This article's lead section may be too short to adequately summarize the key points. Please consider expanding the lead to provide an accessible overview of all important aspects of the article. (February 2024)

Anti-Arab racism (also called Anti-Arabism, Anti-Arab sentiment, or Arabophobia) includes opposition to, dislike, fear, or hatred of Arab people.

Historically, anti-Arab prejudice has been an issue in such events as the reconquest of the Iberian Peninsula, the condemnation of Arabs in Spain by the Spanish Inquisition, the Libyan genocide from 1929 to 1934, the Zanzibar genocide in 1964, and the 2005 Cronulla riots in Australia. In the modern era, anti-Arabism is apparent in many nations in Europe, Asia, Africa and the Americas. Various advocacy organizations have been formed to protect the civil rights of individuals of Arab descent in the United States, such as the American-Arab Anti-Discrimination Committee (ADC) and the Council on American-Islamic Relations (CAIR).

Definition of Arab

Further information: Arab people and Arab culture

Arabs are people whose native language is Arabic. People of Arabic origin, in particular native English and French speakers of Arab ancestry in Europe and the Americas, often identify themselves as Arabs. Due to widespread practice of Islam among Arab populations, Anti-Arabism is commonly confused with Islamophobia.[1]

There are prominent Arab non-Muslim minorities in the Arab world. These minorities include the Arab Christians in Lebanon, Syria, Palestine, Jordan, Egypt, Iraq, Kuwait and Bahrain, among other Arab countries.[2] There are also sizable minorities of Arab Jews, Druze, Baháʼí, and nonreligious.[3][4]

Historical anti-Arabism

Graffiti in San Pedro Sula, Honduras, calling for an expulsion of Arabs and Jews

Anti-Arab prejudice is suggested by many events in history. In the Iberian Peninsula, when the Reconquista by the indigenous Christians from the Moorish colonists was completed with the fall of Granada, all non-Catholics were expelled. In 1492, Arab converts to Christianity, called Moriscos, were expelled from Spain to North Africa after being condemned by the Spanish Inquisition. The Spanish word "moro", meaning moor, today carries a negative meaning.[5]

After the annexation of the Muslim-ruled state of Hyderabad by India in 1948, about 7,000 Arabs were interned and deported.[6]

The Zanzibar Revolution of January 12, 1964, ended the local Arab dynasty. As many as 17,000 Arabs were exterminated by black African revolutionaries, according to reports, and thousands of others fled the country.[7][8][9]

In The Arabic Language and National Identity: a Study in Ideology, Yasir Suleiman notes of the writing of Tawfiq al-Fikayki that he uses the term shu'ubiyya to refer to movements he perceives to be anti-Arab, such as the Turkification movement in the Ottoman Empire, extreme-nationalist and Pan-Iranist movements in Iran and communism. The economic boom in Iran which lasted until 1979 led to an overall increase of Iranian nationalism sparking thousands of anti-Arab movements. In al-Fikayki's view, the objectives of anti-Arabism are to attack Arab nationalism, pervert history, emphasize Arab regression, deny Arab culture, and generally be hostile to all things Arab. He concludes that, "In all its various roles, anti-Arabism has adopted a policy of intellectual conquest as a means of penetrating Arab society and combatting Arab nationalism."[10]

In early 20th and late 19th century when Palestinians and Syrians migrated to Latin America Arabophobia was common in these countries.[11]

Modern anti-Arabism


Anti-Arabism is a major element of movements known as Berberism that are widespread mainly amongst Algerians of Kabyle and other Berber origin.[12] It has historic roots as Arabs are seen as invaders that occupied Algeria and destroyed its late Roman and early medieval civilization that was considered an integral part of the West; this invasion is considered to have been the source of the resettlement of Algeria's Berber population in Kabylie and other mountainous areas. Regardless, the Kabyles and other Berbers have managed to preserve their culture and achieve high standards of living and education. Furthermore, many Berbers speak their language and French; are non religious, secular, or Evangelical Christian; and openly identify with the Western World. Many Berber Nationalists view Arabs as a hostile people intent on eradicating their own culture and nation. Berber social norms restrict marriage to someone of Arab ethnicity, although it is permitted to marry someone from other ethnic groups.[13]

According to Lawrence Rosen, ethnic background is not a crucial factor in marriage between members of each group in North Africa, when compared to social and economic backgrounds.[14] There are regular Hate incidents between Arabs and Berbers and Anti-Arabism has been accentuated by the Algerian government's anti-Berber policies. Contemporary relations between Berbers and Arabs are sometimes tense, particularly in Algeria, where Berbers rebelled (1963–65, 2001) against Arab rule and have demonstrated and rioted against their cultural marginalization in the new founded state.[15][16]

The Anti-Arab sentiments among Algerian Berbers (mainly from Kabylie) were always related to the reassertion of Kabyle identity. It began as an intellectual militant movement in schools, universities, and popular culture (mainly nationalistic songs).[17] In addition to that, the authorities' efforts to promote development in Kabylie contributed to a boom of sorts in Tizi Ouzou, whose population almost doubled between 1966 and 1977, and to a greater degree of economic and social integration within the region had the contrary effect of strengthening a collective Berber consciousness and Anti-Arab sentiments.[18]

Arabophobia can be seen at different levels of intellectual, social, and cultural life of some Berbers. After the Berberist crisis in 1949, a new radical intellectual movement emerged under the name L'Académie Berbère. This movement was known by its adoption and promotion of Anti-Arab and Anti-Islam ideologies especially amongst immigrant Kabyles in France and achieved a relative success at the time.[19]

In 1977, the final game of the national soccer championship pitting a team from Kabylie against one from Algiers turned into an Arab-Berber conflict. The Arab national anthem of Algeria was overwhelmed by the shouting of Anti-Arab slogans such as "A bas les arabes" (down with the Arabs).[20]

The roots of modern-day Arabophobia in Algeria can be traced back to multiple factors. For some, Anti-Arabism movement among Berbers is part of the legacy of French Colonization or manipulation of North Africa. As from the beginning, the French understood that to attenuate Muslim resistance to their presence, mainly in Algeria, they had to resort to the divide and rule doctrine. The most obvious divide that could be instrumentalized in this perspective was the ethnic one. Therefore, France employed some official colonial practices to tighten its control over Algeria by creating racial tensions between Arabs and Berbers and between Jews and Muslims.[21]

Others argue that the Berber language and traditions are deeply rooted in the North African cultural mosaic; for centuries, Berber culture has survived conquests, repression, and exclusion from different invaders: Romans, Arabs, and French. Hence, believing that its identity and specificity were threatened, the Berbers took note of the political and ideological implications of Arabism as defended by successive governments.[22] Gradual radicalization and Anti-Arab sentiments began to emerge in Algeria and among the hundreds of thousands of Berbers in France who had been in the forefront of the Berber cultural movement.[20]


Cronulla riots in Sydney, Australia in December 2005.

See also: Racism in Australia

The Cronulla riots in Sydney, Australia in December 2005 have been described as "anti-Arab racism" by community leaders.[23] NSW Premier Morris Iemma said the violence revealed the "ugly face of racism in this country".[24]

A 2004 report by the Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission said that more than two-thirds of Muslim and Arab Australians say they have experienced racism or racial vilification since the September 11 attacks and that 90% of female respondents experienced racial abuse or violence.[25]

Adam Houda, a Lebanese Muslim lawyer, has been repeatedly harassed by the New South Wales police force.[26][27][28][29][30] Houda has been arrested or detained six times in 11 years and has sued the police force for malicious prosecution and harassment three times. Houda claims that the police's motivation is racism which he says is "alive and well" in Bankstown. He has been stopped going to prayers, with relatives and friends and has been subjected to a humiliating body search. He has been the object of several groundless accusations of robbery or holding a knife. A senior lawyer told the Sydney Morning Herald that the police harassment was due to the police enmity against Houda's clients and the Australian Arab community.[31] He was first falsely arrested in 2000 for which he was awarded $145,000 damages by a judge who described his persecution as "shocking". Constable Lance Stebbing was found to have maliciously arrested Houda, as well as using profanities against him and approaching him in a "menacing manner". Stebbing was supported by other police, against the testimony of many eyewitnesses.[32] In 2005, Houda accused the police of disabling his mobile phone making it difficult to perform his work as a criminal defense lawyer.[33]

In 2010, Houda, his lawyer Chris Murphy, and Channel Seven journalist Adam Walters claimed that Frank Menilli, a senior New South Wales police officer, behaved in a corrupt fashion by trying to alter Channel Seven's coverage of the Houda Case by promising Walters inside information in exchange for presenting the case in the police's favour. Walters regarded the offer as an "attempted bribe".[34][35] The latest incident occurred in 2011, when Houda was arrested for refusing a frisk search and resisting arrest after having been approached by police suspecting him of involvement in a recent robbery. These charges were thrown out of court by Judge John Connell who stated "At the end of the day, here were three men of Middle Eastern appearance walking along a suburban street, for all the police knew, minding their own business at an unexceptional time of day, in unexceptional clothing, except two of the men had hooded jumpers. The place they were in could not have raised a reasonable suspicion they were involved in the robberies"[31] Houda is currently suing the six police officers involved for false imprisonment, unlawful arrest, assault and battery and defamation. One of the six is an assistant commissioner. He is seeking $5 million in damages.[36][37]

