Apollonius (Ancient Greek: Απολλώνιος) of Chalcedon was an ancient Greek Stoic[1][full citation needed] who taught philosophy. He was invited by the Roman emperor Antoninus Pius to come to Rome, for the purpose of instructing his adoptive sons Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus in philosophy.[2][3][4][5] Aurelius, within his Meditations, writes of Apollonius favourably.[6] Lucian writes of him:

When Apollonius was appointed professor of philosophy in the Imperial household, Demonax witnessed his departure, attended by a great number of his pupils. 'Why, here is Apollonius with all his Argonauts,' he cried.[7]

Apollonius was also possibly from Chalcis instead of Chalcedon, or, according to Cassius Dio, from Nicomedia.[8]


  1. ^ Footnotes from page 144 of the Meditations by Marcus Aurelius, trans. Robin Hard (2011).
  2. ^ Augustan History, Antoninus Pius 10; Lucius Verus 2.
  3. ^ M. Antonin. de Rebus suis, 1.8
  4. ^ Lucian, Demon. 31
  5. ^ Johann Albert Fabricius, Bibliotheca Graeca iii. p. 539
  6. ^ Marcus Aurelius, Meditations: I.8
  7. ^ Lucian, Demonax, 31
  8. ^ Cassius Dio, Roman History 71.35

 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainSchmitz, Leonhard (1870). "Apollonius". In Smith, William (ed.). Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology. 1. p. 238.