related species

Other than the brownish cap with white warts, distinguishing features of Amanita pantherina include the collar-like roll of volval tissue at the top of the basal bulb, and the elliptical, inamyloid spores. Contrary to the Amanita rubescens the panther cap does not color red/pink ("blush") when the flesh is damaged, hence its name "false blusher". This is a key feature in differentiating both species.

Habitat and distribution

The panther cap is an uncommon mushroom, found in both deciduous, especially beech and, less frequently, coniferous woodland and rarely meadows throughout Europe, western Asia in late summer and autumn.[4] It has also been recorded from South Africa, where it is thought to have been accidentally introduced with trees imported from Europe, Asia[5] and on Vancouver Island, in British Columbia, Canada.[6] It is common in urban areas from winter to spring.[7]

It is an ectomycorrhizal fungus, living in root symbiosis with a tree, deriving photosynthesised nutrients from it and providing soil nutrients in return.

Biochemistry and toxicity

Main article: Muscimol mushroom

A. pantherina contains the psychoactive compounds ibotenic acid and muscimol,[8] two psychoactive constituents which can cause effects such as hallucinations, synaesthesia, euphoria, dysphoria and retrograde amnesia. The effects of muscimol and ibotenic acid most closely resemble that of a Z drug, like Ambien at high doses, and not a classical psychedelic, i.e. psilocybin.

A. pantherina is used as an entheogen much less often than its much more distinguishable relative Amanita muscaria, largely due to being less recognizable and far more potent[9][better source needed], containing a higher concentration of ibotenic acid. While ibotenic acid is mostly broken down into the body to muscimol, what remains of the ibotenic acid is believed[according to whom?] to cause the majority of dysphoric effects of consuming psychedelic Amanita species. Ibotenic acid is also a scientifically important neurotoxin used in lab research as a brain-lesioning agent in mice.[10][11]

As with other wild-growing mushrooms, the ratio of ibotenic acid to muscimol depends on countless external factors, including: season, age, and habitat - and percentages will naturally vary from mushroom-to-mushroom — with dark brown A. pantherina specimens having a greater concentration of ibotenic acid.[7]

A. pantherina var. pantherinoides is considered inedible and possibly poisonous.[2] Varieties multisquamosa and velatipes are considered poisonous.[12]

Legal status

Main article: Legal status of psychoactive Amanita mushrooms

A. muscaria and A. pantherina are illegal to buy, sell, or possess in the Netherlands since December 2008. Possession of amounts larger than 0.5 g dried or 5 g fresh lead to a criminal charge.[13]

See also

Gallery

  • Amanita pantherina 100.jpg
  • Amanita pantherina100.jpg
  • Amanita pantherina MdE 1.jpg
  • Amanita.pantherina2.-.lindsey.jpg
  • Amanita pantherina.jpg
  • Amanita ameripathera
    Amanita ameripathera
  • Spore print
    Spore print

References

  1. ^ "Standardized Common Names for Wild Species in Canada". National General Status Working Group. 2020.
  2. ^ a b c d e Davis, R. Michael; Sommer, Robert; Menge, John A. (2012). Field Guide to Mushrooms of Western North America. Berkeley: University of California Press. p. 76. ISBN 978-0-520-95360-4. OCLC 797915861.
  3. ^ Kuo, M. (2005, March). Amanita pantherina. Retrieved from the MushroomExpert.Com Web site: http://www.mushroomexpert.com/amanita_pantherina.html
  4. ^ Jordan P & Wheeler S (2001). The Ultimate Mushroom Book. Hermes House.
  5. ^ Asef M.R. (2020). Field guide of Mushrooms of Iran. Tehran: Iran-Shanasi Press. p. 360. ISBN 9786008351429.
  6. ^ Reid DA, Eicker A (1991). "South African fungi: the genus Amanita" (PDF). Mycological Research. 95: 80–95. doi:10.1016/S0953-7562(09)81364-6. Retrieved 2007-11-13.
  7. ^ a b Trudell, Steve; Ammirati, Joe (2009). Mushrooms of the Pacific Northwest. Timber Press Field Guides. Portland, OR: Timber Press. pp. 85–86. ISBN 978-0-88192-935-5.
  8. ^ Barceloux D. G. (2008). "41 (Isoxazole-containing mushrooms and pantherina syndrome)" (PDF). Medical toxicology of natural substances: foods, fungi, medicinal herbs, plants, and venomous animals. Canada: John Wiley and Sons Inc. p. 298. ISBN 978-0-471-72761-3.
  9. ^ "Erowid Psychoactive Amanitas (A. muscaria & A. pantherina) Vault: Basics". erowid.org. Retrieved 2020-12-10.
  10. ^ Becker, A; Grecksch, G; Bernstein, HG; Höllt, V; Bogerts, B (1999). "Social behaviour in rats lesioned with ibotenic acid in the hippocampus: quantitative and qualitative analysis". Psychopharmacology. 144 (4): 333–8. doi:10.1007/s002130051015. PMID 10435405. S2CID 25172395.
  11. ^ Isacson, O; Brundin, P; Kelly, PA; Gage, FH; Björklund, A (1984). "Functional neuronal replacement by grafted striatal neurones in the ibotenic acid-lesioned rat striatum". Nature. 311 (5985): 458–60. Bibcode:1984Natur.311..458I. doi:10.1038/311458a0. PMID 6482962. S2CID 4342937.
  12. ^ Phillips, Roger (2010). Mushrooms and Other Fungi of North America. Buffalo, NY: Firefly Books. pp. 17–18. ISBN 978-1-55407-651-2.
  13. ^ Openbaar Ministerie (12-01-2008). Paddoverbod van kracht Archived 2012-09-05 at archive.today. Retrieved 5 May 2016.