Czech Republic

In September 2008, Muslims complained about anti-Arabism and Islamophobia in the Czech Republic. Czech Republic was well known for being the most anti-Arabism country in the whole of Europe in 2008.[38]


See also: Racism in France

France used to be a colonial empire, with still great post-colonial power over its former colonies, using Africa as a reservoir for labor, especially in moments of dire need. During World War I, reconstruction and shortages made France bring thousands of North African workers. Out of a total of 116,000 workers from 1914 to 1918, 78,000 Algerians, 54,000 Moroccans, and Tunisians were requisitioned.[dubiousdiscuss] Two hundred and forty thousand Algerians were mobilized or drafted, and two thirds of these were soldiers who served mostly in France. This constituted more than one-third of the men of those nations from ages 20–40.[dubiousdiscuss][39] According to historian Abdallah Laroui, Algeria sent 173,000 soldiers, 25,000 of whom were killed. Tunisia sent 56,000, of whom 12,000 were killed. Moroccan soldiers helped defend Paris and landed at Bordeaux in 1916.[40]

After the war, reconstruction and labor shortages necessitated even larger number of Algerian laborers. Migration (or the need for labor) was reestablished at a high level by 1936. This was partly the result of collective recruitments in the villages conducted by French officers and representatives of companies. Labor recruitment continued throughout the 1940s. North Africans were mostly recruited for dangerous and low-wage jobs, unwanted by ordinary French workers.[41]

This large number of immigrants was of great help for France's rapid post–World War II economic growth. The 1970s were marked by recession followed by the cessation of labor migration programs and crackdowns on illegal immigration. During the 1980s, political disfavor with President Mitterrand's social programs led to the rise of Jean-Marie Le Pen and other far right French nationalists. The public increasingly blamed immigrants for French economic problems. In March 1990, according to a poll reported in Le Monde, 76% of those polled said that there were too many Arabs in France while 39% said they had an "aversion" to Arabs.[42] In the following years, Interior Minister Charles Pasqua was noted for dramatically toughening immigration laws.[43]

In May 2005, riots broke out between North Africans and Romani people in Perpignan, after a young Arab man was shot dead and another Arab man was lynched by a group of Roma.[44][45]

Chirac's controversial "Hijab ban" law, presented as secularization of schools, was interpreted by its critics as an "indirect legitimization of anti-Arab stereotypes, fostering rather than preventing racism."[43]

A higher rate of racial profiling is conducted on Blacks and Arabs by the French police.[46]


See also: Iranian Arabs and Anti-Iranian sentiment

Human rights group Amnesty International says that in practice, Arabs are among a number of ethnic minorities that are disadvantaged and suffer discrimination by the authorities.[47] Separatist tendencies in Khuzestan exacerbate this. How far the situation facing Arabs in Iran is related to racism or simply a result of policies suffered by all Iranians is a matter of debate (see: Politics of Khuzestan). Iran is a multi-ethnic society with its Arab minority mainly located in the south.[48]

It is claimed by some that anti-Arabism in Iran may be related to the notion that Arabs forced some Persians to convert to Islam in 7th century AD (See: Muslim conquest of Persia).[weasel words] Author Richard Foltz in his article "Internationalization of Islam" states "Even today, many Iranians perceive the Arab destruction of the Sassanid Empire as the single greatest tragedy in Iran's long history.[49] Following the Muslim conquest of Persia, many Iranians (also known as "mawali") came to despise the Umayyads due to discrimination against them by their Arab rulers. The Shu'ubiyah movement was intended to reassert Iranian identity and resist attempts to impose Arab culture while reaffirming their commitment to Islam.

More recently, anti-Arabism has arisen as a consequence of aggression against Iran by the regime of Saddam Hussein in Iraq. During a visit to Khuzestan, which has most of Iran's Arab population, a British journalist, John R. Bradley, wrote that despite the fact that the majority of Arabs supported Iran in the war, "ethnic Arabs complain that, as a result of their divided loyalties during the Iran–Iraq War, they are viewed more than ever by the clerical regime in Tehran as a potential fifth column, and suffer from a policy of discrimination."[50] However, Iran's Arab population played an important role in defending Iran during the Iran-Iraq War and most refused to heed Saddam Hussein's call for an uprising and instead fought against their fellow Arabs.[51] Furthermore, Iran's former defense minister Ali Shamkhani, a Khuzestani Arab, was chief commander of the ground force during the Iran-Iraq War as well as serving as first deputy commander of the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps.

The Arab minority of southern Iran has been subject to discriminations, persecution in Iran.[52] In a report published in February 2006, Amnesty International stated that the "Arab population of Iran is one of the most economically and socially deprived in Iran" and that Arabs have "reportedly been denied state employment under the gozinesh [job placement] criteria."

Furthermore, land expropriation by the Iranian authorities is reportedly so widespread that it appears to amount to a policy aimed at dispossessing Arabs of their traditional lands. This is apparently part of a strategy aimed at the forcible relocation of Arabs to other areas while facilitating the transfer of non-Arabs into Khuzestan and is linked to economic policies such as zero-interest loans which are not available to local Arabs.

— Amnesty International, [47]

Critics of such reports have pointed out that they are often based on sketchy sources and are not always to be trusted at face value (see: Criticism of human rights reports on Khuzestan). Furthermore, critics point out that Arabs have social mobility in Iran, with a number of famous Iranians from the worlds of arts, sport, literature, and politics having Arab origins (see: Iranian Arabs) illustrating Arab-Iranian participation in Iranian economics, society, and politics. They contend that Khuzestan province, where most of Iran's Arabs live, is actually one of the more economically advanced provinces of Iran, more so than many of the Persian-populated provinces.

Some critics of the Iranian government contend that it is carrying out a policy of anti-Arab ethnic cleansing.[53][54] While there has been large amounts of investment in industrial projects such as the Razi Petrochemical Complex,[55] local universities,[56][57][58] and other national projects such as hydroelectric dams (such as the Karkheh Dam, which cost $700 million to construct) and nuclear power plants,[59] many critics of Iran's economic development policies have pointed to the poverty suffered by Arabs in Khuzestan as proof of an anti-Arab policy agenda. Following his visit to Khuzestan in July 2005, UN Special Rapporteur for Adequate Housing Miloon Kothari spoke of how up to 250,000 Arabs had been displaced by such industrial projects and noted the favorable treatment given to settlers from Yazd compared to the treatment of local Arabs.[60]

However, it is also true that non-Arab provinces such as Kohgiluyeh and Boyer-Ahmad Province, Sistan and Baluchestan Province, and neighboring Īlām Province also suffer high levels of poverty, indicating that government policy is not disadvantaging Arabs alone but other regions, including some with large ethnically Persian populations. Furthermore, most commentators agree that Iran's state-controlled and highly subsidized economy[61][62] is the main reason behind the inability of the Iranian government to generate economic growth and welfare at ground levels in all cities across the nation, rather than a state ethnic policy targeted specifically at Arabs; Iran is ranked 156th on The Heritage Foundation's 2006 Index of Economic Freedom.

In the Iranian education system, after primary education cycle (grades 1-5 for children 6 to 11 years old), passing some Arabic courses is mandatory until the end of secondary education cycle (grade 6 to Grade 12, from age 11 to 17). In higher education systems (universities), passing Arabic language courses is selective.[63][64]

Persians use slurs like "Tazi Kaseef" (lit. Dirty Taazi), "Arabe malakh-khor" (عرب ملخ‌خور) (lit. Locust-eater Arab),[65][66][67][68][69] "soosmar-khor" (سوسمارخور) (lizard eater[69]) and call Arabs "پابرهنه" (lit. barefoot), "بی‌تمدن" (lit. uncivilized), "وحشی" (lit. barbarians) and "زیرصحرایی" (lit sub-saharan). Anti-Islamist government Persians refer to Persian Islamic Republic supporters from Hezbollahi families as Arab-parast (عرب‌پرست) (lit. Arab Worshipper). Arabs use slurs against Persians by calling them Fire-worshipers and majoos, "Majus" (مجوس) (Zoroastrians, Magi).

Negative views Persians have of Arabs include eating habits such as Arabs eating lizards.[70][71][72][73][74][75][76]

In Iran, there is a saying, The Arab of the desert eats locusts, while the dogs of Isfahan drink ice-cold water. (عرب در بیابان ملخ میخورد سگ اصفهان آب یخ میخورد).[68] In Iran "to be outright Arab" (از بیخ عرب بودن) means "to be a complete idiot".[77]

Relations are uneasy between specifically Iran and the Persian Gulf Arab countries in particular.[78] Persians and Arabs dispute the name of the Persian Gulf.[79] The Greater and Lesser Tunbs are disputed between the two countries.[66] A National Geographic reporter who interviewed Iranians reported that many of them frequently said We are not Arabs!" "We are not terrorists!".[80]

The Iranian rap artist Behzad Pax released a song in 2015 called "Arab-Kosh" (عرب‌كش) (Arab-killer) which was widely reported on the Arab media who claimed that it was released with the approval of the Iranian Ministry of Culture and Islamic Guidance. The Iranian Ministry of Culture and Islamic Guidance denied that it gave approval to the song and condemned it as a product of a "sick mind".[81]


See also: Arab citizens of Israel and Racism in Israel

Baruch Goldstein's tomb. The plaque reads "To the holy Baruch Goldstein, who gave his life for the Jewish people, the Torah and the nation of Israel."

