Anne C. Campbell (1951 – 26 February 2017[1][2]) was a British academic and author specializing in evolutionary psychology. Her research was largely concerned with sex differences in aggression between men and women. She was professor of psychology at Durham University.


See also: Sex differences in psychology § Aggression, and Female intrasexual competition

In the 1980s Campbell studied female violence through ethnographic work with female gang members in New York,[3] providing an account of how they came to accept casual killings, firebombings, and the warfare and violence of the streets.[4] She subsequently investigated social representations of aggression: the different explanations that men and women offer for their own aggression.[5] Campbell found that women are more likely than men to exhibit inhibitory control of aggression;[6] when aggression is acted out, women tend to excuse it as a loss of self-control, whereas men tend to justify it as a means of imposing control over others.[7]

Campbell's 1999 'Staying Alive' paper proposed an evolutionary explanation for sex differences in aggression, arguing that "female competition is more likely to take the form of indirect aggression [...] than among males".[8] She went on to explore possible ways in which evolution might have shaped men's and women's psychology differently, in particular with regard to impulsivity[9][10][11] and fear.[12][13]

In intimate relationships, Campbell found that men lower their aggression towards their partner, and women raise their aggression depending on the intimacy with their partner.[14]

In total, Campbell authored and co-authored more than 80 scientific papers on a broad range of topics including: the role of oxytocin in human behaviour,[15][16] the measurement of life history strategies,[17][18] aggression in intimate partnerships,[19][14] the 'Dark Triad' of personality traits,[20][21] competition between women,[22][23] perceptions of one-night stands[24] areas of dispute and agreement between feminism and evolutionary psychology,[25][26][27] and even back pain.[28]


In 2010 Campbell made a memorable appearance in the Norwegian documentary series Hjernevask ('Brainwash'), in which she argued forcefully against the gender theories of Norwegian philologists (philosopher Cathrine Egeland and literary theorist Jørgen Lorentzen). She also argued, however, that the effects of humans' evolved psychology are dependent on social context.[29][30]

