Amateur wrestling
Sole of a Wrestler (8111420340).jpg
Two competitors in an Amateur Wrestling match
FocusGrappling
ParenthoodAncient Greek style of wrestling
Olympic sportIn Greco-Roman and Freestyle wrestling styles

Amateur wrestling is a variant of wrestling practiced in collegiate, school, or other amateur level competitions. There are two international wrestling styles performed in the Olympic Games: freestyle and Greco-Roman. Both styles are under the supervision of the United World Wrestling (UWW; formerly known as FILA, from the French acronym for International Federation of Associated Wrestling Styles). A similar style, commonly called collegiate (also known as scholastic or folkstyle), is practiced in colleges and universities, secondary schools, middle schools, and among younger age groups in the United States. Where the style is not specified, this article refers to the international styles of competition on a mat. In February 2013, the International Olympic Committee (IOC) voted to remove the sport from the 2020 Summer Olympics onward. On 8 September 2013, the IOC announced that wrestling would return to the Summer Olympics in 2020.[1] The rapid rise in the popularity of the combat sport mixed martial arts (MMA) has increased interest in amateur wrestling due to its effectiveness in the sport and it is considered a core discipline.[2]

Scoring

Greco-Roman and freestyle differ in what holds are permitted; in Greco-Roman, the wrestlers are permitted to hold and attack only above the waist. In both Greco-Roman and freestyle, points can be scored in the following ways:

Scores only awarded in collegiate wrestling

As in the international styles, collegiate wrestling awards points for takedowns and reversals. Penalty points are awarded in collegiate wrestling according to the current rules, which penalize moves that would impair the life or limb of the opponent. However, the manner how infractions are penalized and points awarded to the offended wrestler differ in some aspects from the international styles. Collegiate wrestling also awards points for:

Period format

Women's wrestling
Women's wrestling

In the international styles, the format is now two three-minute periods. A wrestler wins the match when they were able to get more points than their opponent or 10 points lead in two rounds. For example, if one competitor gets a 10–0 lead in first the period, they will win by the superiority of points. Only a fall, injury default, or disqualification terminates the match; all other modes of victory result only in period termination.[4]

This format replaced the old format of three two-minute periods played best two out of three. One side effect of the old format was that the losing wrestler could outscore the winner. For example, periods may be scored 3–2, 0–4, 1–0, leading to a total score of 4–6 but a win for the wrestler scoring fewer points.

In collegiate wrestling, the period structure is different. A college match consists of one three-minute period, followed by two two-minute periods, with an overtime round if necessary.[5] A high school match typically consists of three two-minute periods, with an overtime round if necessary.[6] Under the standard rules for collegiate wrestling, draws are not possible; this rule is sometimes modified for young wrestlers.

Victory conditions in the international styles

A match can be won in the following ways:

Victory conditions in collegiate wrestling

An example of medals that are usually awarded to the winner of a tournament
An example of medals that are usually awarded to the winner of a tournament

While having similar victory conditions with Greco-Roman and freestyle, such as wins by fall, decision, injury, and disqualification, victory conditions in collegiate wrestling differ on some points from the international styles:

Dual meet scoring is very similar on the high school level.[18]

Illegal moves

Andrell Durden (top) and Edward Harris grapple for position during the All-Marine Wrestle Offs.
Andrell Durden (top) and Edward Harris grapple for position during the All-Marine Wrestle Offs.

Amateur wrestling is a positionally-based form of grappling, and thus generally prohibits the following:

Equipment

Two college wrestlers with headgear competing in collegiate wrestling match
Two college wrestlers with headgear competing in collegiate wrestling match

While there is not much equipment that a wrestler wears, it is still highly specialized. A wrestling singlet is a one-piece, tight-fitting, colored, lycra uniform. The uniform is tight-fitting so as not to get grasped accidentally by the opponent and allows the referee to see each wrestler's body clearly when awarding points or a pin. Women wrestlers wear a higher cut singlet usually with a sports-bra underneath.

Wrestling shoes are light, flexible, thin-soled, ankle-high sneakers that allow maximum speed and traction on the mat without giving up ankle support. The current rules call for laces (if any) to be covered so that they do not come untied during competition.

In American high school and college wrestling headgear is mandatory to protect the ears from cauliflower ear and other injuries. Headgear is made from molded plastic polymer or vinyl coated energy absorbing foam over a rigid hard liner and strapped to the head tightly. In the international styles headgear is optional.[19]

Wrestling is conducted on a padded mat that must have excellent shock absorption, tear resistance, and compression qualities. Most mats are made of PVC rubber nitrile foam. Recent advances in technology have brought about new mats made using closed cell, cross-linked polyethylene foam covered in vinyl backed with non-woven polyester.

World participation

See also: Wrestling at the Summer Olympics

The countries with the leading wrestlers in the Olympic Games and World Championships are Iran, the United States, Russia (and some of the former Soviet Union republics, especially Armenia, Georgia, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Azerbaijan, and Kazakhstan), Bulgaria, Turkey, Hungary, Cuba, India, Canada, Japan, Pakistan, South and North Korea, Germany, and historically Sweden and Finland.

Women

Summer Olympics

Because of the successful growth in female participation, the International Olympic Committee announced that women's freestyle wrestling would be added to the Olympic games in the 2004 Summer Olympic Games in Athens, Greece with a total of four different weight classes.[20]

USA

Until the early 1990s, the majority of women who participated in the sport had no other choice but to join the available men's teams. At the high school level, this may still be required in some areas depending on the number of wrestlers. Brookline High School in Brookline, Massachusetts was the first public school in America to create a varsity girls wrestling team. Girls have at times still competed against boys.[21]

University of Minnesota-Morris was the first university to create a varsity women's wrestling team. UMM's head coach, Doug Reese, followed in the footsteps of other schools like Missouri Valley College that pioneered programs for female wrestlers. University of the Cumberlands, Menlo College, Pacific University, and Neosho County CC. Cal-State Bakersfield are other schools that had a number of women competitors that only competed against each other or occasionally against Canadian college teams.

As the sport continued to grow, coaches within women's wrestling formed the Women's Collegiate Wrestling Association (WCWA). This group created rules regarding eligibility, bylaws, and elected leaders for this association. Each year the number of intercollegiate programs continued to prosper with the WCWA now recognizing a total of 28 teams. Within these teams there are several who have National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) affiliation and most of them are allowed to compete in the National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics (NAIA).

There is also a national dual meet championship for women's intercollegiate teams that have been sponsored by the National Wrestling Coaches Association for the past 6 years; the world's top 16 teams compete in this event.[22]

In 2004, Missouri Valley College held the first Women's National Wrestling Championships which honored four individual champions. Later, the event would be hosted by the University of the Cumberlands in 2006.

See also

References

  1. ^ "India welcomes re-inclusion of Wrestling in Olympic Games". Archived from the original on 2013-09-26. Retrieved 9 September 2013.
  2. ^ "Can mixed martial arts save wrestling? - USATODAY.com".
  3. ^ a b International Federation of Associated Wrestling Styles (2006-12-01). "International Wrestling Rules: Greco-Roman Wrestling, Freestyle Wrestling, Women's Wrestling" (PDF). FILA. p. 36. Retrieved 2008-10-28.
  4. ^ a b International Federation of Associated Wrestling Styles (2006-12-01). "International Wrestling Rules: Greco-Roman Wrestling, Freestyle Wrestling, Women's Wrestling" (PDF). FILA. p. 27, 30. Retrieved 2008-10-28.
  5. ^ National Collegiate Athletic Association (2008-08-01). "2009 NCAA Wrestling Rules and Interpretations" (PDF). NCAA. p. WR-10, WR-29-WR-31. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2009-03-25. Retrieved 2008-10-30.
  6. ^ National Federation of State High School Associations (2008-08-01). 2008–09 NFHS Wrestling Rules Book. NFHS. pp. 32, 35–36.
  7. ^ International Federation of Associated Wrestling Styles (2006-12-01). "International Wrestling Rules: Greco-Roman Wrestling, Freestyle Wrestling, Women's Wrestling" (PDF). FILA. p. 41. Retrieved 2008-10-28.
  8. ^ International Federation of Associated Wrestling Styles (2006-12-01). "International Wrestling Rules: Greco-Roman Wrestling, Freestyle Wrestling, Women's Wrestling" (PDF). FILA. p. 27, 28, 41. Retrieved 2008-10-28.
  9. ^ International Federation of Associated Wrestling Styles (2006-12-01). "International Wrestling Rules: Greco-Roman Wrestling, Freestyle Wrestling, Women's Wrestling" (PDF). FILA. p. 30, 52–53. Retrieved 2008-10-28.
  10. ^ International Federation of Associated Wrestling Styles (2006-12-01). "International Wrestling Rules: Greco-Roman Wrestling, Freestyle Wrestling, Women's Wrestling" (PDF). FILA. p. 31, 50. Retrieved 2008-10-28.
  11. ^ National Federation of State High School Associations (2008-08-01). 2008–09 NFHS Wrestling Rules Book. NFHS. p. 23.
  12. ^ National Collegiate Athletic Association (2008-08-01). "2009 NCAA Wrestling Rules and Interpretations" (PDF). NCAA. p. WR-23-WR-24. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2009-03-25. Retrieved 2008-10-30.
  13. ^ a b c d e National Collegiate Athletic Association (2008-08-01). "2009 NCAA Wrestling Rules and Interpretations" (PDF). NCAA. p. WR-49. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2009-03-25. Retrieved 2008-10-30.
  14. ^ a b National Collegiate Athletic Association (2008-08-01). "2009 NCAA Wrestling Rules and Interpretations" (PDF). NCAA. p. WR-24. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2009-03-25. Retrieved 2008-10-30.
  15. ^ a b National Collegiate Athletic Association (2008-08-01). "2009 NCAA Wrestling Rules and Interpretations" (PDF). NCAA. p. WR-24, WR-49. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2009-03-25. Retrieved 2008-10-30.
  16. ^ a b c National Collegiate Athletic Association (2008-08-01). "2009 NCAA Wrestling Rules and Interpretations" (PDF). NCAA. p. WR-25. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2009-03-25. Retrieved 2008-10-30.
  17. ^ National Collegiate Athletic Association (2008-08-01). "2009 NCAA Wrestling Rules and Interpretations" (PDF). NCAA. p. WR-49-WR-51. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2009-03-25. Retrieved 2008-10-30.
  18. ^ National Federation of State High School Associations (2008-08-01). 2008–09 NFHS Wrestling Rules Book. NFHS. p. 48.
  19. ^ International Federation of Associated Wrestling Styles (2006-12-01). "International Wrestling Rules: Greco-Roman Wrestling, Freestyle Wrestling, Women's Wrestling" (PDF). FILA. p. 10. Retrieved 2008-10-28.
  20. ^ "Summer Olympics to Include Women's Wrestling - 2004-06-25". Voice of America.
  21. ^ "GIRL PINS BOY: Rosie pins David Rientjes (Belmont Wrestling)".
  22. ^ "Growing Women's Wrestling – National Wrestling Coaches Assoc".

Notes