As a consequence of the Arab–Israeli conflict, there is a high level of hostility between sections of the Jewish and Arab societies in Israel. Many Israeli Jews oppose mixed relationships, particularly between Jewish women and Arab men. A group of men in Pisgat Ze'ev started patrolling the neighborhood to stop Jewish women from dating Arab men. The municipality of Petah Tikva has a telephone hotline to inform on Jewish girls who date Arab men, as well as a psychological counseling service. Kiryat Gat launched a school programme to warn Jewish girls against dating local Bedouin men.[82][83]

Geography textbooks used in Israeli schools were found to portray Arabs as primitive and backwards, with the Nakba, the destruction of Palestinian society in the 1948 Palestine war, disregarded entirely. History textbooks likewise portrayed the Palestinian population negatively, showing them as primitive and collectively to be an enemy. Contrasted with the portrayal of Jews, who were shown to be heroic and progressive, Israeli textbooks delegitimized Arabs and used negative stereotyping of Arabs nearly uniformly.[84]

The Bedouin representatives submitted a report to the United Nations claiming that they are not treated as equal citizens and Bedouin towns are not provided the same level of services, land and water as Jewish towns of the same size are. The city of Beersheba refused to recognize a Bedouin holy site despite a High Court recommendation.[85]

In 1994, a Jewish settler in the West Bank and follower of the Kach party, Baruch Goldstein, massacred 29 Palestinian Muslim worshipers at the Cave of the Patriarchs in Hebron. It was known that, prior to the massacre, Goldstein, a physician, refused to treat Arabs, including Arab soldiers with the Israeli army.[86][87] During his funeral, a rabbi declared that even one million Arabs are "not worth a Jewish fingernail".[88][89][90] Goldstein was immediately "denounced with shocked horror even by the mainstream Orthodox",[91] and many in Israel classified Goldstein as insane.[92] The Israeli government condemned the massacre and made Kach illegal.[93] The Israeli army killed a further nine Palestinians during riots following the massacre,[94] and the Israeli government severely restricted Palestinian freedom of movement in Hebron,[95] while letting settlers and foreign tourists roam free,[96] although Israel also forbade a small group of Israeli settlers from entering Palestinian towns and demanded that those settlers turn in their army-issued rifles.[97] Goldstone's grave has become a pilgrimage site for Jewish extremists.[98]

In a number of occasions, Israeli Jewish demonstrators and rioters used racist anti-Arab slogans. For example, during the Arab riots in October 2000 events, Israelis counter-rioted in Nazareth and Tel Aviv, throwing stones at Arabs, destroying Arab property, with some chanting "death to Arabs".[99] Some Israeli-Arab soccer players face chants from the crowd when they play such as "no Arabs, no terrorism".[100] In the most radical event, Abbas Zakour, an Arab member of the Knesset, was stabbed and wounded by unidentified men, who shouted anti-Arab chants.[101] The attack was described as a "hate crime".[101] Among the Israeli teams, Beitar Jerusalem is considered emblematic of Jewish racism; the fans are infamous for their 'Death to Arabs' chant[102] and the team has a ban on Arab players,[103] a policy that is in violation of FIFA's guidelines, though the team has never faced suspension from the football organization. In March 2012, supporters of the team were filmed raiding a Jerusalem mall and beating up Arab employees.[104]

The Israeli political party Yisrael Beiteinu, whose platform includes the redrawing of Israel's borders so that 500,000 Israeli Arabs would be part of a future Palestinian State, won 15 seats in the 2009 Israeli elections, increasing its seats by 4 compared to the 2006 Israeli elections. This policy, also known as the Lieberman Plan, was described as "anti-Arab" by The Guardian.[105] In 2004, Yehiel Hazan, a member of the Knesset, described the Arabs as worms: "You find them everywhere like worms, underground as well as above."[106][107]

Vandalized grave. The graffiti says "death to the Arabs" by an unknown.

In 2004, then Deputy Defense Minister Ze'ev Boim asked "What is it about Islam as a whole and the Palestinians in particular? Is it some form of cultural deprivation? Is it some genetic defect? There is something that defies explanation in this continued murderousness."[108]

In August 2005, Israeli soldier Eden Natan-Zada traveled to an Israeli Arab town and massacred four civilians. Israeli Arabs said they would draw up a list of grievances after the terrorist attack of Eden Natan-Zada. "This was a planned terror attack and we find it extremely difficult to treat it as an individual action," Abed Inbitawi, an Israeli-Arab spokesman, told The Jerusalem Post. "It marks a certain trend that reflects a growing tendency of fascism and racism in Israeli society generally as well as the establishment towards the minority Arab community," he said.[109]

According to a 2006 poll conducted by Geocartographia for the Centre for the Struggle Against Racism, 41% of Israelis support Arab-Israeli segregation at entertainment venues, 40% believed "the state needs to support the emigration of Arab citizens", and 63% believed Arabs to be a "security and demographic threat" to Israel. The poll found that more than two thirds would not want to live in the same building as an Arab, 36% believed Arab culture to be inferior, and 18% felt hatred when they heard Arabic spoken.[105]

In 2007, the Association for Civil Rights in Israel reported that anti-Arab views had doubled, and anti-Arab racist incidents had increased by 26%.[110] The report quoted polls that suggested 50% of Jewish Israelis do not believe Arab citizens of Israel should have equal rights, 50% said they wanted the government to encourage Arab emigration from Israel, and 75% of Jewish youths said Arabs were less intelligent and less clean than Jews. The Mossawa Advocacy Center for Arab Citizens in Israel reported a tenfold increase in racist incidents against Arabs in 2008. Jerusalem reported the highest number of incidents. The report blamed Israeli leaders for the violence, saying "These attacks are not the hand of fate, but a direct result of incitement against the Arab citizens of this country by religious, public, and elected officials."[111]

In March 2009, following the Gaza War, the Israel Defense Forces (IDF) drew criticism when several young soldiers had T-shirts printed up privately with slogans and caricatures portraying dead babies, weeping mothers, and crumbled mosques.[112][113][114]

In June 2009, Haaretz reported that Israel's Public Security Minister, Yitzhak Aharonovich, called an undercover police officer a "dirty Arab" whilst touring Tel Aviv.[115]

Since the 2000s, groups such as Lehava have been formed in Israel to prevent that Israeli Arab men form relationships with Jewish women. Some of the material promoted to discourage Jewish women to be with Arab men, are sanctioned by local governments and police departments.[116] Lehava has received permission from Israeli courts to picket the weddings uniting a Palestinian and a Jewish partner.[117]

In 2010, dozens of Israel's top rabbis went on to sign a document forbidding that Jews rent apartments to Arabs, saying that "racism originated in the Torah".[118]

In January 2012, the Israeli High Court upheld a decision, deemed racist, preventing the Palestinian espouses of Israeli Arabs from obtaining Israeli citizenship or resident status.[119]

A poll in 2012 revealed that racist attitudes are embraced by a large majority of Israelis. 59% of Jews said they wanted Jews to be given preference in admission to public employment, 50% wanted the state to generally treat Jews better than Arabs, and over 40% wanted separate housing for Jews and Arabs. According to the poll, 58% supported the use of the term apartheid to represent Israeli policies against Arabs. The poll also showed that the majority of Israeli Jews would not want voting rights extended to Palestinians if the West Bank were annexed by Israel.[120]

In 2013, Nazareth Illit mayor Shimon Gafsou declared that he would never allow that an Arab school, a mosque, or a church be built in his city, despite the fact that Arabs account for 18 percent of its population.[121]

On July 2, 2014, 16-year-old Palestinian Mohammed Abu Khdeir was kidnapped, beaten and burned alive, after three Israeli teenagers were kidnapped and killed in the West Bank. Khdeir's family members have blamed Israeli Government anti-Arab hate speech for inciting the murder and rejected the PM's condolence message, as well as a visit by then President Shimon Peres.[122] Two Israeli minors were found guilty of Khdeirs' murder and sentenced to life and 21 years imprisonment respectively.[123]

During the 2015 Israeli legislative election, Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu complained, in a video statement to supporters, that his left-wing opponents were supposedly sending Israeli Arabs to vote in droves, in a statement that was widely condemned as racist,[124] including by the US government.[125] Netanyahu went on to win the elections against poll predictions,[126] and several commentators and pollster imputed his victory to his last-minute attack on Israeli Arab voters.[127][128] During election campaign, then Foreign Affairs Minister Avigdor Lieberman proposed beheading Israeli Arabs that are "disloyal" to the state.[129]


In October 2006, the government of Niger announced that it would deport the Mahamid Baggara Arab living in the Diffa region of eastern Niger to Chad.[130] This population numbered about 150,000.[131] While the government was rounding Arabs in preparation for the deportation, two girls died, reportedly after fleeing government forces, and three women suffered miscarriages. Niger's government had eventually suspended the controversial decision to deport Arabs.[132][133]


Wealthy Gulf Arabs hunting the endangered Houbara bustard in Pakistan for consumption as an aphrodisiac has led to negative sentiment against wealthy Arab shaykhs in Pakistan.[134]


Main article: Anti-Arabism in Turkey

Turkey has a history of strong anti-Arabism. During the Ottoman Empire, the Arabs were treated as just second-class subjects and suffered from immense discrimination by the Ottoman Turkish rulers, in addition, most of government's main positions were either held by Turks or non-Arab people, except for the Emirate of Hejaz under Ottoman rule. Future policy of anti-Arab sentiment, including the process of Turkification, led to the Arab Revolt against the Ottomans.[135]

Because of the Syrian refugee crisis, anti-Arabism has intensified.[136][137] Haaretz reported that anti-Arabian racism in Turkey mainly affects two groups; tourists from the Gulf who are characterized as "rich and condescending" and the Syrian refugees in Turkey.[136] Haaretz also reported that anti-Syrian sentiment in Turkey is metastasizing into a general hostility toward all Arabs including the Palestinians.[136] Deputy Chairman of the Good Party warned that Turkey risked becoming "a Middle Eastern country" because of the influx of refugees.[138]

Outside historical enmity, anti-Arabism is also widespread in Turkish media, as Turkish media and education curriculum associating Arabs with backwardness.[139] This has continued influencing modern Turkish historiography and the crusade of Turkish soft power, with Arabs being frequently stereotyped as evil, uncivilized, terrorists, incompetent, etc. This depiction is frequently used in contrast to the alleged depiction of Turkic people as "noble, generous, fearsome, loyal, brave and spirited warriors".[140]

Anti-Arab sentiment is also further fueled by ultranationalist groups, including the Grey Wolves and pan-Turkist nationalist parties,[141] who called for invasions on the Arab World's Syria and Iraq, to prevent the ongoing Arab persecution of its Turkic populations in many Arab countries of the Middle East.[142][143] Subsequently, Turkey has begun a series of persecuting its Arab population, as well as desire to recreate the new Turkish border.[144]

In recent years, anti-Arabism has been linked with various attempts by Arab leaders to meddle into Turkish affairs, Turkey's alliance with Israel, which led to the discrimination against Arabs in Turkey grow.[145]

United Kingdom

See also: Racism in the United Kingdom

In 2008, a Qatari 16-year-old was killed in a racially motivated attack in Hastings, East Sussex.[146]

United States

See also: Racism in the United States

William A. Dorman, writing in the compendium The United States and the Middle East: A Search for New Perspectives (1992), notes that whereas "anti-Semitism is no longer socially acceptable, at least among the educated classes[, n]o such social sanctions exist for anti-Arabism."[147] Public opinion polls demonstrate that anti-Arabism in the United States is increasing significantly.[148]

Prominent Russian-American Objectivist author, scholar and philosopher Ayn Rand, in her 1974 Ford Hall Forum lecture, explained her support for Israel, following the Yom Kippur War of 1973 against a coalition of Arab nations, expressing strong anti-Arab sentiment with a words: "The Arabs are one of the least developed cultures. They are typically nomads. Their culture is primitive, and they resent Israel because it's the sole beachhead of modern science and civilization on their continent. When you have civilized men fighting savages, you support the civilized men, no matter who they are."[149][150][151]

During the 1991 Gulf War, hostility toward Arabs increased in the United States.[152] Arab Americans have experienced a backlash as result of terrorist attacks, including events where Arabs were not involved, like the Oklahoma City bombing, and the explosion of TWA Flight 800.[153] According to a report prepared by the Arab American Institute, three days after the Oklahoma City bombing "more than 200 serious hate crimes were committed against Arab Americans and American Muslims. The same was true in the days following September 11."[153]

According to a 2001 poll of Arab Americans conducted by the Arab American Institute, 32% of Arab Americans reported having been subjected to some form of ethnic-based discrimination during their lifetimes, while 20% reported having experienced an instance of ethnic-based discrimination since the September 11 attacks. Of special concern, for example, is the fact that 45% of students and 37% of Arab Americans of the Muslim faith report being targeted by discrimination since September 11.[153]

According to the FBI and Arab groups, the number of attacks against Arabs and Muslims, as well as others mistaken for them, rose considerably after the 9/11 attacks.[154] Hate crimes against people of Middle Eastern origin or descent increased from 354 attacks in 2000, to 1,501 attacks in 2001.[152] Among the victims of the backlash was a Middle Eastern man in Houston, Texas who was shot and wounded after an assailant accused him of "blowing up the country",[153] and four immigrants shot and killed by a man named Larme Price, who confessed to killing them as revenge for the September 11 attacks.[155] Although Price described his victims as Arabs, only one was from an Arab country. This appears to be a trend; because of stereotypes of Arabs, several non-Arab, non-Muslim groups were subjected to attacks in the wake of 9/11, including several Sikh men attacked for wearing their religiously mandated turban.[156]

Earl Krugel and Irv Rubin, two leaders of the Jewish Defense League (JDL), described by the U.S. Department of Homeland Security as a terrorist organization,[157] planned to bomb Arab-American Congressman Darrell Issa's office and the King Fahd Mosque in Culver City, California. The two were arrested as part of a sting operation when they received a shipment of explosives at Krugel's home in Los Angeles. Krugel was murdered in November 2005 while in the custody of the Federal Bureau of Prisons in Phoenix. His conviction, which was under appeal at that time, was dismissed in U.S. District Court. Rubin committed suicide in 2002 while in Federal Bureau of Prisons custody in Los Angeles.[158] Although the JDL was suspected in the 1985 bombing death of ADC leader Alex Odeh, no arrest has been made in that case.[159]

Stephen E. Herbits, the Secretary-General of the New York–based World Jewish Congress (WJC) made several racist remarks and ethnic slurs in an internal memo against the president of the European Jewish Congress Pierre Besnainou: "He is French. Don't discount this. He cannot be trusted ... He is Tunisian. Do not discount this either. He works like an Arab."[160] The WJC in Israel has condemned the statements as both hateful and racist. "It appears that the struggle in the World Jewish Congress has now turned racist, said Knesset member Shai Hermesh (Kadima), who heads the Israeli board of the WJC. Instead of creating unity among the Jewish people, this organization is just creating division and hatred."[161]

In 2004, American radio host Michael Savage described Arabs as "non-humans", said that Americans want the U.S. to "drop a nuclear weapon" on an Arab country, and advocated that people in the Middle East be "forcibly converted to Christianity" to "turn them into human beings". Savage characterized Israel as "a little country surrounded by racist, fascist bigots who don't want anyone but themselves living in that hell hole called the Middle East".[162] Expressions of anti-Arabism in the United States intensified following the 2009 Fort Hood shooting, which was perpetrated by Nidal Hasan, a Palestinian Arab American. In 2010, the proposed development of an Islamic community center containing a mosque near the World Trade Center site provoked further widespread expressions of virulent anti-Arabism in the United States.[163]

Western media

Main article: Stereotypes of Arabs and Muslims in the United States

Parts of Hollywood are regarded as using a disproportionate number of Arabs as villains and of depicting Arabs negatively and stereotypically. According to Godfrey Cheshire, a critic on the New York Press, "the only vicious racial stereotype that's not only still permitted but actively endorsed by Hollywood" is that of Arabs as crazed terrorists.[164]

Like the image projected of Jews in Nazi Germany, the image of Arabs projected by western movies is often that of "money-grubbing caricatures that sought world domination, worshipped a different God, killed innocents, and lusted after blond virgins".[165]

The 2000 film Rules of Engagement drew criticism from Arab groups and was described as "probably the most racist film ever made against Arabs by Hollywood" by the ADC.[164] Paul Clinton of The Boston Globe wrote "at its worst, it's blatantly racist, using Arabs as cartoon-cutout bad guys".[164]

Jack Shaheen, in his book Reel Bad Arabs,[166] surveyed more than 900 film appearances of Arab characters. Of those, only a dozen were positive and 50 were balanced. Shaheen writes that "[Arab] stereotypes are deeply ingrained in American cinema. From 1896 until today, filmmakers have collectively indicted all Arabs as Public Enemy #1 – brutal, heartless, uncivilized religious fanatics and money-mad cultural "others" bent on terrorizing civilized Westerners, especially [Christians] and [Jews]. Much has happened since 1896 ... Throughout it all, Hollywood's caricature of the [Arab] has prowled the silver screen. He is there to this day – repulsive and unrepresentative as ever."[167]

According to Newsweek columnist Meg Greenfield, anti-Arab sentiment presently promotes misconceptions about Arabs and hinders genuine peace in the Middle East.[165]

In 1993, the American-Arab Anti-Discrimination Committee confronted Disney about anti-Arab racist content in its animated film Aladdin. At first Disney denied any problems but eventually relented and changed two lines in the opening song. Members of the ADC were still unhappy with the portrayal of Arabic characters and the referral to the Middle East as "barbaric".[168]

