An antiseptic (from Greek ἀντί anti, "against"[1] and σηπτικός sēptikos, "putrefactive"[2]) is an antimicrobial substance or compound that is applied to living tissue/skin to reduce the possibility of infection, sepsis, or putrefaction. Antiseptics are generally distinguished from antibiotics by the latter's ability to safely destroy bacteria within the body, and from disinfectants, which destroy microorganisms found on non-living objects.[3]

Antibacterials include antiseptics that have the proven ability to act against bacteria. Microbicides which destroy virus particles are called viricides or antivirals. Antifungals, also known as antimycotics, are pharmaceutical fungicides used to treat and prevent mycosis (fungal infection).[citation needed]

Surgery

Joseph Lister

The widespread introduction of antiseptic surgical methods was initiated by the publishing of the paper Antiseptic Principle of the Practice of Surgery in 1867 by Joseph Lister, which was inspired by Louis Pasteur's germ theory of putrefaction.[4][5] In this paper, Lister advocated the use of carbolic acid (phenol) as a method of ensuring that any germs present were killed. Some of this work was anticipated by:

Some common antiseptics

Structure of povidone-iodine complex, the most common antiseptic in use today.
Structure of povidone-iodine complex, the most common antiseptic in use today.

Antiseptics can be subdivided into about eight classes of materials. These classes can be subdivided according to their mechanism of action: small molecules that indiscriminately react with organic compounds and kill microorganisms (peroxides, iodine, phenols) and more complex molecules that disrupt the cell walls of the bacteria.[9]

