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Archduke Ludwig Salvator
Count of Neuendorf
Born(1847-08-04)4 August 1847
Florence, Tuscany
Died12 October 1915(1915-10-12) (aged 68)
Schloss Brandeis, Brandýs nad Labem-Stará Boleslav, Austria-Hungary
(Italian: Luigi Salvatore Maria Giuseppe Giovanni Battista Dominico Raineri Ferdinando Carlo Zenobio Antonino)
(German: Ludwig Salvator Maria Joseph Johann Baptist Dominicus Rainerius Ferdinand Carl Zenobius Antonin)
(English: Louis Salvator Mary Joseph John Baptist Dominic Rainer Ferdinand Charles Zenobius Anthony)
FatherLeopold II, Grand Duke of Tuscany
MotherPrincess Maria Antonia of the Two Sicilies

Archduke Ludwig Salvator of Austria (Italian: Luigi Salvatore Maria Giuseppe Giovanni Battista Dominico Raineri Ferdinando Carlo Zenobio Antonino, German: Ludwig Salvator Maria Joseph Johann Baptist Dominicus Rainerius Ferdinand Carl Zenobius Antonin) (Florence, 4 August 1847 – Schloss Brandeis, Brandýs nad Labem-Stará Boleslav, Austria-Hungary, 12 October 1915), was an Austrian archduke of the House of Habsburg who became known as a champion for Majorca's wildlife, in an era when the term "conservation" was not highly regarded.[citation needed] The Balearic Islands commemorated the centenary of the death of Archduke Ludwig Salvator during 2015.

Ludwig Salvator settled on Majorca, buying up unimproved areas of land in order to preserve and enjoy them. His main residence of Son Marroig, near the village of Deià, is now a museum. Much of what was his property now belongs to the American actor Michael Douglas, notably the Moorish style palace 'S'Estaca' that Ludwig converted from a ruined old manor house.

About 1895, at Přerov nad Labem, Bohemia, he founded the first open-air museum in Central and Eastern Europe.


Old Bohemian House in Přerov nad Labem, Czech Republic - the first open-air museum in Central and Eastern Europe (1895)

He wrote a book on insects at the age of 22 and also the nine-volume book Die Balearen (The Balearic Islands). Having visited Los Angeles, California, in the winter of 1876, he published in 1878 an account of his visit, Los Angeles in Südcalifornien. Eine Blume aus dem goldenen Lande.


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He was the second cousin of Emperor Franz Joseph, of the ruling House of Habsburg-Lorraine, the fourth son of Leopold II, Grand Duke of Tuscany. Ludwig went to Majorca under his title of Count of Neuendorf, arriving in 1867. Falling in love with the clear air, water and dazzling blue skies of Majorca it was to become his base and home for the remainder of his life.

The Nixe II.

He explored on his steam-yacht the Nixe. He was known for his extreme love of animals and nature.

Archduke Ludwig Salvator never married. When he was young, he fell in love with a cousin, Archduchess Mathilde, the daughter of the Duke of Teschen. Ludwig wanted to marry her, but she was promised to Prince Umberto of Savoy. On June 6, 1867, Mathilde, then only 18, was getting dressed to attend the theatre. She enjoyed smoking cigarettes, but when her father, who abhorred smoking appeared, she tried to hide the cigarette behind her. Her dress caught fire, and she died in front of her family, sustaining second and third-degree burns. Relationships with women included Catalina Homar. She convinced Ludwig to let her visit Jerusalem and it is believed that it was there that she contracted the leprosy that took her life in 1905.[citation needed]

When the First World War broke out, in 1914, the Emperor of Austria ordered Ludwig Salvator to leave Majorca, and in 1915, he died at the family castle of Brandeis-Altbunzlau, in Bohemia. He was buried in Vienna. In his will he designated Antonio Vives y Colom –his personal secretary, collaborator and trusted man, whom he met in Mallorca, and who accompanied him from 1872 until his death– and his children as his heirs.

Researcher and chronicler of the Mediterranean sea

It was of great importance to Ludwig Salvator to stimulate public interest in landscapes, which he thought were unjustifiably little known and rarely visited. His attention focused less on classical cultural centers, but on small, undiscovered regions, like Collection of costumes and type images of Serbs in the region on the Adriatic Sea between Rijeka and northern Albania by 45 plates with color lithographs based on watercolors Die Serben an der Adria (1870–1878), including the islands of Paxos and Antipaxos, Ithaca, Lefkada and Zakynthos in the Ionian Sea and the Aeolian Islands in the north of Sicily, the islands of Giglio, Ustica and Alboran, and especially the then largely unknown Balearic Islands of Mallorca, Menorca, Eivissa (Ibiza) and Formentera.[citation needed] In 1869, there appeared the first volume, dedicated to Emperor Franz Joseph, of his massive Die Balearen. In Wort und Bild geschildert (The Balearic Islands, portrayed in words and images); the total work encompasses seven separate volumes extending to approximately 6000 pages. For their first two volumes he was awarded the gold medal of the Paris World Exhibition of 1878. This monograph contains descriptions of animals, plants, meteorology, history, folklore, architecture, landscape descriptions and also detailed descriptions of the population, their customs, songs and poems. In 1897 there was published a two-volume popular edition with the same title that contained the main illustrations and texts. It is located on loan from the Österreichische Geographische Gesellschaft (Austrian Geographical Society) in the National Archives of Austria.[1]

Honours and arms

Styles of
Archduke Ludwig Salvator
Reference styleHis Imperial and Royal Highness
Spoken styleYour Imperial and Royal Highness


  1. ^ Bibliothek Archived February 3, 2015, at the Wayback Machine consulted on 26 September 2010
  2. ^ a b c Hof- und Staatshandbuch der Österreichisch-Ungarischen Monarchie (1915), Genealogy p. 6

Media related to Archduke Ludwig Salvator of Austria at Wikimedia Commons