In 1980, The Link, a magazine published by Americans for Middle East Understanding, contained an article "The Arab Stereotype on Television" which detailed negative Arab stereotypes that appeared in TV shows including Woody Woodpecker, Rocky and Bullwinkle, Jonny Quest and an educational children's show on PBS.[168]

Arab advocacy organisations

United States

The American-Arab Anti-Discrimination Committee (ADC) was founded in 1980 by United States Senator James Abourezk. The ADC claims that it is the largest Arab-American grassroots civil rights organization in the United States. Warren David is the national president of ADC[169] On March 1, 2010, Sara Najjar-Wilson replaced former Democratic US Congresswoman Mary Rose Oakar as president. ADC claims that is at the forefront in addressing anti-Arabism - discrimination and bias against Arab Americans.[170]

Founded in 1985 by James Zogby, a prominent Democrat, the Arab American Institute (AAI) states that it is a partisan non-profit, membership organization and advocacy group based in Washington, D.C. that focuses on the issues and interests of Arab-Americans nationwide. The AAI also conducts research related to anti-Arabism in the United States. The Anti-Defamation League identifies the Arab American Institute as an anti-Israel protest organization.[171] According to an AAI 2007 poll of Arab-Americans:

Experiences of discrimination are not uniform within the Arab American community, with 76% of young Arab Americans (18 to 29 years old) and 58% of Arab American Muslims reporting that they have "personally experienced discrimination in the past because of [their] ethnicity," as opposed to 42% of respondents overall... . Comparisons with previous AAI polls in which this same question was asked indicate a rise in experiences of discrimination amongst young Arab Americans.[172]

The Council on American-Islamic Relations (CAIR) is an Islamic organization in North America that was created in June 1994.[173][174] It has been active against anti-Arabism as well.[175]

The Anti-Defamation League (ADL), which was founded to combat antisemitism and other forms of bigotry, actively investigated and spoke out against the rise in anti-Arab hate crimes following the September 2001 terrorist attacks.[176] In 2003, the ADL urged the Speaker of the United States' House of Representatives to approve a resolution condemning bigotry and violence against Arab-Americans and American Muslims. The American Jewish Committee, and American Jewish Congress have issued similar responses.[177] In 2004, the ADL national director issued the following statement: "we are disturbed that a number of Arab Americans and Islamic institutions have been targets of anger and hatred in the aftermath of the terrorist attacks."[178][179]

In the 1990s, the Anti-Defamation League clashed with the American-Arab Anti-Discrimination Committee in a legal dispute regarding sensitive information the ADL had collected about ADC members' positions on the Arab-Israeli conflict. In 1999, the dispute was finally settled out of court without any finding of wrongdoing.[180] In 2001, the ADL attempted to bar Arab members of CAIR from attending a conference on multicultural inclusion. In 2007 the ADL accused the Council on American-Islamic Relations of having a "poor record on terrorism."[181] CAIR, in turn, accused the ADL of "attempting to muzzle the First Amendment rights of American Muslims by smearing and demonizing them". When the case was settled, Hussein Ibish, director of communications for the American-Arab Anti-Discrimination Committee (ADC), stated that the ADL had gathered data "systematically in a program whose clear intent was to undermine civil rights and Arab-American organizations".[180]

United Kingdom

In Britain, the Greater London Council (GLC) and Labour Committee on Palestine (LCP) have been involved in fighting anti-Arabism through the promotion of Arab and Palestinian rights. The LCP funded a conference on anti-Arab racism in 1989.[182] The National Association of British Arabs also works against discrimination.[183]

United Nations

The outcome document of the Durban Review Conference organized by the UN Human Rights Council, April 21, 2009, Deplores the global rise and number of incidents of racial or religious intolerance and violence, including Islamophobia, anti-Semitism, Christianophobia and anti-Arabism[184]

See also


  1. ^ Bodi, Faisal (January 12, 2004). "Islamophobia should be as unacceptable as racism". The Guardian. London. Archived from the original on February 6, 2008. Retrieved June 22, 2009.
  2. ^ *Phares, Walid (2001). "Arab Christians: An Introduction". Arabic Bible Outreach Ministry.
  3. ^ Ori Stendel (1996). The Arabs in Israel. Sussex Academic Press. p. 45. ISBN 978-1898723240. Retrieved March 4, 2014.
  4. ^ Mohammad Hassan Khalil (January 31, 2013). Between Heaven and Hell: Islam, Salvation, and the Fate of Others. Oxford University Press. p. 297. ISBN 9780199945412. Retrieved March 1, 2014.
  5. ^ Echebarria-Echabe, Agustín; Emilia Fernández Guede (May 2007). "A New Measure of Anti-Arab Prejudice: Reliability and Validity Evidence". Journal of Applied Social Psychology. 37 (5): 1077–1091. doi:10.1111/j.1559-1816.2007.00200.x.
  6. ^ Freitag, Ulrike (December 1999). "Hadhrami migration in the 19th and 20th centuries". British-Yemeni Society. Archived from the original on July 12, 2000. Retrieved June 22, 2009.
  7. ^ "Country Histories: Independence for Zanzibar". Empire's Children. Channel 4. 2007. Archived from the original on March 18, 2008. Retrieved June 26, 2009.
  8. ^ Heartman, Adam (September 26, 2006). "A Homemade Genocide". Adam Heartman. Archived from the original on February 3, 2009. Retrieved July 20, 2007.
  9. ^ Zuljan, Ralph (December 16, 2000). "Revolution in Zanzibar 1964". Armed Conflict Events Data. Archived from the original on February 15, 2001.
  10. ^ Suleiman, Yasir (2003). The Arabic Language and National Identity: A Study in Ideology. Edinburgh University Press. p. 238. ISBN 0-7486-1707-8.
  11. ^ La "Turcofobia". Discriminación anti-Árabe en Chile.
  12. ^ "Le monde arabe existe-il ?", Lucien Oulahbib.
  13. ^ "Du problème berbère au dilemme kabyle a l'aube du 21e siècle", Maxime Ait Kaki
  14. ^ Rosen, Lawrence (1984). Bargaining for Reality: The Construction of Social Relations in a Muslim Community. University of Chicago Press. pp. 139–140. ISBN 0-226-72611-8.
  15. ^ Brett, Michael & Fentress, Elizabeth (1997). The Berbers. Blackwell Publishing. pp. 278–282. ISBN 0-631-20767-8.
  16. ^ "Berbers protest in Kabylia". BBC News. May 21, 2001. Retrieved June 26, 2009.
  17. ^ Roberts, Hugh (1983). "The Economics of Berberism: The Material Basis of the Kabyle Question in Contemporary Algeria". Government and Opposition. 18 (2): 223–227. doi:10.1111/j.1477-7053.1983.tb00024.x. S2CID 145646046.
  18. ^ Bengio, Ofra & Ben-Dor, Gabriel (1999). Minorities and the State in the Arab World. Lynne Rienner Publishers. p. 35. ISBN 1-55587-647-1.
  19. ^ Slimani-Direche, Karina (2002). Histoire de l'émigration kabyle en France au XXe siècle: Réalités culturelles et politiques et réappropriations identitaires (in French). L'Harmattan. p. 140. ISBN 2-7384-5789-4. Translation from French:

    These reactions are also residues of a violent and Manichean political discourse which was particularly developed after the Berberist crisis in 1949 (see the second part) and expressed by members or sympathizers of the L'Académie Berbère (Berber Academy). This political berberist and radical trend which was especially developed with immigration, wanted to be anti-Arab, anti-Islam, and willingly sank in a narrow Manichaeism. This trend has seen relative success among some Kabyle immigrants especially from Paris Region (Région parisienne).

