Anseriformes
Temporal range:
Paleogene-Holocene, 54–0 Ma [1]Possible Cretaceous record
Magpie goose.jpg
Magpie goose, Anseranas semipalmata
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Clade: Anserimorphae
Order: Anseriformes
Wagler, 1831
Extant families
Waterfowl range.png
Range of the waterfowl and allies

Anseriformes is an order of birds also known as waterfowl that comprises about 180 living species of birds in three families: Anhimidae (three species of screamers), Anseranatidae (the magpie goose), and Anatidae, the largest family, which includes over 170 species of waterfowl, among them the ducks, geese, and swans. Most modern species in the order are highly adapted for an aquatic existence at the water surface. With the exception of screamers, males have penises, a trait that has been lost in the Neoaves. Due to their aquatic nature, most species are web-footed.

Evolution

Anseriformes are one of only two types of modern bird to be confirmed present during the Mesozoic alongside the other dinosaurs, and in fact were among the very few birds to survive their extinction, along with their cousins the galliformes. These two groups only occupied two ecological niches during the Mesozoic, living in water and on the ground, while the toothed enantiornithes were the dominant birds that ruled the trees and air. The asteroid that ended the Mesozoic destroyed all trees as well as animals in the open, a condition that took centuries to recover from. The anseriformes and galliformes are thought to have survived in the cover of burrows and water, and not to have needed trees for food and reproduction.[2]

The earliest Cretaceous anseriform found so far is Vegavis, a goose-like waterfowl thought to have lived as long as 66 million years ago.[3] Some members apparently surviving the KT extinction event, including presbyornithids, thought to be the common ancestors of ducks, geese, swans, and screamers, the last group once thought to be galliformes, but now genetically confirmed to be closely related to geese. The first known duck fossils start to appear about 34 million years ago.

Waterfowl are the best-known examples of sexually antagonistic genital coevolution in vertebrates, causing genital adaptations to coevolve in each sex to advance control over mating and fertilization. Sexually antagonistic coevolution (or SAC) occurs as a consequence of sexual conflict between males and females, resulting in coevolutionary process that reduce fit, or that functions to decrease ease of having sex.[4]

Taxonomy

The Anseriformes and the Galliformes (pheasants, etc.) belong to a common group, the Galloanserae. They are the most primitive neognathous birds, and as such they should follow the palaeognathae (ratites and tinamous) in bird classification systems. Several unusual extinct families of birds like the albatross-like pseudotooth birds and the giant flightless gastornithids and mihirungs have been found to be stem-anseriforms based on common features found in the skull region, beak physiology and pelvic region.[5][6][7][8][9][10] The genus Vegavis for a while was found to be the earliest member of the anseriform crown group but a recent 2017 paper has found it to be just outside the crown group in the family Vegaviidae.[11]

Below is the general consensus of the phylogeny of anseriforms and their stem relatives.[5][6][7][8][9][11]

Odontoanserae

Pelagornithidae (pseudo-tooth birds)

Osteodontornis BW.jpg

Anserimorphae

Gastornithidae

Gastornis giganteus restoration.jpeg

Dromornithidae (mihirungs)

Dromornis BW.jpg

Vegaviidae

Anseriformes (screamers and waterfowl)

Palamedra cornuta white background.png
Cayley Anseranas semipalmata white background.jpg
Greylag flipped.JPG

Systematics

Anatidae systematics, especially regarding placement of some "odd" genera in the dabbling ducks or shelducks, is not fully resolved. See the Anatidae article for more information, and for alternate taxonomic approaches. Anatidae is traditionally divided into subfamilies Anatinae and Anserinae.[12] The Anatinae consists of tribes Anatini, Aythyini, Mergini and Tadornini. The higher-order classification below follows a phylogenetic analysis performed by Mikko's Phylogeny Archive[13][14] and John Boyd's website.[15]

Some fossil anseriform taxa not assignable with certainty to a family are:

Unassigned Anatidae:

In addition, a considerable number of mainly Late Cretaceous and Paleogene fossils have been described where it is uncertain whether or not they are anseriforms. This is because almost all orders of aquatic birds living today either originated or underwent a major radiation during that time, making it hard to decide whether some waterbird-like bone belongs into this family or is the product of parallel evolution in a different lineage due to adaptive pressures.

