Anaconda
Downtown Anaconda, looking north
Location of Anaconda within the county Deer Lodge County.
Anaconda
Anaconda
Location in Montana
Anaconda
Anaconda
Anaconda (the United States)
Anaconda
Anaconda
Anaconda (North America)
Coordinates: 46°8′N 112°56′W / 46.133°N 112.933°W / 46.133; -112.933Coordinates: 46°8′N 112°56′W / 46.133°N 112.933°W / 46.133; -112.933
CountryUnited States
StateMontana
CountyDeer Lodge
Area
 • Total741.2 sq mi (1,919.7 km2)
 • Land736.53 sq mi (1,907.6 km2)
 • Water4.7 sq mi (12.1 km2)
Elevation
5,276 ft (1,608 m)
Population
 • Total9,421
 • Density12.79/sq mi (4.94/km2)
Time zoneUTC−7 (Mountain (MST))
 • Summer (DST)UTC−6 (MDT)
ZIP code
59711
FIPS code30-01675
GNIS feature ID779015
Websiteadlc.us
Main Street, Anaconda
Main Street, Anaconda
Entering Anaconda, looking west
Entering Anaconda, looking west

Anaconda, county seat of Deer Lodge County, which has a consolidated city-county government, is located in southwestern Montana, United States. Located at the foot of the Anaconda Range (known locally as the "Pintlers"), the Continental Divide passes within 8 mi (13 km) south of the community. As of the 2020 census the population of the consolidated city-county was 9,421,[1] and the US Census Bureaus's 2015-2019 American Community Survey showed a median household income of $41,820.[2] Anaconda had earlier peaks of population in 1930 and 1980, based on the mining industry. As a consolidated city-county area, it ranks as the ninth most populous city in Montana, but as only a city is far smaller. Central Anaconda is 5,335 ft (1,626 m) above sea level, and is surrounded by the communities of Opportunity and West Valley.

The county area is 736.53 square miles (1,907.6 km2), characterized by densely timbered forestlands, lakes, mountains and recreation grounds. The county has common borders with Beaverhead, Butte-Silver Bow, Granite, Jefferson and Powell counties.

History

Anaconda was founded by Marcus Daly, one of the Copper Kings, who financed the construction of the Anaconda smelter on nearby Warm Springs Creek to process copper ore from the Butte mines. In June 1883, Daly filed for a town plat for "Copperopolis", but that name was already used by another mining town in Meagher County. Instead, Daly accepted the name "Anaconda", suggested by the United States postmaster of the time, Clinton Moore.[3] Moore chose the name because of the important mine already existing in the area. When Montana was admitted as a state in 1889, Daly lobbied to have the capital moved here, but it stayed in Helena, a location supported by rival William Andrews Clark.

In 1903, the Socialist Party of America won its first victory west of the Mississippi when Anaconda voters elected a socialist mayor, treasurer, police judge, and three councilmen. The Socialist Party had grown within the expanding Montana labor movement. Initially, the Anaconda Copper Mining Company tolerated socialist activities, but when the Socialists gained political power and threatened to implement reform, the company systematically undermined the radical party. City workers and councilmen refused to cooperate with the new mayor, and the company began to fire Socialists. In the long run labor lost ground in Anaconda and the company exerted ever greater political control.[4]

The Anaconda Company expanded smelting capacity over time; by 1919 the Washoe Reduction Works could boast that its 585-foot (178 m) smokestack (Anaconda Smelter Stack) was the tallest masonry structure in the world and that the smelter-refining complex constituted the world's largest non-ferrous processing plant.

In 1980, Atlantic Richfield Company closed the smelter, bringing an end to almost a century of mineral processing.[5] While some aspects of the operation had been cleaned up under environmental laws, closing the smelter resulted in a large area contaminated with hazardous wastes. Since then, an operation for environmental cleanup was put into place by the federal Environmental Protection Agency and executed with the assistance of ARCO. The multimillion-dollar cleanup and redevelopment has resulted in the "Old Works" Golf Course, a championship 18-hole course designed by Jack Nicklaus.

Anaconda joined with Deer County to form a consolidated city-county government in 1977.[6] Part of Anaconda is included in the Butte-Anaconda Historic District.

Geography

Climate

Climate data for Anaconda
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °F (°C) 60
(16)
65
(18)
71
(22)
83
(28)
89
(32)
95
(35)
100
(38)
98
(37)
95
(35)
88
(31)
71
(22)
60
(16)
100
(38)
Average high °F (°C) 31.3
(−0.4)
28.9
(−1.7)
39.8
(4.3)
50.1
(10.1)
59.4
(15.2)
66.3
(19.1)
68.9
(20.5)
65.8
(18.8)
58.2
(14.6)
49.1
(9.5)
40.2
(4.6)
34.1
(1.2)
49.3
(9.6)
Daily mean °F (°C) 23.4
(−4.8)
22.1
(−5.5)
33.4
(0.8)
43.2
(6.2)
51.8
(11.0)
60.2
(15.7)
63.8
(17.7)
61.9
(16.6)
53.2
(11.8)
43.4
(6.3)
35.1
(1.7)
28.3
(−2.1)
43.3
(6.3)
Average low °F (°C) 15.9
(−8.9)
14.7
(−9.6)
25.3
(−3.7)
34.3
(1.3)
44.3
(6.8)
53.4
(11.9)
57.8
(14.3)
54.3
(12.4)
46.4
(8.0)
35.2
(1.8)
27.8
(−2.3)
19.8
(−6.8)
35.8
(2.1)
Record low °F (°C) −28
(−33)
−35
(−37)
−12
(−24)
4
(−16)
17
(−8)
27
(−3)
30
(−1)
25
(−4)
12
(−11)
−9
(−23)
−22
(−30)
−38
(−39)
−38
(−39)
Average precipitation inches (mm) 0.58
(15)
0.46
(12)
1.04
(26)
1.17
(30)
1.85
(47)
1.93
(49)
1.43
(36)
1.47
(37)
1.14
(29)
0.84
(21)
0.84
(21)
0.63
(16)
13.38
(339)
Source 1: NOAA (normals, 1971–2000)[7]
Source 2: The Weather Channel (Records)[8]

