Amherst, Massachusetts
Town of Amherst
Left-right from top: Downtown Amherst, Congregational Church in North Amherst, University of Massachusetts Amherst, Town Hall, Downtown Amherst
Flag of Amherst, Massachusetts
Official seal of Amherst, Massachusetts
Nickname: 
"The People's Republic of Amherst"[1][2][3]
Location in Hampshire County in Massachusetts
Location in Hampshire County in Massachusetts
Amherst, Massachusetts is located in Massachusetts
Amherst, Massachusetts
Amherst, Massachusetts
Amherst, Massachusetts is located in the United States
Amherst, Massachusetts
Amherst, Massachusetts
Amherst, Massachusetts is located in North America
Amherst, Massachusetts
Amherst, Massachusetts
Coordinates: 42°23′N 72°31′W / 42.383°N 72.517°W / 42.383; -72.517
CountryUnited States
StateMassachusetts
CountyHampshire
Settled1703
IncorporatedFebruary 13, 1759
Named forJeffery Amherst, 1st Baron Amherst
Government
 • TypeCouncil–manager
Area
 • Total27.7 sq mi (71.8 km2)
 • Land27.6 sq mi (71.5 km2)
 • Water0.1 sq mi (0.3 km2)
Elevation
295 ft (90 m)
Population
 (2020)
 • Total39,263
 • Density1,422/sq mi (549.1/km2)
Time zoneUTC−5 (Eastern)
 • Summer (DST)UTC−4 (Eastern)
ZIP Codes
01002, 01003 (UMass), 01004 (post office boxes), 01059 (North Amherst post office; shared with Leverett)
Area code413
FIPS code25-01325
GNIS feature ID0618195
Websitewww.amherstma.gov

Amherst (/ˈæmərst/ )[4] is a city in Hampshire County, Massachusetts, United States, in the Connecticut River valley. Amherst has a council–manager form of government, and is considered a city under Massachusetts state law. Amherst is one of several Massachusetts municipalities that have city forms of government but retain "The Town of" in their official names.[5] At the 2020 census, the population was 39,263,[6] making it the highest populated municipality in Hampshire County (although the county seat is Northampton). The town is home to Amherst College, Hampshire College, and the University of Massachusetts Amherst, three of the Five Colleges.

Amherst has three census-designated places: Amherst Center, North Amherst, and South Amherst.

Amherst is part of the Springfield, Massachusetts Metropolitan Statistical Area. Lying 22 miles (35 km) north of the city of Springfield, Amherst is considered the northernmost town in the Hartford–Springfield Metropolitan Region, "The Knowledge Corridor". Amherst is also located in the Pioneer Valley, which encompasses Hampshire, Hampden and Franklin counties.

Name

The name of the town is pronounced without the h ("AM-erst") by natives and long-time residents,[7] giving rise to the local saying, "only the 'h' is silent", in reference both to the pronunciation and to the town's politically active populace.[8]

History

A streetcar for the Amherst and Sunderland Street Railway crosses Amherst Center, in front of the town hall, c. 1903.

The earliest known document of the lands now comprising Amherst is the deed of purchase dated December 1658 between John Pynchon of Springfield and three native inhabitants, referred to as Umpanchla, Quonquont, and Chickwalopp.[9] According to the deed, "ye Indians of Nolwotogg (Norwottuck) upon ye River of Quinecticott (Connecticut)" sold the entire area in exchange for "two Hundred fatham of Wampam & Twenty fatham, and one large Coate at Eight fatham wch Chickwollop set of, of trusts, besides severall small giftes" [sic].

Amherst was first visited by Europeans no later than 1665, when Nathaniel Dickinson surveyed the lands for its mother town Hadley. The first permanent English settlements arrived in 1727. It remained a part of Hadley, even when it gained precinct status in 1734, before becoming a township in 1759.

