3D model (JSmol)
CompTox Dashboard (EPA)
|Molar mass||299.01 g·mol−1|
|Appearance||colorless or reddish-yellow (fuming) liquid, oily|
|Density||2.336 g/cm3 (20 °C)|
2.36 g/cm3 (25 °C)
|Melting point||2.8 °C (37.0 °F; 275.9 K)|
|Boiling point||140 °C (284 °F; 413 K) |
decomposes from 106 °C
79 °C (174 °F; 352 K)
at 22 mmHg
92 °C (198 °F; 365 K)
at 30 mmHg
|Solubility||soluble in alcohol, HCl, tartaric acid, CHCl3, CS2, CCl4|
|Solubility in selenium(IV) oxychloride||62.97 g/100 g (25 °C)|
|Vapor pressure||0.16 kPa (25 °C)|
4 kPa (40 °C)
7.7 kPa (100 °C)
Refractive index (nD)
|Viscosity||2.034 cP (29.4 °C)|
1.91 cP (35 °C)
Heat capacity (C)
|120.9 J/mol·K (gas)|
Std enthalpy of
Gibbs free energy (ΔfG˚)
|Occupational safety and health (OHS/OSH):|
|P273, P280, P305+P351+P338, P310|
|NFPA 704 (fire diamond)|
|Flash point||77 °C (171 °F; 350 K)|
|Lethal dose or concentration (LD, LC):|
LD50 (median dose)
|1115 mg/kg, (rat, oral)|
|NIOSH (US health exposure limits):|
|TWA 0.5 mg/m3 (as Sb)|
|TWA 0.5 mg/m3 (as Sb)|
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
what is ?)(
Antimony pentachloride is a chemical compound with the formula SbCl5. It is a colourless oil, but typical samples are yellowish due to dissolved chlorine. Owing to its tendency to hydrolyse to hydrochloric acid, SbCl5 is a highly corrosive substance and must be stored in glass or PTFE containers.
Antimony pentachloride is prepared by passing chlorine gas into molten antimony trichloride:
Gaseous SbCl5 has a trigonal bipyramidal structure.
This compounds reacts with water to form antimony pentoxide and hydrochloric acid:
The mono- and tetrahydrates are known, SbCl5·H2O and SbCl5·4H2O.
This compound forms adducts with many Lewis bases. SbCl5 is a soft Lewis acid and its ECW model parameters are EA = 3.64 and CA = 10.42. It is used as the standard Lewis acid in the Gutmann scale of Lewis basicity.
It is also a strong oxidizing agent. For example aromatic ethers are oxidized to their radical cations according to the following stoichiometry:
Antimony pentachloride is used as a polymerization catalyst and for the chlorination of organic compounds.
Antimony pentachloride is a highly corrosive substance that should be stored away from heat and moisture. It is a chlorinating agent and, in the presence of moisture, it releases hydrogen chloride gas. Because of this, it may etch even stainless-steel tools (such as needles), if handled in a moist atmosphere. It should not be handled with non-fluorinated plastics (such as plastic syringes, plastic septa, or needles with plastic fittings), since it melts and carbonizes plastic materials.