Aniche
The Church of Saint-Martin
Coat of arms
Location of Aniche
Aniche
Aniche
Aniche
Aniche
Coordinates: 50°19′50″N 3°15′07″E / 50.3306°N 3.2519°E / 50.3306; 3.2519Coordinates: 50°19′50″N 3°15′07″E / 50.3306°N 3.2519°E / 50.3306; 3.2519
CountryFrance
RegionHauts-de-France
DepartmentNord
ArrondissementDouai
CantonAniche
IntercommunalityCommunauté de communes Cœur d'Ostrevent
Government
 • Mayor (2020–2026) Xavier Bartoszek
Area
1
6.52 km2 (2.52 sq mi)
Population
 (Jan. 2018)[1]
10,146
 • Density1,600/km2 (4,000/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+01:00 (CET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+02:00 (CEST)
INSEE/Postal code
59008 /59580
Elevation26–71 m (85–233 ft)
(avg. 65 m or 213 ft)
1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km2 (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries.

Aniche (French pronunciation: ​[aniʃ]) is a commune in the Nord department in the Hauts-de-France region of northern France.

The commune, located in the Nord-Pas-de-Calais mining area, long lived on the mining of coal with fourteen pits on its territory. Eleven pits were owned by the Aniche Mining Company and three by the Compagnie des mines d'Azincourt (Agincourt Mining Company).

The inhabitants of the commune are known as Anichois or Anichoises.[2]

History

Middle Ages

Aniche and Auberchicourt long had the same lords.

Cartulary of Duke Charles de Croy

The Cartulary
The Cartulary
Aniche and the slag heap of Sainte-Catherine at the beginning of the 20th century
Aniche and the slag heap of Sainte-Catherine at the beginning of the 20th century

The Gouache painting (opposite) was probably painted in 1603 and appears in the Albums de Croÿ. It is part of a wide range of topographical paintings made at the request of the Duke of Croy: an oval with a bird's-eye view of the landscape is framed in the four corners by four naked male figures with those at the top facing and the lower ones facing to the rear. The oval medallion contains a cartouche with the name of the village over a representation of the landscape seen from the south in late summer (see the plowed field and leaves on the trees).

In the foreground
In the background
In the far background

From the 16th century to the Revolution

Peter Paul Rubens The Entombment in the Church of Saint-Géry of Cambrai.
Peter Paul Rubens The Entombment in the Church of Saint-Géry of Cambrai.

The Entombment by Rubens is always visible in the Church of Saint-Gery of Cambrai.

18th century

On the morning of 7 February 1827 at the Saint Hyacinthe pit, fire broke out in an access passage for the workers to descend into the pit. Thick smoke spread inside the mine and asphyxiated 46 workers employed in the coal extraction tunnels. Seven young men and two fathers were found dead.[9]

From the 19th century to the present day

After the creation of the first glassworks in 1823, Aniche became, from the middle of the 19th century, the French capital of the window glass industry and went from 4,000 to 7,500 inhabitants in 1900. The Antoine Lumière & son plates and photographic papers Company (Lyon) were supplied by the Glassworks of the Station, better known under the name "Belotte Glass".

Aniche was served by the former Tramway of Douai, seen here on the Route de Valenciennes in the late 1910s
Aniche was served by the former Tramway of Douai, seen here on the Route de Valenciennes in the late 1910s

On 28 November 1900, 21 workers were killed by the explosion of 148 kg of dynamite in the Fenelon pit owned by the Aniche Mining Company.[10]

The First World War caused a sharp slowdown in industrial activity and led to the destruction by the occupying power of the majority of installations before their departure in October 1918.

The occupation lasted 49 months from September 1914 to 20 October 1918 when the village was liberated by British forces. There were 314 war victims from Aniche: 299 at the front or from injuries and 15 civilian victims.[11]

The period between the wars saw the decline of the mining industry with the cessation of operations of the last pit in 1938 and the final closure of the glassworks at the beginning of the Second World War.

Heraldry

The arms of Aniche are blazoned :

Ermine, on a cross gules, 5 roses Or. (Aniche, Bugnicourt, and Rieulay use the same arms.)



Geography

Aniche is located some 15 km south-east of Douai and some 7 km north-west of Douchy-les-Mines in the heart of the old Ostrevent region. Access is by the D943 road from Bouchain in the south-east passing through the commune to the town. There is also the D645 from Auberchicourt in the west passing through the town and continuing east to Abscon. The D47 road comes from Bruille-lez-Marchiennes in the north passing through the town and continuing south-west to Monchecourt. More than half of the commune consists of the urban area of Aniche town with the rest of the commune in the east and south farmland.[12]

Geology and terrain

On 27 December 1893, an earthquake occurred in the glass-making district[13] which indicated a seismic risk that the coal mines then more or less took into account.

Communications and transport

Aniche is connected to Douai by bus route 1 (Aniche-Guesnain) which connects with Tram A (Guesnain-Douai) of the SMTC of Douai, as well as routes 211 (Guesnain-Denain via Aniche), 210 (Aniche-Somain), and 201 (Aniche-Villeneuve d'Ascq) operated by the Arc-en-Ciel network.

Phase 3 of Route A will link Aniche on the Évéole network of autobuses to Douai. The line will link the Champ de la Nation in the centre of town and pass along the Rue Henri-Barbusse.[14]

The commune was served by rail transport through Aniche station which was demolished in 2010.

Neighbouring communes and villages

Source:[12]

Toponymy

The name of Aniche (Anic) was mentioned for the first time in 1103 in a list of the possessions of the abbey of Marchiennes, then as Enice in 1113 and Henice in 1181. It was in 1219 that the name Aniche appears under the seal of Robert, Lord of Aniche and of Auberchicourt.

In Flemish, the commune is called Anik.

Administration

List of Successive Mayors[15]

Mayors from 1615 to 1942
From To Name Party Position
1615 Nicolas Dufour
1630 Jean-Crépin Vallet
1661 Nicolas Dufour
1705 Jean Guilmo
1706 Jean Vallet
1716 Jean-Robert Cannesson
1729 Jean-Jacques Danchin
1731 Gille Marouzet
1736 François Caron
1737 Maurand Guilmo
1744 Alexis Lanseau
1756 Anselme Lefebvre
1790 1791 Nicolas François Joseph Quennesson
1791 1792 Philippe Antoine Clery
1791 Jean-Louis Quennesson
1792 1795 Nicolas François Guillemot
1795 1800 Nicolas Joseph Guillemot
1799 Toussaint Caron
1800 1817 Auguste Louis Lanvin Lieutenant
1812 Ambroise Olivier
1818 1824 Louis Joseph Stanislas Hayez
1824 1831 Jacques Joseph Dubois
1831 1854 Edouard Auguste Lanvin
1848 1875 Adolphe Achille Aristide Patoux
1875 1876 Charles Ducret
1878 1881 Alexandre Fogt
1881 1884 Charles Ducret
1884 1886 Jean Louis Dewez
1886 1889 Edouard Alexandre Joseph Lefebvre
1889 1900 Victor Adolphe Bastin
1900 1902 Charles Adolphe Scelles
1902 1910 Pierre Joseph Richard Bertinchamps
1910 1919 Eloi Joseph Lanoi
1919 1925 Pierre Olivier Humez
1925 1929 Emile Germain Léon Danchin
1929 1931 Louis Pol
1931 1932 Philippe Descamps
1932 1933 Louis Pol
1933 1939 Jules Agile Domisse PCF
1939 1942 Albert Betrema
Mayors from 1930
From To Name Party
1942 1944 Gaston Lefort
1944 1959 Jean Schmidt
1959 1971 François Longelin
1971 1989 Jean Charles François Quiquempois
1989 2014 Michel Meurdesoif PCF
2014 2020 Marc Hémez
2020 2026 Xavier Bartoszek

Twin towns – sister cities

See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in France

Aniche is twinned with:[16]

Demography

According to historians,[17] in 1540 Aniche had 47 fires of which 7 were of ploughmen (the others had no horse & carts or other animals). In 2017 the commune had 10,244 inhabitants.[18]

Historical population
YearPop.±% p.a.
1793 840—    
1800 804−0.62%
1806 1,064+4.78%
1821 1,733+3.31%
1831 1,926+1.06%
1836 1,807−1.27%
1841 2,030+2.35%
1846 2,537+4.56%
1851 3,057+3.80%
1856 3,826+4.59%
1861 4,156+1.67%
1866 4,501+1.61%
1872 4,922+1.50%
1876 5,484+2.74%
1881 5,861+1.34%
1886 6,253+1.30%
1891 6,765+1.59%
1896 6,924+0.47%
YearPop.±% p.a.
1901 7,434+1.43%
1906 8,321+2.28%
1911 8,603+0.67%
1921 8,808+0.24%
1926 9,348+1.20%
1931 9,105−0.53%
1936 9,037−0.15%
1946 8,836−0.22%
1954 9,421+0.80%
1962 10,419+1.27%
1968 10,190−0.37%
1975 9,690−0.72%
1982 9,533−0.23%
1990 9,672+0.18%
1999 9,768+0.11%
2007 10,023+0.32%
2012 10,558+1.05%
2017 10,244−0.60%
Source: EHESS[19] and INSEE[20]