When it incorporated, the colonial governor assigned the town the name "Amherst" after Jeffery Amherst, 1st Baron Amherst. Many a colonial governor at the time scattered his name during the influx of new town applications, which is why several towns in the Northeast bear the name. Amherst was Commander-in-Chief of the forces of North America during the French and Indian War who, according to popular legend, singlehandedly won Canada for the British and banished France from North America. Popular belief has it that he supported the American side in the Revolutionary War and resigned his commission rather than fight for the British. Baron Amherst actually remained in the service of the Crown during the war—albeit in Great Britain rather than North America—where he organized the defense against the proposed Franco-Spanish Armada of 1779. Nonetheless, his previous service in the French and Indian War meant he remained popular in New England. Amherst is also infamous for recommending, in a letter to a subordinate, the use of smallpox-covered blankets in warfare against the Native Americans along with any "other method that can serve to Extirpate this Execrable Race".[10] For this reason, there have been occasional ad hoc movements to rename the town.[11]

Amherst celebrated its 250th anniversary in 2009. The Amherst 250th Anniversary Celebration Committee and Amherst Historical Society organized events, including a book published by the Historical Society and written by Elizabeth M. Sharpe, Amherst A to Z.

In 2021 the City Council voted to establish the Amherst African Heritage Reparation Assembly to study reparations for the town's black residents. In 2022, at the Assembly's suggestion, the City Council approved $2,000,000 of initial funding for reparations.

History of town government

The Town converted from an open town meeting to a representative town meeting form in 1938.[12] In 1953, Amherst voters passed the "Town Manager Act", which established the office of a town manager and reduced a number of elected positions.[12] In 1995, a charter commission was approved to study Amherst's government; the charter majority recommended a seven-person Council and a mayor, while also maintaining a reduced size representative Town Meeting (150).[13] This proposal failed in two successive votes.[12]

In 2001, the League of Women Voters Amherst made a number of recommendations that were adopted in 2001 in the form of a revised "Amherst Town Government Act".[14] An effort shortly thereafter to amend the charter to eliminate the town meeting, and establish an elected mayor and a nine-member Town Council,[15] was rejected by voters twice, first in spring 2003 by fourteen votes and again on March 29, 2005 by 252 votes.

In 2016, a charter commission was approved to study Amherst's government. A majority of commissioners proposed a charter that would establish a 13-member council with no mayor.[16][17] This proposal was voted on the March 27, 2018 local ballot,[18] and was passed by over 1,000 votes, a 58% majority.[19] The new town council was sworn in on December 2, 2018.[20]

Geography

Mount Norwottuck

According to the United States Census Bureau, Amherst has a total area of 27.7 square miles (71.8 km2), of which 27.6 square miles (71.5 km2) are land and 0.12 square miles (0.3 km2), or 0.48%, are water.[21] The town is bordered by Hadley to the west, Sunderland and Leverett to the north, Shutesbury, Pelham, and Belchertown to the east, and Granby and South Hadley to the south. The highest point in the town is on the northern shoulder of Mount Norwottuck at the southern border of the town; the peak is in Granby but the town's high point is a few yards away and is about 1,100 feet (340 m). This point is located in the Mount Holyoke Range, which forms the so-called "Tofu Curtain". Amherst is nearly equidistant from Massachusetts' borders with Connecticut and Vermont.

Listing of sights in Amherst, 1886

Amherst's ZIP Code of 01002 is the second-lowest number in the continental United States after Agawam (not counting codes used for specific government buildings such as the IRS).

Climate

Amherst has a humid continental climate that under the Köppen system marginally falls into the warm-summer category (Dfb). It is interchangeable with the hot-summer subtype Dfa with July means hovering around 71.7 °F (22.1 °C). Winters are cold and snowy, albeit daytime temperatures often remain above freezing. Under the 2012 USDA Plant Hardiness Zone system, Amherst (ZIP Code 01002) is in zone 5b;[22] however, Amherst closely borders zone 6a, which penetrates into Massachusetts in the Connecticut River Valley, and climate change may be shifting those zones.[23]

Climate data for Amherst, Massachusetts, 1991–2020 normals, extremes 1893–present
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °F (°C) 70
(21)
78
(26)
85
(29)
93
(34)
98
(37)
101
(38)
104
(40)
100
(38)
99
(37)
90
(32)
82
(28)
72
(22)
104
(40)
Mean maximum °F (°C) 55.4
(13.0)
57.1
(13.9)
66.4
(19.1)
80.6
(27.0)
87.9
(31.1)
94.6
(34.8)
93.2
(34.0)
91.2
(32.9)
88.1
(31.2)
78.3
(25.7)
68.9
(20.5)
58.5
(14.7)
95.0
(35.0)
Mean daily maximum °F (°C) 34.0
(1.1)
37.0
(2.8)
45.2
(7.3)
58.2
(14.6)
69.5
(20.8)
78.0
(25.6)
83.1
(28.4)
81.5
(27.5)
74.4
(23.6)
64.9
(18.3)
49.7
(9.8)
39.2
(4.0)
59.6
(15.3)
Daily mean °F (°C) 23.9
(−4.5)
26.2
(−3.2)
34.7
(1.5)
46.3
(7.9)
57.5
(14.2)
66.5
(19.2)
71.7
(22.1)
69.9
(21.1)
62.3
(16.8)
50.2
(10.1)
39.4
(4.1)
30.0
(−1.1)
48.2
(9.0)
Mean daily minimum °F (°C) 13.8
(−10.1)
15.3
(−9.3)
24.1
(−4.4)
34.4
(1.3)
45.4
(7.4)
55.0
(12.8)
60.2
(15.7)
58.3
(14.6)
50.3
(10.2)
38.6
(3.7)
29.1
(−1.6)
20.8
(−6.2)
37.1
(2.8)
Mean minimum °F (°C) −5.7
(−20.9)
−2.6
(−19.2)
6.5
(−14.2)
22.3
(−5.4)
30.3
(−0.9)
40.5
(4.7)
49.5
(9.7)
46.0
(7.8)
35.5
(1.9)
24.7
(−4.1)
14.5
(−9.7)
3.4
(−15.9)
−8.4
(−22.4)
Record low °F (°C) −30
(−34)
−27
(−33)
−17
(−27)
8
(−13)
24
(−4)
29
(−2)
39
(4)
32
(0)
25
(−4)
12
(−11)
−4
(−20)
−22
(−30)
−30
(−34)
Average precipitation inches (mm) 3.36
(85)
2.93
(74)
3.47
(88)
3.79
(96)
3.71
(94)
4.46
(113)
4.12
(105)
4.12
(105)
4.62
(117)
4.74
(120)
3.38
(86)
3.89
(99)
46.59
(1,182)
Average snowfall inches (cm) 8.1
(21)
11.0
(28)
7.3
(19)
1.0
(2.5)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
1.6
(4.1)
7.5
(19)
36.5
(93.6)
Average extreme snow depth inches (cm) 7.3
(19)
8.9
(23)
7.0
(18)
0.9
(2.3)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.3
(0.76)
1.2
(3.0)
5.7
(14)
11.8
(30)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in) 10.8 9.2 9.5 11.1 12.6 11.3 11.0 10.0 8.9 10.8 9.5 10.6 125.3
Average snowy days (≥ 0.1 in) 5.6 5.0 3.1 0.6 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.9 3.7 19.0
Source 1: NOAA[24]
Source 2: National Weather Service[25]

Demographics

Historical population
YearPop.±%
17901,233—    
18001,258+2.0%
18101,469+16.8%
18201,917+30.5%
18302,631+37.2%
18402,550−3.1%
18503,057+19.9%
18603,206+4.9%
18704,035+25.9%
18804,298+6.5%
18904,512+5.0%
19005,028+11.4%
19105,112+1.7%
19205,550+8.6%
19305,883+6.0%
19406,410+9.0%
195010,856+69.4%
196013,718+26.4%
197026,331+91.9%
198033,229+26.2%
199035,228+6.0%
200034,874−1.0%
201037,819+8.4%
202039,263+3.8%
2023*40,277+2.6%
* = population estimate[26]
Source: United States census records and Population Estimates Program data.[27][28][29][30][31][32][33][34][35][36][37][38]

As of the 2010 U.S. Census, there were 37,819 people, 9,259 households, and 4,484 families residing in the town. There were 9,711 housing units. The racial makeup of the town was 76.9% White, 5.4% Black or African American, 0.2% Native American, 10.9% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 2.4% some other race, and 4.1% from two or more races. 7.3% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.[39]

Of the 9,259 households in the town, 23.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 35.6% were headed by married couples living together, 16.3% had a female householder with no husband present, and 51.6% were non-families. Of all households, 27.3% were made up of individuals, and 9.7% were someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.44 and the average family size was 2.88.[39]

In the town, 10.0% of the population were under the age of 18, 55.7% were from 18 to 24, 13.3% were from 25 to 44, 13.6% were from 45 to 64, and 7.4% were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 21.6 years. For every 100 females, there were 95.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.7 males.[39]

For the period 2011–2015, the estimated median annual income for a household in the town was $48,059, and the median income for a family was $96,005. Male full-time workers had a median income of $64,750 versus $39,278 for females. The per capita income for the town was $18,905. About 8.7% of families and 34.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 18.2% of those under age 18 and 4.5% of those age 65 or over.[40]

Of residents 25 years old or older, 41.7% have a graduate or professional degree, and only 4.9% did not graduate from high school. The largest industry is education, health, and social services, in which 51.9% of employed persons work.

