Article One
Articolo Uno
SecretaryRoberto Speranza
CoordinatorArturo Scotto
Founded25 February 2017
Split fromDemocratic Party
HeadquartersVia Zanardelli 34, Rome
Youth wingYouth Movement of the Left
IdeologySocial democracy[1][2]
Democratic socialism[3]
Political positionCentre-left[4][5] to left-wing[6][7]
National affiliationFree and Equal (2018–present)
Centre-left coalition
(2019–present)
Democratic and Progressive Italy
(2022–present)
European Parliament groupProgressive Alliance of Socialists and Democrats
Colours  Red   Green
Chamber of Deputies
7 / 630
Senate
1 / 315
European Parliament[a]
0 / 76
Regional Councils
3 / 897
Website
articolo1mdp.it Edit this at Wikidata

Article One (Italian: Articolo Uno, Art.1), officially Article 1 – Democratic and Progressive Movement (Articolo 1 – Movimento Democratico e Progressista, Art.1–MDP),[8][9] is a social-democratic political party in Italy.

Art.1 was formed in February 2017 by a left-wing split from the Democratic Party (PD)[10][11][12][13] and soon joined by a group of splinters from Italian Left (SI). The party is led by its secretary Roberto Speranza. Among its leading members are former Prime Minister Massimo D'Alema, former PD secretaries Pier Luigi Bersani and Guglielmo Epifani, and Arturo Scotto. Enrico Rossi, then President of Tuscany, was among the founding members, before returning into the PD one year later. In December 2017, Art.1 was a founding member of Free and Equal (LeU), a left-wing joint list for the 2018 general election.

Most of the party's members were formerly affiliated to the Democrats of the Left (DS). The name refers to article 1 of the Italian Constitution that defines Italy as "a democratic republic based on labour" and affirms popular sovereignty.[11]

Art.1 leader Speranza has been Minister of Health since 2019, both in the Conte II Cabinet and the Draghi Cabinet.

History

Background

Following the 2013 leadership election of the Democratic Party (PD), in which Matteo Renzi, a centrist, was elected secretary, an internal struggle arose within the party between Renzi's large majority (composed of Renziani, assorted centrists and moderate social democrats) and the left-wing factions, which were very critical of Renzi, his government (2014–2016) and his proposed constitutional reform, which would eventually be voted down in a constitutional referendum in December 2016.

After the splits of Possible (Pos) and Future to the Left (FaS), the standard-bearers of the PD's internal left were Enrico Rossi (leader of the Democratic Socialists faction and President of Tuscany) and Roberto Speranza (leader of Reformist Area and former PD leader in the Chamber of Deputies). These were backed by former DS or PD leaders Massimo D'Alema, Pier Luigi Bersani and Guglielmo Epifani. Rossi and Speranza criticised Renzi on many of his policies and they were joined by Michele Emiliano, President of Apulia.[14][15] In February 2017 Renzi resigned from secretary, triggering a new leadership election in a couple of months' time. This was not enough for the dissidents, who wanted a lengthier internal debate and a leadership election after the summer, while supporting Paolo Gentiloni's government and opposing an early general election.[15][16]

At the same time, at the left of the PD, Left Ecology Freedom (SEL) was in the process of merging into the Italian Left (SI), along with minor parties and associations (notably including FaS). A group of SI dissidents, led by Arturo Scotto (once a member of the DS too) and Massimiliano Smeriglio (who, like most SI members, hailed from the Communist Refoundation Party, PRC), were interested in joining the Progressive Camp (CP), a would-be and never established political party launched by Giuliano Pisapia,[17][18] but they finally decided to join with the PD splinters.[19][20][21]

Foundation

The new party was launched on 25 February 2017 during a convention in Rome. In that occasion, those who left the PD included Vasco Errani,[22] former President of Emilia-Romagna, and deputy minister of the Interior Filippo Bubbico,[23] while Emiliano decided to challenge Renzi in the party's "primaries" instead.[24][25]

Subsequently, 24 deputies and 14 senators left the PD and formed autonomous parliamentary groups both in the Chamber and the Senate. They were joined by 17 deputies and one senator from SI, two deputies from the Mixed Group, one from Civics and Innovators, and one senator from the For the Autonomies group; among these, one deputy and two senators were former members of the Five Star Movement. The groups elected Francesco Laforgia and Maria Cecilia Guerra as leaders, respectively.[26][27][28] Deputies and senators were followed by three members of the European Parliament: Antonio Panzeri, Massimo Paolucci and Flavio Zanonato.[29]

In October MDP's only member of the government (Bubbico) resigned,[30] and the party stopped supporting the Gentiloni Cabinet.