Distribution of age groups

Percentage Distribution of Age Groups in Aniche and Nord Department in 2017

Aniche Nord
Age Range Men Women Men Women
0 to 14 Years 24.8 22.1 20.9 18.6
15 to 29 Years 19.9 19.8 20.8 19.2
30 to 44 Years 20.7 19.7 19.7 18.9
45 to 59 Years 17.4 17.9 19.1 18.7
60 to 74 Years 12.6 12.7 13.9 15.1
75 to 89 Years 4.2 6.7 5.1 8.2
90 Years+ 0.4 1.0 0.4 1.3

Source: INSEE[18][21]

Culture and heritage

Sites and monuments

The Pyramid
The Pyramid

Notable people linked to the commune

Map of the Arrondissement of Valenciennes, 1887
Map of the Arrondissement of Valenciennes, 1887

Folklore

Alexandre-Joseph Consil known as Kopierre was born in Auberchicourt, the neighbouring commune, on 25 May 1834 and died at the Aniche Hospice on 28 December 1909. He was Drum Major of the Saint-Cyr school during the 14 July parade in Paris in 1879. He was a picturesque character in Nord department.

See also

References

  1. ^ "Populations légales 2018". INSEE. 28 December 2020.
  2. ^ Inhabitants of Nord (in French)
  3. ^ Page 610 Archaeological Statistics of Nord Department. Second part 1867 - archived at Harvard College Library numbered in Google Books.
  4. ^ André-Joseph-Ghislain Le Glay Researches on the metropolitan church of Cambrai, L. Didot, 1825, 235 pages, Tables on what was ordered by the Chapter of Cambrai who were pleased with his work. He came to the town but the Chapter found his demands exorbitant. He was not accustomed to be haggled with. Read online, consulted on 22 May 2013 (in French).
  5. ^ Michel Dusart, The Rubens of Cambrai, Société d’Emulation de Cambrai, Cambrai, 2009, 79 pages, ISBN 285845003X (in French)
  6. ^ André-Joseph-Ghislain Le Glay, Cameracum christianum or Ecclesiastical History of the Diocese of Cambrai, L. Lefort, Cambrai, 1849, 542 pages, Read online, consulted on 22 May 2013 (in French)
  7. ^ Eugéne-Bouly de Lesdain, Letters on Cambrai: Historic outlines, Hivert, Cambrai, 1835, 140 pages, Rubens did the Christ naked and later a foreign hand cast a veil of decency on the painting which he felt obliged to impose, Read online, consulted on 21 May 2013 (in French)
  8. ^ Voix du Nord of 7 December 2008
  9. ^ p. 29, Memoires of the inhabitants of Douai or Notes in response to the work of Mr. Plouvain on the history of this town from 1 January 1822 to 30 November 1842, 1843, imprimerie de D. Ceret-Carpentier, 5 rue des chapelets, Douai - Archive from Harvard College Library
  10. ^ The Progrès Illustré of 8 December 1900 supplement of the Progrès de Lyon (in French)
  11. ^ The Voix du Nord of 11 November 2008 (in French)
  12. ^ a b Google Maps
  13. ^ Meteorology by the Meteorological Society of France published in 1894 (archived at the New-York Public Library) (in French)
  14. ^ The SMTD continues its reorganistion and plans for the future (in French)
  15. ^ List of Mayors of France
  16. ^ "Jumelages". aadei.fr (in French). Association Anichoise pour le Développement des Echanges Internationaux. Retrieved 2021-04-21.
  17. ^ Image and legend of gouache made for the Duke of Croÿ around 1600 Archived July 6, 2010, at the Wayback Machine
  18. ^ a b Évolution et structure de la population en 2017: Commune d'Aniche (59008)
  19. ^ Des villages de Cassini aux communes d'aujourd'hui: Commune data sheet Aniche, EHESS. (in French)
  20. ^ Population en historique depuis 1968, INSEE
  21. ^ Évolution et structure de la population en 2017: Département du Nord (59)
  22. ^ Voix du Nord from 11 November 2008 (in French)
  23. ^ Ministry of Culture website (in French)
  24. ^ Charles Dolly, Itinerary of Napoléon Bonaparte from his departure from Corsica to his arrival at Longwood, A. and G. Laguionie, 1842, 47 pages, Arrived at Douai 17 October 1786. Left Douai at the end of January 1787 on leave to go to Corsica, Read online, consulted on 22 May 2013 (in French)
  25. ^ Page 474, Revue du Nord by Alexandre Saint-Légéer, Université de Lille, 1985, numbered by Google Books (in French)
  26. ^ Vincent van Gogh, (Vincent van Gogh in the Douai area), Edition No. 21671, La Voix du Nord, Lewarde, May 2013, Read online (in French)
  27. ^ Dossier of local history of Aniche (in French)
  28. ^ Michel Leduc, an Anichois who had great days of lyrical opera, La Voix du Nord, (Douai), 26 and 27 August, 1 September 2010. (in French)