These statistics given above include some but not all of the large student population, roughly 30,000 in 2010, many of whom only reside in the town part of the year. Amherst is home to thousands of part-time and full-time residents associated with the University of Massachusetts Amherst, Amherst College, and Hampshire College.

Income

See also: List of Massachusetts locations by per capita income

Data is from the 2009–2013 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates.[41][42][43]

Rank ZIP Code (ZCTA) Per capita
income
Median
household
income
Median
family
income
Population Number of
households
Massachusetts $35,763 $66,866 $84,900 6,605,058 2,530,147
Hampshire County $29,460 $61,227 $81,385 159,267 58,828
United States $28,155 $53,046 $64,719 311,536,594 115,610,216
1 01002 $27,691 $54,422 $96,929 29,266 9,248
Amherst $19,796 $53,191 $96,733 38,651 8,583
2 01003 (UMass Amherst Campus) $3,531 $N/A $N/A 11,032 16

Economy

Major employers in Amherst include University of Massachusetts Amherst, Amherst College, William D. Mullins Memorial Center, Hampshire College, and Amherst-Pelham Regional School District.[44]

Arts and culture

Points of interest

Sports

Government

Town Hall

Amherst has a town council for its legislative branch and a town manager for its executive branch. The town manager is appointed by the town council.[52]

Amherst's town council consists of ten district councilors and three councilors-at-large. Two district councilors are elected from each of five districts in Amherst. The three councilors-at-large are elected by the whole town. Each councilor serves a two-year term, except for the first council, where each member will serve a three-year term.[52]

Amherst also has the following elected bodies:[52]

Amherst also has a five-member housing authority where three of the five members are elected by voters. Each member serves a two-year term.[52]

Town Council Members[53]
Title Name District First elected
Councilor-at-Large Mandi Jo Hanneke At-Large 2018
Councilor-at-Large Ellisha Walker At-Large 2021
Councilor-at-Large Andrew Steinberg At-Large 2018
District Councilor Michele Miller 1 2021
District Councilor Cathy Schoen 1 2018
District Councilor Lynn Griesemer 2 2018
District Councilor Patricia De Angelis 2 2018
District Councilor Dorothy Pam 3 2018
District Councilor Jennifer Taub 3 2021
District Councilor Anika Lopes 4 2021
District Councilor Pam Rooney 4 2021
District Councilor Shalini Bahl-Milne 5 2018
District Councilor Ana Devlin Gauthier 5 2021

State and federal representation

In the Massachusetts Senate Amherst is in the "Hampshire, Franklin and Worcester" district,[54] represented by Democratic State Senator Jo Comerford since January 2019. In the Massachusetts House of Representatives Amherst is in the 3rd Hampshire district,[55] represented by Democratic State Representative Mindy Domb since January 2019. Amherst is part of the Eighth Massachusetts Governor's Council district and has been represented by Tara Jacobs since January 2023.[56]

Amherst is represented at the federal level by an all-Democratic delegation, including Senators Elizabeth Warren and Ed Markey, and by Representative Jim McGovern of the Second Congressional District of Massachusetts.

Voter registration

Voter turnout versus voter registration over time.[57]

Voter registration data is from the state election enrollment statistics.