  20. ^ a b Djebali, Taoufik (2005). "Ethnicity and Power in North Africa: Tunisia, Algeria, and Morocco". In Spickard, Paul R. (ed.). Race and Nation: Ethnic Systems in the Modern World. New York: Routledge. p. 150. ISBN 0-415-95003-1.
  21. ^ Gross, Joan E.; McMurray, David A. (June 1993). "Berber Origins and the Politics of Ethnicity in Colonial North African Discourse". PoLAR: Political and Legal Anthropology Review. 16 (2): 39–58. doi:10.1525/pol.1993.16.2.39.
  22. ^ Djebali, Taoufik (2005). "Ethnicity and Power in North Africa: Tunisia, Algeria, and Morocco". In Spickard, Paul R. (ed.). Race and Nation: Ethnic Systems in the Modern World. New York: Routledge. p. 149. ISBN 0-415-95003-1.
  23. ^ Ansley, Greg (December 16, 2005). "1000 extra police officers ready for Sydney lockdown". The New Zealand Herald. Archived from the original on September 29, 2007. Retrieved April 7, 2006.
  24. ^ Brown, Malcolm; Dan Silkstone (December 13, 2005). "Fresh violence rocks Sydney". The Age.
  25. ^ Delaney, Brigid; Cynthia Banham (June 17, 2004). "Muslims feel the hands of racism tighten around them". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved April 8, 2006.
  26. ^ Wallace, Natasha (June 9, 2005). "Payout for lawyer dragged from court". Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved July 19, 2012.
  27. ^ Wallace, Natasha (October 25, 2005). "Lawyer wins $145,000 for 'spiteful' arrest". Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved July 19, 2012.
  28. ^ "Muslim lawyer wrongly arrested: court told". Australian Broadcasting Company. Australian Associated Press. November 12, 2005. Retrieved July 19, 2012.[dead link]
  29. ^ "A Winger and a Prayer". NineMSN. Australian Story. July 24, 2007. Archived from the original on October 19, 2016. Retrieved July 19, 2012.
  30. ^ "Adam Houda: 'talk out against oppression and injustice'". Sydney Morning Herald. November 27, 2007. Retrieved July 19, 2012.
  31. ^ a b Mercer, Neil (November 13, 2011). "Suing police again, the lawyer of Middle Eastern appearance". Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved July 19, 2012.
  32. ^ "Houda v The State of New South Wales". LawLink NSW. October 26, 2005. Archived from the original on November 27, 2012. It is common ground that Constable Stebbing laid the charge against the plaintiff comprised in the Field Court Attendance Notice (Exhibit Z) of assaulting him and that that charge was terminated in favour of the plaintiff. I have found that in laying that charge Constable Stebbing acted out of spite or ill will towards the plaintiff. He then, because of his personal contact with the events well knew that the offence had not been committed. Accordingly the count of malicious prosecution has been established. ... I am further comfortably satisfied on the probabilities that Constable Stebbing, with the assistance of other police officers imprisoned the plaintiff and that imprisonment caused him to be escorted to the police station and held there for a period of about one hour. For reasons already given the constable had no reasonable or probable cause for imprisoning him.
  33. ^ "Lawyer wins $145,000 for 'spiteful' arrest". Sydney Morning Herald. Australian Associated Press. November 12, 2005. Retrieved July 19, 2012.
  34. ^ Gibson, Joel (September 21, 2010). "Police officer accused of trying to bribe Channel Seven". Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved July 19, 2012.
  35. ^ Murphy, Christopher (September 21, 2010). "Chris Murphy's complaint". Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved July 19, 2012.
  36. ^ Mercer, Neil (March 8, 2012). "Lawyer to sue NSW Police for $5m". The Age. Archived from the original on August 1, 2013. Retrieved July 19, 2012.
  37. ^ "Solicitor takes on Police over racial profiling". Australian Broadcasting Company. June 1, 2012. Retrieved July 19, 2012.
  38. ^ Dujisin, Zoltán (May 23, 2008), "Read the Papers And Fear the Muslims", Inter Press Service, archived from the original on April 17, 2009, retrieved February 14, 2011
  39. ^ Gillette, Alain & Sayadm, Abdelmalek (1984). L'immigration algérienne en France (in French) (2nd ed.). Paris: Editions Entente. p. 50. ISBN 2-7266-0018-2.
  40. ^ Laroui, Abdallah (1977). History of the Maghreb. Translated by Ralph Manheim. Princeton: Princeton University Press. pp. 351–12. ISBN 0-691-03109-6.
  41. ^ Mauco, Georges (1932). Les étrangers en France: leur role dans l'activite economique (in French). Paris: Armand Colin. p. 170.; and McMaster, Neil (1997). Colonial Migrants and Racism: Algerians in France, 1900-62. New York: St Martin's Press. p. 67.
  42. ^ Dwyer, Katherine (1997). "France's New Nazis: The Resistible Rise of Jean-Marie LePen". International Socialist Review (2). ISSN 0020-8744. Archived from the original on April 27, 2004. Retrieved April 14, 2004.
  43. ^ a b Hamilton, Kimberly; Simon, Patrick; Veniard, Clara (November 2004). "The Challenge of French Diversity". Migration Policy Institute. Archived from the original on November 26, 2009. Retrieved June 26, 2009.
  44. ^ "'Race killing' sparks French riot". BBC News. May 30, 2005. Retrieved June 26, 2009.
  45. ^ Rowling, Megan (June 6, 2005). "French riots borne of mutual exclusion". Al Jazeera. Archived from the original on January 18, 2008. Retrieved June 26, 2009.
  46. ^ "La police mise en cause pour ses contrôles au faciès". Le June 30, 2009. Retrieved January 7, 2016.
  47. ^ a b "Iran: New government fails to address dire human rights situation" (PDF). Amnesty International. February 16, 2006. Retrieved October 18, 2016.
  48. ^ Perry–Castañeda Library Map Collection, Iran ethnoreligious distribution 2004 Archived September 11, 2007, at the Wayback Machine, The University of Texas at Austin, 2004
  49. ^ Foltz, Richard. "Internationalization of Islam". Encarta. Archived from the original on November 1, 2009.
  50. ^ Bradley, John. "Ethnicity versus theocracy". Al-Ahram Weekly. Archived from the original on March 21, 2006.
  51. ^ "Iran-Iraq War 1980–1988". History of Iran. Iran Chamber Society.
  52. ^ Tatchell, Peter (October 10, 2006). "Tehrans secret war against its own people". The Times. London.
  53. ^ Casaca, Paulo (January 19, 2006). "Ahmanidejad's Jihad". Café Babel. Archived from the original on May 24, 2006.
  54. ^ Frampton, Martyn (March 7, 2006). "While the West fiddles, Iran's people..." Henry Jackson Society. Archived from the original on September 1, 2007.
  55. ^ "ISNA - PicView". Archived from the original on March 18, 2008.
  56. ^ "دانشگاه علوم پزشکی و خدمات درمانی جندی شاپور اهواز". Archived from the original on October 11, 2004. Retrieved July 7, 2009.
  57. ^ "welcome to". Archived from the original on January 9, 2008. Retrieved July 7, 2009.
  58. ^ "دانشگاه صنعت نفت". Archived from the original on December 14, 2006. Retrieved July 7, 2009.
  59. ^ "Iran to build new nuclear plant". BBC. December 5, 2005. Retrieved January 1, 2010.
  60. ^ "Civic umbrella body to highlight plight of the Basarwa". The New Humanitarian. February 10, 2004. Archived from the original on January 16, 2007.
  61. ^ "Economic Focus". Islamic Republic News Agency. November 1, 2005. Archived from the original on March 22, 2006.
  62. ^ Agence France-Presse (June 4, 2005). "Iran on rough road to WTO membership". The Daily Star. Archived from the original on September 29, 2007. Retrieved May 25, 2006.
  63. ^ "Iranian embassy information page". Archived from the original on June 9, 2009. Retrieved July 7, 2009.
  64. ^ "Iranian book of Arabic education". Archived from the original on June 4, 2009. Retrieved July 7, 2009.
  65. ^ Rahimieh, Nasrin (2015). Iranian Culture: Representation and Identity. Routledge. p. 133. ISBN 978-1-317-42935-7. Retrieved October 18, 2016.
  66. ^ a b "Persians v Arabs: Same old sneers". The Economist. May 5, 2012. Retrieved October 18, 2016.
  67. ^ Hooman Majd (September 23, 2008). The Ayatollah Begs to Differ: The Paradox of Modern Iran. Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group. p. 165. ISBN 978-0-385-52842-9.
  68. ^ a b Daryaee, Touraj (March 2012). "Food, Purity and Pollution: Medieval Zoroastrian Views on the Eating Habits of the Arabs and Indians" (PDF). Iranian Studies. 45 (2): 229–242. doi:10.1080/00210862.2011.617157. S2CID 161684767. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 11, 2016. Retrieved October 18, 2016.
  69. ^ a b Bezhan, Frud (April 14, 2015). "Alleged Assault On Iranian Teens Stokes Anti-Arab Sentiment". Retrieved October 18, 2016.
  70. ^ Terence O'Donnell (1980). Garden of the brave in war. Ticknor & Fields. p. 19. ISBN 978-0-89919-016-7.
  71. ^ Sadjadpour, Karim (March 5, 2011). "Arabs Rise, Tehran Trembles". The New York Times. Retrieved January 7, 2016.
  72. ^ Elaine Sciolino (September 25, 2001). Persian Mirrors: The Elusive Face of Iran. Simon and Schuster. pp. 170–. ISBN 978-0-7432-1779-8.
  73. ^ Farhang Rajaee (1997). Iranian Perspectives on the Iran-Iraq War. University Press of Florida. pp. 75–. ISBN 978-0-8130-1476-0.
  74. ^ Shirin Tahir-Kheli; Shaheen Ayubi (1983). The Iran-Iraq War: New Weapons, Old Conflicts. Praeger. p. 71. ISBN 978-0-03-062906-8.
  75. ^ "Arabs rise, Tehran trembles". Archived from the original on January 11, 2016. Retrieved January 7, 2016.
  76. ^ "Islamic Revival and Middle East Social Revolution | AL-ALAM AL-ISLAMI". Archived from the original on January 11, 2016. Retrieved January 7, 2016.
  77. ^ Michael M. J. Fischer; Mehdi Abedi (1990). Debating Muslims: Cultural Dialogues in Postmodernity and Tradition. Univ of Wisconsin Press. p. 180. ISBN 978-0-299-12434-2. the Arabs of the desert eat locusts while the dogs of Isfahan.
  78. ^ "Iran and the Arabs Friendlier hands across the Gulf Old suspicions and new links". The Economist. Cairo. December 19, 2007.
  79. ^ "The Gulf All latest updates What's in a name? Call it Persian—or else". The Economist. Cairo. March 9, 2010.
  80. ^ "National Geographic Magazine -". May 15, 2012. Archived from the original on July 21, 2008. Retrieved January 7, 2016.
  81. ^ "وزارة الثقافة الايرانية: أغنية "عرب كُش" غير مرخصة قانونيا". August 19, 2015. Archived from the original on February 6, 2016. Retrieved January 7, 2016.
  82. ^ "'Protecting' Jewish girls from Arabs". The Jerusalem Post. September 18, 2009. Archived from the original on July 8, 2012.
  83. ^ Cook, Jonathan. "Israeli drive to prevent Jewish girls dating Arabs". The National.
  84. ^ Bar-Tal, Daniel (1998). "The Rocky Road toward Peace: Beliefs on Conflict in Israeli Textbooks". Journal of Peace Research. 35 (6). Sage Publications, Ltd.: 727, 738. doi:10.1177/0022343398035006005. ISSN 0022-3433. JSTOR 425413. S2CID 145696905.
  85. ^ "Bedouin ask UN to help fight systemic discrimination in Israel". Haaretz. July 3, 2006. Archived from the original on July 5, 2006.
  86. ^ Gurvitz, Yossi (April 8, 2012). "Jewish soldiers refuse to share Seder table with Druze comrades". 972mag. Retrieved September 10, 2012.
  87. ^ Israel Shahak. "The Real Significant of Baruch Goldstein". The Unjust Media. Archived from the original on March 26, 2015.
  88. ^ Kraft, Scott (February 28, 1994). "Extremists Pay Tribute to Killer of 48 at Funeral". Los Angeles Times. p. A1.
  89. ^ Brownfeld, Allan C. (March 1999). "Growing Intolerance Threatens the Humane Jewish Tradition". Washington Report on Middle East Affairs: 84–89. Retrieved April 11, 2011.
  90. ^ Emran Qureshi, Michael Anthony Sells (2003). The new crusades: constructing the Muslim enemy. Columbia University Press. p. 129. ISBN 0-231-12667-0.
  91. ^ The ethics of war in Asian civilizations: a comparative perspective By Torkel Brekke, Routledge, 2006, p.44
  92. ^ Wilson, Rodney (2007). "Review Article: Islam and Terrorism". British Journal of Middle Eastern Studies. 34 (2): 203–213. doi:10.1080/13530190701427933. S2CID 144867169.
  93. ^ Haberman, Clyde (March 14, 1994). "Israel votes ban on Jewish groups linked to Kahane". The New York Times.
  94. ^ Surkes, Sue (February 28, 2014). "The Goldstein massacre and the danger of escalation". The Times of Israel. Retrieved January 7, 2016.
  95. ^ AYELET WALDMAN (2014). "The Shame of Shuhada Street". The Atlantic.
  96. ^ Aditi, Bhaduri (May 21, 2006). "Fabled town, divided and bruised". The Hindu. Archived from the original on October 29, 2007. Retrieved October 19, 2009. Still fresh in the memory of almost all the inhabitants was the Goldstein case of 1994, when a two-week curfew was imposed on the 1,20,000 [sic] Palestinian residents of the city, but not on the 400 Jewish settlers of H2.
  97. ^ Haberman, Clyde (March 3, 1994). "West Bank Massacre; Israel Eases Curfew in Territories; Ensuing Riots Deepen Pessimism". The New York Times. p. A1. Retrieved November 23, 2015. Faced with rage in the territories and its own revulsion over the Hebron massacre, the P.L.O. has dug in on its demands that all settlers be disarmed and that an international force be created to protect Palestinians. Mr. Rabin has said no to both demands. But he [Rabin] has imposed tougher measures against a relatively small number of the most militant settlers, which, while far from what the Palestinians want, represents a significant shift for the Government. Several days after ordering the arrest of five people faithful to the anti-Arab preaching of the late Rabbi Meir Kahane, the army began today to carry out other measures, telling 18 settlers to stay out of Arab towns and to turn in their army-issued rifles.
  98. ^ "Graveside party celebrates Hebron massacre". BBC News. March 21, 2000. Retrieved October 19, 2009.
  99. ^ "The Or Inquiry - Summary of Events". Haaretz. September 12, 2000. Archived from the original on December 16, 2001. Retrieved April 8, 2006.
  100. ^ "Israeli's World Cup hopes saved by ... Arabs". MSNBC. Associated Press. April 1, 2005. Archived from the original on April 5, 2005.
  101. ^ a b "Acre gang stabs, lightly wounds MK Abbas Zakur in hate crime". Haaretz. July 30, 2006. Archived from the original on October 16, 2015.
  102. ^ Beitar Jerusalem hails a year free of racist chanting in the stands – Jewish Chronicle, 1 January 2019
  103. ^ "Beitar Jerusalem ordered to end racist ban on Arab players". April 21, 2015.
  104. ^ "Soccer Hooligans in Israel Bring Racist Chants to Shopping Mall". The New York Times. March 23, 2012.
  105. ^ a b McGreal, Chris (March 4, 2006). "41% of Israel's Jews favour segregation". The Guardian. London.
  106. ^ "Breaking News, World News and Video from Al Jazeera". Al Jazeera. Archived from the original on August 29, 2007.
  107. ^ "ADL Dismayed At Offensive Remarks Made By Member of Israeli Knesset" (Press release). Anti-Defamation League. December 14, 2004. Archived from the original on October 28, 2008. Retrieved April 4, 2006.
  108. ^ Ettinger, Yair. "Boim: Is Palestinian terror caused by a genetic defect?". Haaretz. Archived from the original on November 9, 2004.
  109. ^ Rudge, David (August 11, 2005). "Israeli Arabs: Israel is racist". The Jerusalem Post. Archived from the original on October 26, 2005.
  110. ^ "Israeli anti-Arab racism 'rises'". BBC. December 10, 2007. Retrieved January 1, 2010.
  111. ^ "Racist attacks against Arabs increase tenfold - report". Y-Net News. March 21, 2009. Archived from the original on March 24, 2009. Retrieved March 22, 2009.
  112. ^ Macintyre, Donald (March 22, 2009). "Israel Military condemns soldiers' shocking T-shirts". The Independent. London. Archived from the original on March 23, 2009. Retrieved March 24, 2009.
  113. ^ "Dead Palestinian babies and bombed mosques - IDF fashion 2009". Haaretz. March 20, 2009. Archived from the original on March 22, 2009.
  114. ^ Blau, Uri (April 1, 2009). "IDF education officer slams troops' 'belittling' T-shirts". Haaretz. Archived from the original on April 1, 2009. Retrieved April 1, 2009.
  115. ^ Goren, Yuval; Stern, Yoav; Mualem, Mazal (June 16, 2009). "Public security minister calls cop 'dirty Arab'". Haaretz.
  116. ^ Seth Freedman (September 29, 2009). "Israel's vile anti-miscegenation squads". The Guardian.
  117. ^ "Israeli court allows protesters to picket Palestinian-Jewish wedding". The Guardian. August 17, 2014.
  118. ^ "Top Rabbis Move to Forbid Renting Homes to Arabs, Say 'Racism Originated in the Torah'". Haaretz. December 7, 2010.
  119. ^ "Israel citizenship ruling slammed as 'racist'". The Telegraph. January 12, 2012. Archived from the original on January 12, 2022.
  120. ^ Gideon Levy (October 23, 2012). "Survey: Most Israeli Jews Wouldn't Give Palestinians Vote if West Bank Was Annexed". Haaretz.
  121. ^ "High above Nazareth, an Israeli mayor wants to keep his city Jewish 'now and forever'". The Washington Post. September 20, 2013.
  122. ^ Carlstrom, Gregg (July 4, 2014). "Shocked Palestinian family waits to bury son". Al Jazeera English.
  123. ^ Hasson, Nir (May 3, 2016). "Abu Khdeir Murderer Sentenced to Life Imprisonment Plus 20 Years". Haaretz.
  124. ^ "An Israeli Election Turns Ugly". The New York Times. March 17, 2015. Retrieved January 7, 2016.
  125. ^ "Netanyahu Apologizes; White House Is Unmoved". The New York Times. March 23, 2015. Retrieved January 7, 2016.
  126. ^ JACOB ERIKSSON (March 23, 2015). "Netanyahu Can't Walk Back His Election Rhetoric". Newsweek.
  127. ^ LUKE BRINKER (March 25, 2015). "Benjamin Netanyahu's racist remarks may have swung Israeli election, pollster finds". Salon.
  128. ^ Octavia Nasr (March 24, 2015). "Netanyahu's racism won him the Israeli elections". Al Arabiya.
  129. ^ Lieberman: Disloyal Israeli Arabs Should Be Beheaded, Haaretz, March 9, 2015
  130. ^ "Niger starts mass Arab expulsions". BBC. October 26, 2006. Retrieved January 1, 2010.
  131. ^ "Niger's Arabs say expulsions will fuel race hate". Reuters. October 25, 2006. Archived from the original on November 10, 2008. Retrieved July 20, 2007.
  132. ^ "Niger's Arabs to fight expulsion". BBC. October 25, 2006. Retrieved January 1, 2010.
  133. ^ "U.S. Committee for Refugees and Immigrants World Refugee Survey 2007 - Niger". US Committee for Refugees and Immigrants. July 11, 2007.
  134. ^ See:
  135. ^ Kardaş, Ümit (January 29, 2018). "The debris of history: Christians and Arabs of the Ottoman Empire". Ahval. Archived from the original on September 25, 2019. Retrieved October 15, 2020.
  136. ^ a b c "Palestinians Were Spared Turkey's Rising anti-Arab Hate. Until Now". Haaretz. July 16, 2019. Retrieved August 27, 2019.
  137. ^ Tremblay, Pinar (August 21, 2014). "Anti-Arab sentiment on rise in Turkey". Al-Monitor. Retrieved August 27, 2019.
  138. ^ "Syrian refugees who were welcomed in Turkey now face backlash". NBC News. March 18, 2019. Retrieved August 27, 2019.
  139. ^ AKTURK, AHMET SERDAR (2010). "Arabs in Kemalist Turkish Historiography". Middle Eastern Studies. 46 (5): 633–653. doi:10.1080/00263206.2010.504553. JSTOR 20775068. S2CID 145675272.
  140. ^ Seni, Nora (May 2, 2016). "Arabs and Turks: So Close Yet So Far". Hérodote. 160161 (1): 319–336. doi:10.3917/her.160.0319 – via
  141. ^ Mammone, Andrea; Godin, Emmanuel; Jenkins, Brian (May 7, 2013). Varieties of Right-Wing Extremism in Europe. Routledge. ISBN 9781136167515.
  142. ^ "Turkmens: The Turkish minority fighting for survival in Syria". ABC News. November 25, 2015.
  143. ^ "Refworld | Iraq: Iraqi-Turkmen (Turkomen); treatment by Iraqi government, security and police personnel as well as general public".
  144. ^ "Erdogan Wants to Redraw the Middle East's Ethnic Map". November 8, 2019.
  145. ^ Bengio, Ofra; Özcan, Gencer (2001). "Old Grievances, New Fears: Arab Perceptions of Turkey and Its Alignment with Israel". Middle Eastern Studies. 37 (2): 50–92. doi:10.1080/714004395. JSTOR 4284156. S2CID 143914150.
  146. ^ Pidd, Helen (August 26, 2008). "Qatari student, 16, dies after 'race' attack in Hastings | World news". The Guardian. London. Retrieved July 7, 2009.
  147. ^ Dorman, William A. (1992). "Media, Public Discourse, and U.S. Policy toward the Middle East". In Amirahmadi, Hooshang (ed.). The United States and the Middle East: A Search for New Perspectives. SUNY Press. p. 302. ISBN 978-0-7914-1225-1.
  148. ^ James Zogby (August 2, 2014). "Arab Americans and American Muslims Are at Risk". Archived from the original on January 2, 2016. Retrieved January 7, 2016.
  149. ^ "The Ayn Rand Institute: America at War: Israeli-Arab Conflict". August 22, 2007. Archived from the original on August 22, 2007. Retrieved June 1, 2019.
  150. ^ Ayn Rand answers: the best of her Q & A (Centennial ed.). New American Library. 2005. p. 96. ISBN 978-0-451-21665-6.
  151. ^ Burns, Jennifer (2009). Goddess of the market: Ayn Rand and the American Right. New York: Oxford University Press. p. 266. ISBN 978-0-19-532487-7.
  152. ^ a b Oswald, Debra L. (September 2005). "Understanding Anti-Arab Reactions Post-9/11: The Role of Threats, Social Categories, and Personal Ideologies". Journal of Applied Social Psychology. 35 (9): 1775–1799. doi:10.1111/j.1559-1816.2005.tb02195.x.
  153. ^ a b c d "Arab American Institute 2001 report submitted to the United States Commission on Civil Rights" (PDF). Arab American Institute. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 7, 2008.
  154. ^ "Terrorism: Q & A | Hate Crimes". Archived from the original on February 7, 2006.
  155. ^ Dewan, Shaila K. (April 1, 2003). "'Vibes Made Man Kill... and Confess, Police Say". The New York Times. New York City. Archived from the original on March 4, 2016. Retrieved January 7, 2016.
  156. ^ "Hate crime reports up in wake of terrorist attacks". CNN. September 17, 2001. Archived from the original on April 15, 2008. Retrieved April 4, 2008.
  157. ^ " Hate Groups Map". Retrieved July 7, 2009.[permanent dead link]
  158. ^ "Jewish extremist killed in jail". BBC. November 6, 2005. Archived from the original on January 5, 2006. Retrieved January 1, 2010.
  159. ^ "JDL leader Irv Rubin dies at 57". USA Today. Associated Press. November 14, 2002.
  160. ^ Ratner, Lizzy & Schneider-Mayerson, Anna (May 7, 2007). "Memo from Old Rumsfeld Aide May Sink Bronfman Heir" Archived July 15, 2007, at the Wayback Machine. The New York Observer
  161. ^ Lefkovits, Etgar (May 4, 2007). "Top WJC official makes Arab jibe at EJC chief". The Jerusalem Post
  162. ^ Savage Nation, May 11, 2004.
  163. ^ Ferguson, Barbara (August 16, 2010). "Ground Zero mosque polarizes US". Arab News. Archived from the original on August 25, 2010. Retrieved June 13, 2011.
  164. ^ a b c Whitaker, Brian (August 11, 2000). "The 'towel-heads' take on Hollywood". The Guardian. London.
  165. ^ a b Shaheen, Jack G. (2000). "Hollywood's Muslim Arabs". The Muslim World. 90 (1–2): 22–42. doi:10.1111/j.1478-1913.2000.tb03680.x. ISSN 0027-4909.
  166. ^ Shaheen, Jack G. (2001). Reel Bad Arabs. Interlink Publishing Group. ISBN 1-56656-388-7.
  167. ^ Levesque, John (March 21, 2002). "Arabs suffer in the hands of Hollywood". Seattle Post-Intelligencer.
  168. ^ a b Cohen, Karl F. (March 1998). Forbidden Animation: Censored Cartoons and Blacklisted Animators in America. McFarland & Company. p. 74. ISBN 978-0-7864-0395-0.
  169. ^ "ADC | ADC Staff Attorney serves on interfaith panel at the Ecumenical Advocacy Days Conference". Archived from the original on July 19, 2013.
  170. ^ "American-Arab Anti-Discrimination Committee web page". Archived from the original on March 27, 2009. Retrieved July 7, 2009.
  171. ^ "U.S. Anti-Israel Activity". Archived from the original on September 14, 2010. Retrieved March 27, 2011.
  172. ^ "AAI/Zogby Poll on Arab American Experiences and Identity Shows Increase in Discrimination Among Young Arab Americans" (PDF) (Press release). Arab American Institute. July 16, 2007. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 24, 2008. Retrieved June 22, 2009.
  173. ^ "25 Facts about CAIR: Did you know?". CAIR. Archived from the original on August 26, 2007. Retrieved August 25, 2007.
  174. ^ "About". CAIR. Archived from the original on July 11, 2006. Retrieved July 7, 2009.
  175. ^ Philippa Strum, American Arabs and Political Participation, Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, May 2006.
  176. ^ Eskenazi, Joe (October 19, 2001). "State's skyrocketing anti-Arab incidents pain area Jews". Archived from the original on March 18, 2008. Retrieved December 26, 2007.
  177. ^ "ADL Urges House of Representatives to Consider Resolution Protecting Arabs, South Asians, Muslims and Sikhs" (Press release). Anti-Defamation League. July 30, 2003. Archived from the original on October 23, 2008. Retrieved October 19, 2003.
  178. ^ Elaasar, Aladdin (2004). Silent Victims: The Plight of Arab & Muslim Americans in Post 9/11 America. AuthorHouse. ISBN 1-4184-1055-1.
  179. ^ "ADL Says Americans Must Remain United, Reject Group Hatred in Aftermath of Terrorist Attacks" (Press release). Anti-Defamation League. September 14, 2001. Archived from the original on May 12, 2008. Retrieved April 8, 2006.
  180. ^ a b Wiener, Julie (October 1, 1999). "ADL settles with Arabs, others to wrap up 6-year lawsuit". Archived from the original on July 14, 2007.
  181. ^ "FL rights group rejects ADL demand to bar Muslim from panel". November 14, 2001. Archived from the original on October 9, 2007.
  182. ^ Edmunds, June (May 1998). "The British Labour Party in the 1980s: The Battle Over the Palestinian/Israeli Conflict". Politics. 18 (2): 111–118. doi:10.1111/1467-9256.00068. S2CID 154763592.
  183. ^ "NABA British Arabs Association". Archived from the original on February 9, 2008. Retrieved January 7, 2016.
  184. ^ "Draft outcome document of the Durban Review Conference" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on June 11, 2011. Retrieved July 7, 2009.