Phylogeny

Living Anseriformes based on the work by John Boyd.[15]

Anseriformes classification
Anhimae
Anhimidae

Anhima

Palamedra cornuta white background.png

Chauna

Chauna chavaria white background.jpg

Anseres
Anseranatidae

Anseranas

Cayley Anseranas semipalmata white background.jpg

Anatidae
Dendrocygninae

Dendrocygna

DendrocygnaMajorJerdon flipped.jpg

Thalassornis

ThalassornisLeuconotaDavies flipped.jpg

?Plectropterinae

Plectropterus

PlectropterusGambensisM1Davies white background.jpg

Stictonettinae

Stictonetta

Anserinae
?Nettapodini

Nettapus

NettapusFuertes white background.jpg

Biziurini

Biziura

Biziura lobata 1838 flipped.jpg

Oxyurini

Heteronetta

Heteronetta atricapilla by John Charles Phillips (1876-1938) flipped.PNG

Nomonyx

Oxyura

Oxyura leucocephala 1921 white background.jpg

Anserini
Malacorhynchina

Malacorhynchus

Companion to Gould

Cereopsina

Coscoroba

Cereopsis

Cayley Cereopsis novaehollandiae white background.jpg

Cygnina

Sthenelides

Cygnus melancoryphus 1876 flipped.jpg

Cygnus

Cuvier-96-Bernache de Magellan et Cygne tuberculé flipped.jpg

Anserina

Branta

Birds Illustrated Canada Goose white background.jpg

Anser

Greylag flipped.JPG

Anatinae
Tadornini
Merganettina

Merganetta

MerganettaKeulemans flipped.jpg

Chleophagina

Chloephaga

The birds of South America (1912) (flipped).jpg

Oressochen

Neochen

Avium Species Novae (white background).jpg

Tadornina

Radjah

A natural history of the ducks (Plate 16) (white background).jpg

Tadorna

British game birds and wildfowl (1855) (white background).jpg

Alopochen

AlopochenAegyptiacusDavies flipped.jpg

Mergini

Histrionicus

Camptorhynchus

Centenaire de la fondation du Muséum d

Clangula

The birds of Europe (1837) (white background).jpg

Somanterina

Polysticta

The Naturalist

Somateria

Aland post 1987 Haahka Fågelserie Ejder flipped.jpg

Mergina

Melanitta

247 Velvet Duck flipped.jpg

Bucephala

Buffel-headed Duck.jpg

Mergellus

Nederlandsche vogelen (KB) - Mergellus albellus (flipped).jpg

Lophodytes

Cuvier-100-Sarcelle d

Mergus

MergusSerratorKeulemans flipped.jpg

Cairinini

Cairina

Pato Criollo Blanco Macho.jpg

Aix

Rural Hours - Wood Duck white background.jpg

Callonettini

Callonetta

?Salvadorina

Salvadorina waigiuensis 1895 white background.jpg

Aythyini

Chenonetta

Hymenolaimus

Sarkidiornis

SarkidiornisMelanotosSmit white background.jpg

Pteronetta

Cyanochen

Marmaronetta

MarmaronettaAngustirostrisKeulemans white background.jpg

Asarcornis

Asarcornis scutulata 1921 white background.jpg

Netta

NettaRufinaGronvold white background.jpg

Metopiana

Aythya

AythyaBaeriKeulemans white background.jpg

Anatini

Anas

Cuvier-97-Canard colvert.jpg

Sibirionetta

Anas formosa male Fauna Japonica flipped.jpg

Spatula

A history of British birds (white background).jpg

Tachyeres

Lophonetta

Amazonetta

Speculanas

Houghton MS Typ 55.21 - Edward Lear, bronze-winged duck flipped.jpg

Molecular studies

Studies of the mitochondrial DNA suggest the existence of four branches – Anseranatidae, Dendrocygninae, Anserinae and Anatinae – with Dendrocygninae being a subfamily within the family Anatidae and Anseranatidae representing an independent family.[16] The clade Somaterini has a single genus Somateria.

