Uhunduni
Damal
Amung
RegionPapua: central highlands, Paniai Regency, Beoga and Ilaga sub-districts; Asmat, Deiya, Mimika, and Puncak regencies, north and south Carstens Mountains; possibly Lanny Jaya and Nduga regencies.
EthnicityAmung people
Native speakers
14,000 (2000)[1]
Trans–New Guinea
Language codes
ISO 639-3uhn
Glottologdama1272
ELPDamal
Damal language.svg
Map: The Amung language of New Guinea
  The Amung language
  Other Trans–New Guinea languages
  Other Papuan languages
  Austronesian languages
  Uninhabited

Uhunduni, also known as Damal and Amung (Amung Kal) after two of its dialects, is the language of the Amung people. It is a Trans–New Guinea language that forms an independent branch of that family in the classification of Malcolm Ross (2005). However, it is treated as an isolate by Palmer (2018).[2]

Dialects are Amongme, Amung, Damal, Enggipilu.

Classification

Pawley and Hammarström (2018) do not consider there to be sufficient evidence for Uhunduni to be classified as part of Trans-New Guinea, though they do note the following lexical resemblances between Uhunduni and proto-Trans-New Guinea.[3]

However, according to Dryer (2022), based on a preliminary quantitative analysis of data from the ASJP database, Bayono–Awbono is likely to be a subgroup of Trans–New Guinea.[4]

Pronouns

Ross (2005) lists the pronouns as:

singular dual plural
1 na iru enoŋ
2 a erop
3 na nuŋ

Iru is an inclusive dual.

Vocabulary

The following basic vocabulary words of Damal (Uhunduni) are from the Trans-New Guinea database,[5] citing Voorhoeve (1975).[6]

gloss Damal
head niŋok
hair niŋatok
eye noŋop
tooth naik
leg dok; nok
louse ma
dog mitim
pig bow
bird elato; olem
egg olemagam
blood nimang
bone dok; nok
skin nigip
tree em
man me
sun ul
water o; uk; ut
fire ka; kanelep
stone kela
name nem
eat nowin
one amenkak
two au; u

Literature

The New Testament in Damal was published in 1988.

References

  1. ^ Uhunduni at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015) (subscription required)
  2. ^ Palmer, Bill (2018). "Language families of the New Guinea Area". In Palmer, Bill (ed.). The Languages and Linguistics of the New Guinea Area: A Comprehensive Guide. The World of Linguistics. Vol. 4. Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton. pp. 1–20. ISBN 978-3-11-028642-7.
  3. ^ Pawley, Andrew; Hammarström, Harald (2018). "The Trans New Guinea family". In Palmer, Bill (ed.). The Languages and Linguistics of the New Guinea Area: A Comprehensive Guide. The World of Linguistics. Vol. 4. Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton. pp. 21–196. ISBN 978-3-11-028642-7.
  4. ^ Dryer, Matthew S. (2022). Trans-New Guinea IV.2: Evaluating Membership in Trans-New Guinea.
  5. ^ Greenhill, Simon (2016). "TransNewGuinea.org - database of the languages of New Guinea". Retrieved 2020-11-05.
  6. ^ Voorhoeve, C.L. 1975. Languages of Irian Jaya Checklist. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics.