|King of the Seleucid Empire |
(King of Syria)
|Reign||69–64 BC (client king under Pompey)|
|Predecessor||Cleopatra Selene of Syria and Seleucus VII Kybiosaktes|
|Successor||Philip II Philoromaeus|
|Father||Antiochus X Eusebes|
|Mother||Cleopatra Selene of Syria|
Antiochus XIII Philadelphus, known as Asiaticus, was the penultimate ruler of the Seleucid kingdom.
He was son of king Antiochus X Eusebes and the Ptolemaic princess Cleopatra Selene of Syria, who acted as regent for Antiochus XIII after his father's death sometime between 92 and 85 BC. Some time after Tigranes had conquered Syria (83 BC), she traveled to Rome to have her sons recognized as kings of Egypt, but to no avail. However, between 75 BC and 73 BC, they were recognized as "Kings of Syria", and "maintained a royal state". Selene was eventually captured and killed by Tigranes. However, after the latter's defeat by Lucius Licinius Lucullus at the Battle of Tigranocerta, the residents of Antioch hailed Antiochus XIII as king, and Lucullus approved his appointment as client ruler of Syria (69 BC).
In 64 BC, Pompey had him deposed and killed by a Syrian chieftain, Sampsiceramus I. Antiochus' death is traditionally said to have ended the Seleucid dynasty, but he was survived by Philip II Philoromaeus for a short time and Seleucus VII Philometor until 58 BC if the latter is identified with same prince who briefly married Berenice IV of Egypt.