Registered Voters and Party Enrollment[58]
Year Democratic Republican Unenrolled Total
2004 8,522 47.8% 1,231 6.9% 7,623 42.8% 17,816
2006 8,350 49.2% 1,076 6.3% 7,228 42.6% 16,980
2008 9,343 49.3% 1,076 5.7% 8,257 43.6% 18,956
2010 8,675 49.6% 948 5.4% 7,661 43.8% 17,501
2012 10,324 46% 1,219 5.4% 10,665 47.6% 22,425
2014 9,645 45% 1,156 5.4% 10,454 48.8% 21,431
2016 10,414 46.9% 1,146 5.2% 10,202 46% 22,196
2018 10,249 46.6% 1,025 4.7% 10,331 47% 21,993
2020 8,562 51.7% 575 3.5% 7,166 43.3% 16,551
2022 7,222 51% 414 3% 6,441 45% 14,243

Politics

Like many college towns, Amherst leans heavily Democratic. In each of the presidential elections from 2012 to 2020, more than 80% of Amherst's votes went to the Democratic candidate.

In the 2020 United States Presidential Election, Democrat Joe Biden received 90.3 percent of the vote to incumbent Republican Donald Trump's 7.4 percent.[59] In the 2000 United States Presidential Election, Amherst was one of a small number of places that delivered more votes for Green Party candidate Ralph Nader (who took 24% of the vote) than Republican candidate George W. Bush, who received just 13%.[60]

Education

Amherst Skyline from the northwest
The Yiddish Book Center, located on the campus of Hampshire College

The town is part of the Amherst Regional School District along with Leverett, Pelham, and Shutesbury. Amherst has three elementary schools: Crocker Farm Elementary School, Fort River Elementary School, and Wildwood Elementary School serving K–6. Students in Amherst then attend Amherst Regional Middle School for grades 7–8. High school students then attend Amherst Regional High School.

There are three tertiary institutions located in the town: the public University of Massachusetts Amherst (the flagship of the UMass system), and two private liberal arts colleges—Amherst College and Hampshire College.

Infrastructure

Transportation

Bus

The Pioneer Valley Transit Authority, funded by local governments and the Five College Consortium, provides public transportation in the area, operated by University of Massachusetts Transportation Services. Service runs well into the early morning hours on weekends when school is in session. Students attending any colleges in the Five Colleges Consortium have a fee included in their tuition bills (service fee for UMass Amherst students and student activity fees for the other colleges) for each semester that prepays their bus fares for the semester. UMass Transit buses operate via a proof-of-payment system, in which there are random inspections of student identification cards and bus passes and transfers.

Peter Pan Bus Lines provides service between Amherst and Springfield, Boston, and other locations in New England.[61] Megabus provides service between New York City, Amherst, and Burlington, Vermont.[62]

Rail

Amtrak rail service is available in nearby Northampton on the Vermonter service between Washington, D.C., and St. Albans, Vermont. More frequent Amtrak service to New York City and Washington, D.C., is available from Union Station in Springfield.

Airports

The closest major domestic and limited international air service is available through Bradley International Airport (BDL) in Windsor Locks, Connecticut. Bradley is located approximately one hour's driving time from Amherst. Major international service is available through Logan International Airport (BOS) in Boston, 90 miles away.

General aviation service is close by, at Northampton Airport, Westover Metropolitan Airport, and Turners Falls Airport.

Police report

Since 1997, the local newspaper, the Amherst Bulletin, has published a weekly log of phone calls received by the Amherst Police Department.[63] This police report, whose tone is deadpan and often unintentionally humorous, has been the subject of at least two books[64][65] and a 2002 article in Harper's Magazine, "Gone When Police Got There".[66] For example, an entry from the March 27, 2015 police report reads: "2:48 a.m.—An Ann Whalen Apartments resident awoke to find someone on her balcony looking into her bedroom. The woman later told police she thinks she may have been dreaming prior to calling 911."[67]

Notable people

Historical

Born or raised in Amherst

Live/lived in Amherst

Sister cities

See also

References

  1. ^ Hollander, Paul (1981). Political Pilgrims: Western Intellectuals in Search of the Good Society. Piscataway, New Jersey: Transaction Publishers. p. xxv. ISBN 9781412831208. Retrieved April 7, 2013. Brentlinger, a professor of philosophy at the University of Massachusetts at Amherst, was robustly and proudly alienated from American society and culture ... he has probably benefited from living amidst like-minded people in what has been jestingly called 'the people's republic of Amherst, Mass.'
  2. ^ Arkes, Hadley (1996). "Response to Fund". In Schaefer, David Lewis; Schaefer, Roberta Rubel (eds.). The future of cities. Lanham, Maryland: University Press of America. p. 9. ISBN 9780761802709. Retrieved April 7, 2013. I come to you from one of those places that is in America, but not quite of it...In my case it is the People's Republic of Amherst
  3. ^ Sarat, Austin (2008). "Contested Terrain: Visions of Multiculturalism in an American Town". In Minow, Martha; Shweder, Richard A.; Markus, Hazel (eds.). Just Schools: Pursuing Equality in Societies of Difference. New York: Russell Sage Foundation. p. 102. ISBN 9781610447263. Retrieved April 7, 2013. I live in a place whose liberal tendencies have earned it various nicknames. For example, it has been called 'The People's Republic of Amherst'
  4. ^ "Amherst". Dictionary.com. Retrieved November 9, 2014.
  5. ^ "CIS: Massachusetts City and Town Incorporation and Settlement Dates". www.sec.state.ma.us. Retrieved April 6, 2018.
  6. ^ "Census - Geography Profile: Amherst Town city, Massachusetts". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved September 25, 2021.
  7. ^ "languagehat.com : AMHERST". www.languagehat.com.
  8. ^ See, e.g., Chris Rohmann, "Stage Struck: Silent But Deadly" Archived 2014-01-12 at the Wayback Machine, Valley Advocate, Oct. 20, 2011; and "Living in Western Massachusetts" Archived 2012-08-25 at the Wayback Machine, Pioneer Valley Cohousing (last visited Sept. 16, 2012).
  9. ^ Carpenter, Edward Wilson; Charles Frederick Morehouse (1896). The History of the Town of Amherst, Massachusetts. Amherst, Mass.: Press of Carpenter & Morehouse. pp. 1–2. OCLC 11223569. Retrieved July 20, 2015.
  10. ^ d'Errico, Peter. "Jeffrey Amherst and Smallpox Blankets". Peter d'Errico's Law Page. Retrieved July 20, 2015.
  11. ^ Merzbach, Scott. "Belchertown man wants Amherst's town name banished". Daily Hampshire Gazette. Retrieved July 14, 2018.
  12. ^ a b c Amherst League of Women Voters, "Your Amherst Government" Archived March 5, 2018, at the Wayback Machine (2009).
  13. ^ 1996 Charter Commission Report Archived 2018-08-02 at the Wayback Machine.
  14. ^ League of Women Voters of Amherst 75th Anniversary Program" Archived March 4, 2018, at the Wayback Machine, p.11.
  15. ^ "2002 Charter Commission Report" (PDF). votenooncharter.org. Archived from the original (PDF) on August 2, 2018. Retrieved March 4, 2018.
  16. ^ Amherst League of Women Voters, "League of Women Voters Offers Evaluative Criteria".
  17. ^ Amherst Charter Commission, "Final Report and Home Rule Charter".
  18. ^ Amherst, Massachusetts, town website, "Charter Commission" (last visited March 4, 2018).
  19. ^ "Amherst voters approve charter change in historic election", Daily Hampshire Gazette (last visited August 18, 2018).
  20. ^ "Amherst Town Council Inauguration Celebration". Retrieved April 25, 2019.
  21. ^ "Geographic Identifiers: 2010 Census Summary File 1 (G001): Amherst town, Hampshire County, Massachusetts". American Factfinder. U.S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original on February 13, 2020. Retrieved August 7, 2017.
  22. ^ "USDA Plant Hardiness Zone Map". Archived from the original on May 2, 2021. Retrieved August 28, 2018.
  23. ^ Massachusetts Plant Hardiness Zone Map Archived October 5, 2013, at the Wayback Machine, USDA.
  24. ^ "U.S. Climate Normals Quick Access – Station: Amherst, MA". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved February 18, 2023.
  25. ^ "NOAA Online Weather Data – NWS Boston". National Weather Service. Retrieved February 18, 2023.
  26. ^ "Annual Estimates of the Resident Population: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2017 (PEPANNRES): Massachusetts Minor Civil Divisions". American Factfinder. U.S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original on February 13, 2020. Retrieved August 7, 2017.
  27. ^ "Total Population (P1), 2010 Census Summary File 1". American FactFinder, All County Subdivisions within Massachusetts. United States Census Bureau. 2010.
  28. ^ "Massachusetts by Place and County Subdivision - GCT-T1. Population Estimates". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved July 12, 2011.
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