Published works

Journal articles

Books: authored/co-authored

Books: edited


  1. ^ Cross, Catharine (10 July 2017). "In Memoriam". Human Nature. 28 (3): 364–365. doi:10.1007/s12110-017-9296-9. ISSN 1045-6767. S2CID 45841705.
  2. ^ Wright, Paula (8 March 2018). "International Women's Day". Twitter. Retrieved 23 August 2018.
  3. ^ Campbell, A (1986). The Girls in the Gang. Blackwell. ISBN 978-0631149262.
  4. ^ Campbell, Anne (1991). The Girls in the Gang. Second Edition. Blackwell Publishers, Inc. ISBN 978-1-55786-120-7.
  5. ^ Campbell, Anne; Muncer, Steven (1994-06-01). "Sex differences in aggression: Social representation and social roles". British Journal of Social Psychology. 33 (2): 233–240. doi:10.1111/j.2044-8309.1994.tb01021.x. ISSN 2044-8309. PMID 8044503.
  6. ^ Driscoll, Helen; Zinkivskay, Ann; Evans, Kelly; Campbell, Anne (2006-05-01). "Gender differences in social representations of aggression: The phenomenological experience of differences in inhibitory control?". British Journal of Psychology. 97 (2): 139–153. doi:10.1348/000712605X63073. ISSN 2044-8295. PMID 16613646.
  7. ^ Astin, Sarah; Redston, Phillip; Campbell, Anne (2003-03-01). "Sex differences in social representations of aggression: Men justify, women excuse?". Aggressive Behavior. 29 (2): 128–133. doi:10.1002/ab.10044. ISSN 1098-2337.
  8. ^ Campbell, A (1999). "Staying alive: Evolution, culture, and women's intrasexual aggression". Behavioral and Brain Sciences. 22 (2): 203–214. doi:10.1017/s0140525x99001818. PMID 11301523. S2CID 1081104.
  9. ^ Cross, Catharine P.; Copping, Lee T.; Campbell, Anne (2011). "Sex differences in impulsivity: A meta-analysis" (PDF). Psychological Bulletin. 137 (1): 97–130. doi:10.1037/a0021591. PMID 21219058.
  10. ^ Campbell, Anne (2006-05-01). "Sex differences in direct aggression: What are the psychological mediators?" (PDF). Aggression and Violent Behavior. 11 (3): 237–264. doi:10.1016/j.avb.2005.09.002. S2CID 55474706.
  11. ^ Campbell, Anne; Muncer, Steven (2009-10-01). "Can 'risky' impulsivity explain sex differences in aggression?". Personality and Individual Differences. 47 (5): 402–406. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2009.04.006.
  12. ^ Campbell, Anne; Coombes, Claire; David, Raluca; Opre, Adrian; Grayson, Lois; Muncer, Steven (2016-07-01). "Sex differences are not attenuated by a sex-invariant measure of fear: The situated fear questionnaire" (PDF). Personality and Individual Differences. 97: 210–219. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2016.03.049.
  13. ^ Campbell, Anne (2013-12-05). "The evolutionary psychology of women's aggression". Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B. 368 (1631): 20130078. doi:10.1098/rstb.2013.0078. ISSN 0962-8436. PMC 3826207. PMID 24167308.
  14. ^ a b Cross, Catharine P.; Tee, William; Campbell, Anne (2011-05-01). "Gender symmetry in intimate aggression: an effect of intimacy or target sex?". Aggressive Behavior. 37 (3): 268–277. doi:10.1002/ab.20388. ISSN 1098-2337. PMID 21344456.
  15. ^ Campbell, Anne (2008-01-01). "Attachment, aggression and affiliation: The role of oxytocin in female social behavior" (PDF). Biological Psychology. 77 (1): 1–10. doi:10.1016/j.biopsycho.2007.09.001. PMID 17931766. S2CID 33228118.
  16. ^ Campbell, Anne (2010-04-30). "Oxytocin and Human Social Behavior" (PDF). Personality and Social Psychology Review. 14 (3): 281–295. doi:10.1177/1088868310363594. PMID 20435805. S2CID 207797464.
  17. ^ Copping, Lee T.; Campbell, Anne; Muncer, Steven (2013-06-01). "Violence, Teenage Pregnancy, and Life History" (PDF). Human Nature. 24 (2): 137–157. doi:10.1007/s12110-013-9163-2. ISSN 1045-6767. PMID 23653372. S2CID 37416856.
  18. ^ Copping, Lee T.; Campbell, Anne; Muncer, Steven (2013-06-01). "Impulsivity, sensation seeking and reproductive behaviour: A life history perspective" (PDF). Personality and Individual Differences. 54 (8): 908–912. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2013.01.003.
  19. ^ Davidovic, Anna; Bell, Kurtis; Ferguson, Colin; Gorski, Elizabeth; Campbell, Anne (2010-12-13). "Impelling and Inhibitory Forces in Aggression: Sex-of-Target and Relationship Effects". Journal of Interpersonal Violence. 26 (15): 3098–3126. doi:10.1177/0886260510390953. PMID 21156694. S2CID 206561990.
  20. ^ Carter, Gregory Louis; Campbell, Anne C.; Muncer, Steven; Carter, Katherine A. (2015-09-01). "A Mokken analysis of the Dark Triad 'Dirty Dozen': Sex and age differences in scale structures, and issues with individual items". Personality and Individual Differences. 83: 185–191. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2015.04.012.
  21. ^ Carter, Gregory Louis; Campbell, Anne C.; Muncer, Steven (2014-01-01). "The Dark Triad: Beyond a 'male' mating strategy". Personality and Individual Differences. 56: 159–164. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2013.09.001.
  22. ^ Stockley, Paula; Campbell, Anne (2013-12-05). "Female competition and aggression: interdisciplinary perspectives". Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B. 368 (1631): 20130073. doi:10.1098/rstb.2013.0073. ISSN 0962-8436. PMC 3826202. PMID 24167303.
  23. ^ Linney, Catherine; Korologou-Linden, Laurel; Campbell, Anne (2017-03-01). "Maternal Competition in Women". Human Nature. 28 (1): 92–116. doi:10.1007/s12110-016-9279-2. ISSN 1045-6767. PMID 27796827. S2CID 34065637.
  24. ^ "Sexes split over one night stands". BBC News. 2008-06-26. Retrieved 2009-03-06.
  25. ^ Campbell, Anne (2006). "Feminism and Evolutionary Psychology". Missing the Revolution. pp. 63–100. doi:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195130027.003.0002. ISBN 9780195130027.
  26. ^ Campbell, Anne (2012-01-01). "The Study of Sex Differences". Zeitschrift für Psychologie. 220 (2): 137–143. doi:10.1027/2151-2604/a000105. ISSN 2190-8370.
  27. ^ Anne., Campbell (2013-01-01). A mind of her own : the evolutionary psychology of women. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0199609543. OCLC 882844268.
  28. ^ Campbell, C.; Muncer, S. J. (2005-01-01). "The causes of low back pain: a network analysis" (PDF). Social Science & Medicine. Equity, Capabilities and Health. 60 (2): 409–419. doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2004.05.013. PMID 15522495.
  29. ^ Cross, Catharine P.; Campbell, Anne (2017-01-10). "Integrating Approaches Requires More Than a Division of Labor" (PDF). Psychological Science. 28 (2): 248–250. doi:10.1177/0956797616652100. hdl:10023/9175. PMID 28075224. S2CID 31415742.
  30. ^ Cross, Catharine P.; Campbell, Anne (2011). "Women's aggression". Aggression and Violent Behavior. 16 (5): 390–398. doi:10.1016/j.avb.2011.02.012.