This article includes a list of general references, but it remains largely unverified because it lacks sufficient corresponding inline citations. Please help to improve this article by introducing more precise citations. (January 2013) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
Antiochus IX Eusebes
Antiochus IX Eusebes Cyzicenus
Tetradrachm of Antiochos IX, with Athena Nike on the reverse, minted at Antioch circa 110-109 BC.[1]
King of the Seleucid Empire
(King of Syria)
Reign116 BC–96 BC (with his brother Antiochus VIII Grypus)
PredecessorAntiochus VIII Grypus
SuccessorSeleucus VI Epiphanes
BornUnknown
Died96 BC
Spouse
IssueAntiochus X Eusebes
DynastySeleucid
FatherAntiochus VII Sidetes
MotherCleopatra Thea

Antiochus IX Eusebes Cyzicenus (Greek: Ἀντίοχος Εὐσεβής Κυζικηνός, "Antiochus the Pious, the Cyzicene") was a ruler of the Hellenistic Seleucid kingdom. He was the son of Antiochus VII Sidetes and Cleopatra Thea.[2] He left the kingdom in 129 BC and went to the city of Cyzicus, but he returned in 116 BC to challenge his half-brother Antiochus VIII for power.

The siblings fought a twenty-year civil war. In 112 BC, Antiochus IX's wife, Cleopatra IV, was killed by her sister Tryphaena, the wife of Antiochus VIII. Tryphaena herself died shortly afterwards. Antiochus VIII was assassinated in 96 BC; he was succeeded by his sons Seleucus VI and Demetrius III. Antiochus IX then took the capital Antioch and married his deceased wife's sister Cleopatra Selene, who was herself the widow of Antiochus VIII. Seleucus VI continued the war against his uncle. Antiochus IX Eusebes Cyzicenus was killed in battle in 96 BC.

Biography

Bust probably depicting Antiochus IX.[3]
Bust probably depicting Antiochus IX.[3]

The son of Antiochus VII Sidetes and Cleopatra Thea,[2] upon the death of his father in Parthia and his uncle Demetrius II Nicator's return to power (129 BC), his mother sent him to Cyzicus on the Bosporus, thus giving him his nickname.[citation needed]

Following the death of his mother c. 121 BC,[2] Antiochus IX Cyzicenus challenged his half-brother, Antiochus VIII Grypus, for power over Syria.[2]

He returned to Syria in 116 BC to claim the Seleucid throne from his half-brother/cousin Antiochus VIII Grypus, with whom he eventually divided Syria,[citation needed] that same year.[2]

Antiochus IX Cyzicenus was first married to Cleopatra IV, who was said to have been killed in 112 BC[4] by her sister and rival Tryphaena, wife of King Grypus.[5][6][7] After the death of Grypus and Antiochus' capture of the capital, Antiochus married Cleopatra Selene of Syria, the sister of his former wife, Cleopatra IV.[8]

He was subsequently killed in battle by the son of Grypus, Seleucus VI Epiphanes, later in 96 BC.

Legacy

Antiochus IX probably created the Iturean tetrarchy as an ally against Antiochus VIII.[9]

See also

References

  1. ^ Oliver D. Hoover, Handbook of Syrian Coins: Royal and Civic Issues, Fourth to First Centuries BC [The Handbook of Greek Coinage Series, Volume 9], Lancaster/London, Classical Numismatic Group, 2009, pp. 250-251.
  2. ^ a b c d e Antiochus IX Cyzicenus entry in historical sourcebook by Mahlon H. Smith
  3. ^ ARTHUR HOUGHTON, THE PORTRAIT OF ANTIOCHUS IX [ Antike Kunst, vol 27, issue 2], Vereinigung der Freunde Antiker Kunst, 1984, pp. 123-128.
  4. ^ [1]
  5. ^ Aidan Dodson, Dyan Hilton, The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt, 2004
  6. ^ Cleopatra Thea by Chris Bennett
  7. ^ Justin 39, 3, 3-11.
  8. ^ [2]
  9. ^ Wright 2005, p. 80.

Sources

Antiochus IX Cyzicenus Seleucid dynastyBorn: Unknown Died: 96 BC Preceded byAntiochus VIII Grypus Seleucid King (King of Syria) 114–96 BCwith Antiochus VIII Grypus (125–96 BC) Succeeded bySeleucus VI Epiphanes
  1. ^ Vermeule 1970, p. 205.