See also

References

  1. ^ Kuhl., H.; Frankl-Vilches, C.; Bakker, A.; Mayr, G.; Nikolaus, G.; Boerno, S. T.; Klages, S.; Timmermann, B.; Gahr, M. (2020). "An unbiased molecular approach using 3'UTRs resolves the avian family-level tree of life". Molecular Biology and Evolution. 38: 108–127. doi:10.1093/molbev/msaa191. PMC 7783168. PMID 32781465.
  2. ^ Quail-like creatures were the only birds to survive the dinosaur-killing asteroid impact
  3. ^ The Delaware River: History, Traditions and Legends
  4. ^ Brennan, Patricia L.R.; Prum, Richard O. (July 2015). "Mechanisms and Evidence of Genital Coevolution: The Roles of Natural Selection, Mate Choice, and Sexual Conflict". Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology. 7 (7): a017749. doi:10.1101/cshperspect.a017749. ISSN 1943-0264. PMC 4484975. PMID 26134314.
  5. ^ a b Andors, A. (1992). "Reappraisal of the Eocene groundbird Diatryma (Aves: Anserimorphae)". Science Series Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County. 36: 109–125.
  6. ^ a b Murrary, P.F; Vickers-Rich, P. (2004). Magnificent Mihirungs: The Colossal Flightless Birds of the Australian Dreamtime. Indiana University Press.
  7. ^ a b Bourdon, E. (2005). "Osteological evidence for sister group relationship between pseudo-toothed birds (Aves: Odontopterygiformes) and waterfowls (Anseriformes)". Naturwissenschaften. 92 (12): 586–91. Bibcode:2005NW.....92..586B. doi:10.1007/s00114-005-0047-0. PMID 16240103. S2CID 9453177.
  8. ^ a b Agnolín, F. (2007). "Brontornis burmeisteri Moreno & Mercerat, un Anseriformes (Aves) gigante del Mioceno Medio de Patagonia, Argentina". Revista del Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales. 9: 15–25. doi:10.22179/revmacn.9.361.
  9. ^ a b Livezey, B.C.; Zusi, R.L. (2007). "Higher-order phylogeny of modern birds (Theropoda, Aves: Neornithes) based on comparative anatomy. II. Analysis and discussion". The Science of Nature. 149 (1): 1–95. doi:10.1111/j.1096-3642.2006.00293.x. PMC 2517308. PMID 18784798.
  10. ^ Louchart, A.; Sire, J.-Y.; Mourer-Chauviré, C.; Geraads, D.; Viriot, L.; de Buffrénil, V. (2013). "Structure and Growth Pattern of Pseudoteeth in Pelagornis mauretanicus (Aves, Odontopterygiformes, Pelagornithidae)". PLOS ONE. 8 (11): e80372. Bibcode:2013PLoSO...880372L. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0080372. PMC 3828250. PMID 24244680.
  11. ^ a b Agnolín, F.L.; Egli, F.B.; Chatterjee, S.; Marsà, J.A.G (2017). "Vegaviidae, a new clade of southern diving birds that survived the K/T boundary". The Science of Nature. 104 (87): 87. Bibcode:2017SciNa.104...87A. doi:10.1007/s00114-017-1508-y. PMID 28988276. S2CID 13246547.
  12. ^ Gonzalez, J.; Düttmann, H.; Wink, M. (2009). "Phylogenetic relationships based on two mitochondrial genes and hybridization patterns in Anatidae". Journal of Zoology. 279 (3): 310–318. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7998.2009.00622.x.
  13. ^ Mikko's Phylogeny Archive [1] Haaramo, Mikko (2007). "Anseriformes – waterfowls". Retrieved 30 December 2015.
  14. ^ Paleofile.com (net, info) "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2016-01-11. Retrieved 2015-12-30.((cite web)): CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link). "Taxonomic lists- Aves". Archived from the original on 11 January 2016. Retrieved 30 December 2015.
  15. ^ a b John Boyd's website [2] Boyd, John (2007). "Anseriformes – waterfowl". Retrieved 30 December 2015.
  16. ^ Liu, G; Zhou, L; Zhang, L; Luo, Z; Xu, W (2013). "The complete mitochondrial genome of bean goose (Anser fabalis) and implications for anseriformes taxonomy". PLOS ONE. 8 (5): e63334. Bibcode:2013PLoSO...863334L. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0063334. PMC 3662773. PMID 23717412.

Cited texts