See also

References

  1. ^ Liddell, Henry George; Scott, Robert. "ἀντί". A Greek-English Lexicon. Perseus perseus.tufts.edu. Archived from the original on 10 October 2012.
  2. ^ Liddell, Henry George; Scott, Robert. "σηπτικός". A Greek-English Lexicon. Perseus perseus.tufts.edu. Archived from the original on 10 October 2012.
  3. ^ McDonnell, Gerald; Russell, A. Denver (January 1999). "Antiseptics and Disinfectants: Activity, Action, and Resistance". Clinical Microbiology Reviews. 12 (1): 147–79. doi:10.1128/CMR.12.1.147. PMC 88911. PMID 9880479.
  4. ^ Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Antiseptics" . Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. 2 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 146.
  5. ^ Bashford, Henry (April 1951). "The Coming of Antisepsis". History Today. 1 (4): 37–41.
  6. ^ Eming SA, Krieg T, Davidson JM (2007). "Inflammation in wound repair: molecular and cellular mechanisms". J. Invest. Dermatol. 127 (3): 514–25. doi:10.1038/sj.jid.5700701. PMID 17299434.
  7. ^ Edwards H (1976). "Theodoric of Cervia, a medieval antiseptic surgeon". Proceedings of the Royal Society. 69 (3): 553–5. PMC 1864551. PMID 790395.
  8. ^ Best M, Neuhauser D (2004). "Ignaz Semmelweis and the birth of infection control". Qual Saf Health Care. 13 (3): 233–4. doi:10.1136/qhc.13.3.233. PMC 1743827. PMID 15175497.
  9. ^ Kutscher, Bernhard (2020). "Dermatologicals (D), 4. Antiseptics and Disinfectants (D08), Anti‐Acne Preparations (D10), and Other Dermatological Preparations (D11)". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. pp. 1–22. doi:10.1002/14356007.w08_w03.
  10. ^ Wade, Ryckie G.; Burr, Nicholas E.; McCauley, Gordon; Bourke, Grainne; Efthimiou, Orestis (1 September 2020). "The Comparative Efficacy of Chlorhexidine Gluconate and Povidone-iodine Antiseptics for the Prevention of Infection in Clean Surgery: A Systematic Review and Network Meta-analysis". Annals of Surgery. Publish Ahead of Print (6): e481–e488. doi:10.1097/SLA.0000000000004076. PMID 32773627.
  11. ^ Wade, Ryckie G; Bourke, Gráinne; Wormald, Justin C R; Totty, Joshua Philip; Stanley, Guy Henry Morton; Lewandowski, Andrew; Rakhra, Sandeep Singh; Gardiner, Matthew D; Bindra, R; Sher, M; Thomas, M; Morgan, S D J; Hwang, B; Santucci, W; Tran, P; Kopp, L; Kunc, V; Hamdi, A; Grieve, P P; Mukhaizeem, S A; Blake, K; Cuggy, C; Dolan, R; Downes, E; Geary, E; Ghadge, A; Gorman, P; Jonson, M; Jumper, N; Kelly, S; Leddy, L; McMahon, M E; McNamee, C; Miller, P; Murphy, B; O'Halloran, L; O'Shea, K; Skeens, J; Staunton, S; Timon, F; Woods, J; Cortinovis, U; Sala, L; Zingarello, V; Jusoh, M H; Sadagatullah, A N; Georgieva, G; Pejkova, S; Nikolovska, B; Srbov, B; Hamid, H K S; Mustafa, M; Abdelrahman, M; Amin, S M M; Bhatti, D; Rahman, K M A; Jumabhoy, I; Kiely, J; Kieran, I; Lo, A C Q; Wong, K Y; Allan, A Y; Armes, H; Horwitz, M D; Ioannidi, L; Masterton, G; Chu, H; Talawadekar, G D; Tong, K S; Chan, M; Tredgett, M; Hardie, C; Powell-Smith, E; Gilham, N; Prokopenko, M; Ahmad, R; Davies, J; Zhen, S; Dargan, D; Pinder, R M; Koziara, M; Martin, R; Reay, E; Cochrane, E; Elbatawy, A; Green, F; Griffiths, T; Higginbotham, G; Louette, S; McCauley, G; Natalwala, I; Salt, E; Ahmed, R; Goon, P; Manton, R; Segaren, N; Cheung, G; Mahoney, R; Sen, S; Clarkson, D; Collins, M; Bolt, A; Lokanathan, P; Ng, A; Jones, G; Jones, J W M; Kabariti, R; Rhee, S J; Herron, J; Kay, A; Cheung, L K; Thomson, D; Jugdey, R S; Yoon, H; L, Z; Southgate, J; Brennan, C; Kiani, S; Zabaglo, M; Haider, Z A; Poulter, R; Sheik-Ali, A; Watts, A; Jemec, B; Redgrave, N; Dupley, L; Greenhalgh, M; Vella, J; Harris, H; Robinson, A V; Dupre, S; Teelucksingh, S; Gargan, A; Hettiaratchy, S; Jain, A; Kwasnicki, R; Lee, A; Thakkar, M; Berwick, D; Ismail, N; Mahdi, M; Rodrigues, J; Liew, C; Saadya, A; Clarkson, M; Brady, C; Harrison, R; Rayner, A; Nolan, G; Phillips, B; Madhusudan, N (9 November 2021). "Chlorhexidine versus povidone–iodine skin antisepsis before upper limb surgery (CIPHUR): an international multicentre prospective cohort study". BJS Open. 5 (6): zrab117. doi:10.1093/bjsopen/zrab117. PMC 8677347. PMID 34915557.
  12. ^ Kaehn K (2010). "Polihexanide: a safe and highly effective biocide". Skin Pharmacol Physiol. 23 Suppl: 7–16. doi:10.1159/000318237. PMID 20829657. S2CID 684665.
  13. ^ Eberlein T, Assadian O (2010). "Clinical use of polihexanide on acute and chronic wounds for antisepsis and decontamination". Skin Pharmacol Physiol. 23 Suppl: 45–51. doi:10.1159/000318267. PMID 20829662.
  14. ^ Eberlein T, Haemmerle G, Signer M, et al. (January 2012). "Comparison of PHMB-containing dressing and silver dressings in patients with critically colonised or locally infected wounds". J Wound Care. 21 (1): 12, 14–6, 18–20. doi:10.12968/jowc.2012.21.1.12. PMID 22240928. Archived from the original on 18 June 2013.
  15. ^ Wilgus TA, Bergdall VK, Dipietro LA, Oberyszyn TM (2005). "Hydrogen peroxide disrupts scarless fetal wound repair". Wound Repair Regen. 13 (5): 513–9. doi:10.1111/j.1067-1927.2005.00072.x. PMID 16176460. S2CID 1028923.
  16. ^ Vermeulen, H.; Westerbos, S.J.; Ubbink, D.T. (2010). "Benefit and harm of iodine in wound care: a systematic review". Journal of Hospital Infection. 76 (3): 191–199. doi:10.1016/j.jhin.2010.04.026. ISSN 0195-6701. PMID 20619933.
  17. ^ "Antiseptics on Wounds: An Area of Controversy: Hydrogen Peroxide". Medscape.com. Archived from the original on 19 July 2013. Retrieved 4 March 2014.