According to the Köppen climate classification, Anaconda has a humid continental climate

Demographics

See also: Deer Lodge County, Montana § Demographics

Historical population
Census Pop.
1880700
18903,975467.9%
19009,453137.8%
191010,1347.2%
192011,66815.1%
193012,4947.1%
194011,004−11.9%
195011,2542.3%
196012,0547.1%
19709,771−18.9%
198012,51828.1%
199010,278−17.9%
20009,417−8.4%
20109,298−1.3%
20209,4211.3%
Source[9]
U.S. Decennial Census[2]

Arts and culture

Club Moderne (1937), Anaconda (Historic American Buildings Survey)

On main street is the Washoe Theater, which is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. It was the last theater constructed in the United States in the Nuevo Deco style. The theater was designed in 1930 by B. Marcus Priteca, an architect from Seattle and opened in 1936. It was listed by the NRHP for architectural significance in 1982. It currently is used for showing films, plus periodically hosting plays and other types of entertainment.

Government and politics

Deer Lodge County Courthouse in Anaconda
Deer Lodge County Courthouse in Anaconda

Deer Lodge County voters have a record as the most consistently Democratic county in Montana for Presidential elections. These voters have not supported a Republican candidate since Calvin Coolidge in 1924. In the last five elections before 2016, the Democratic candidate has won by 21% to nearly 49% of Deer Lodge County's vote. In gubernatorial elections, the only Republican to carry the county in the last twenty years was Marc Racicot in the 1996 election. In that election the original Democratic nominee, Chet Blaylock, died and Marc Racicot carried every county.[10]

The city is in the 39th district of the Montana Senate and is represented by Democrat Gene Vuckovich in the 2019 legislative session.

Elected in 2017, Bill Everett is the current CEO. The CEO is elected by a plurality vote on a non-partisan ballot for a four (4) year term.[11]

Sports and recreation

Education

Hearst Free Library (1898), listed on the National Register of Historic Places
Hearst Free Library (1898), listed on the National Register of Historic Places

Four schools are part of Anaconda School District 10, including a Head Start program; Lincoln Elementary (grades k-3), Fred Moodry Intermediate School (grades 4–6), and Anaconda Junior-Senior High School (grades 7–12).[12] Anaconda High School is known as the Copperheads.[13]

The Hearst Free Library serves the area.[14]

Infrastructure

Bowman Field is a public airport located three miles (5 km) northeast of Anaconda.

Media

The Anaconda Leader is the local newspaper. It is published twice weekly.[15]

Film credits

Anaconda has been a filming location for a few movies, documentaries and a TV show, including:

Notable people

See also

References

  1. ^ a b "U.S. Census website". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved November 2, 2021.
  2. ^ a b "Census of Population and Housing". Census.gov. Retrieved 29 September 2021.
  3. ^ Carkeek Cheney, Roberta (1983). Names on the Face of Montana. Missoula, Montana: Mountain Press Publishing Company. p. 6. ISBN 0-87842-150-5.
  4. ^ Jerry Calvert, "The Rise and Fall of Socialism in a Company Town, 1902–1905", Montana, Dec 1986, Vol. 36 Issue 4, pp 2-13
  5. ^ Aarstad, Rich, Ellie Arguimbau, Ellen Baumler, Charlene Porsild, and Brian Shovers. Montana Place Names from Alzada to Zortman Archived October 8, 2009, at the Wayback Machine. Montana Historical Society Press.
  6. ^ http://www.msulocalgov.org/documents/resources/Resources/1977%20Charter%20of%20Anaconda.pdf[bare URL PDF]
  7. ^ "Climatography of the United States NO.81" (PDF). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2014-07-15. Retrieved January 15, 2011.
  8. ^ "Monthly Averages for Anaconda, MT". The Weather Channel. Retrieved January 15, 2011.
  9. ^ Moffatt, Riley. Population History of Western U.S. Cities & Towns, 1850–1990. Lanham: Scarecrow, 1996, 127.
  10. ^ David Leip's Election Atlas
  11. ^ "Anaconda-Deer Lodge County, MT | Official Website".
  12. ^ "Anaconda Public Schools". Archived from the original on 2014-05-14. Retrieved 2014-05-13.
  13. ^ "Member Schools". Montana High School Association. Retrieved 19 April 2021.
  14. ^ "Hearst Free Library". Hearst Free Library. Retrieved 13 April 2021.
  15. ^ "Anaconda Leader". Anaconda Chamber of Commerce. Retrieved 16 April 2021.
  16. ^ Corman, Marvin L. (2005). Colon and Rectal Surgery. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. p. 1574. ISBN 0781740436. Retrieved May 30, 2015.
  17. ^ "Founder of the Jesuit Volunteer Corps movement dies". Catholic Sentinel. 2012-10-02. Retrieved 2012-10-11.
  18. ^ "Thomas J. Ward". Archived from the original on July 15, 2014. Retrieved July 1, 2014.

Further reading

Wikisource has the text of a 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article about Anaconda, Montana.