Free and Equal

On 3 December 2017 the MDP was a founding member, along with SI and POS, of Free and Equal (LeU), the left-wing joint list for the 2018 general election, which chose the President of the Senate and former anti-Mafia prosecutor Pietro Grasso as its leader and candidate for Prime Minister.[31]

In the election LeU won 3.4% of the vote, obtaining 14 deputies and four senators. Among these, the MDP had seven deputies (Speranza, Bersani, Epifani, Federico Conte, Federico Fornaro, Michela Rostan and Nico Stumpo) and two senators (Errani and Laforgia). Fornaro was elected president of LeU's parliamentary group in the Chamber.

In November 2018 the MDP, which was focused on forming a brand-new "red-green" party,[32][33] de facto abandoned LeU.[34]

In April 2019 the MDP became a full-fledged party,[35] welcoming new members, notably including David Tozzo from Possible, and being renamed simply as Article One. Additionally, after Nicola Zingaretti's victory in the 2019 Democratic leadership election, a rapprochement started between the two parties. In the run-up to the 2019 European Parliament election Article One formed a joint list with the PD,[36] which included some minor groups.

Government participation

In August 2019 tensions grew within the coalition supporting the Giuseppe Conte's first government, leading to the issuing of a motion of no-confidence by the League.[37] During the following government crisis, the national board of the PD officially opened to the possibility of forming a new cabinet in a coalition with the M5S,[38] based on pro-Europeanism, green economy, sustainable development, fight against economic inequality and a new immigration policy.[39] The party also accepted that Conte might continue at the head of a new government,[40] and on 29 August President Mattarella formally invested Conte to do so.[41] The LeU groups had previously already announced their possible support to Conte's second government,[42] which was finally unveiled in September with the appointment of Speranza as Minister of Health.[43]

Following the collapse of Conte's second government on 18 January 2021, and the resulting 2021 Italian government crisis, LeU joined the national unity government of Mario Draghi, with Speranza continuing in his post as Minister of Health.

On 31 December 2021, during an online event reserved to Art.1 party executives, Massimo D'Alema explained that the party would start discussions aimed to the dissolution of Art.1 back into the Democratic Party.[44]

Election results

Italian Parliament

Chamber of Deputies
Election year Votes % Seats +/− Leader
2018 into LeU 3.4
8 / 630
Senate of the Republic
Election year Votes % Seats +/− Leader
2018 into LeU 3.3
2 / 315

European Parliament

European Parliament
Election year Votes % Seats +/− Leader
2019 into PD
0 / 76

Regional Councils

Region Election year Votes % Seats +/−
Emilia-Romagna 2020 into ERC
2 / 50
Umbria 2019 6,727 (9th)[b] 1.6
0 / 21
Abruzzo 2019 16,614 (9th)[c] 2.8
0 / 31
Basilicata 2019 12,908 (7th) 4.5
0 / 21
Sicily 2017 100,583 (9th)[d] 5.2
1 / 70
  1. ^ Marc Tarabella, a party member, was elected in Belgium.
  2. ^ As Green Civic Left with PRC.
  3. ^ As Progressives–Free and Equal.
  4. ^ In a joint list with Italian Left.

Leadership

Symbols

References

  1. ^ Pascale, Alessandro (20 May 2017). "La (confusa) linea internazionale di Articolo 1 – MdP". la Città Futura (in Italian). Archived from the original on 17 August 2018.
  2. ^ Guerzoni, Monica (22 March 2017). "Articolo 1- Mdp presenta il simbolo:"I nostri fari? Democrazia e lavoro"". il Corriere della Sera (in Italian).
  3. ^ Parties and Elections in Europe. 2021. p. 306.
  4. ^ Schianchi, Francesca (25 February 2017). "Nasce "Articolo 1 - Democratici e progressisti": "Non ci facciamo mettere sulla ridotta"". la Stampa (in Italian).
  5. ^ Cristiano, Domenico (25 February 2017). "Nasce Articolo 1 – Movimento democratici e progressisti". LineaPress (in Italian).
  6. ^ Rizzini, Marianna (29 November 2017). "Nella caccia al dicembre rosso manca persino il nome "sinistra"". Il Foglio (in Italian).
  7. ^ "Com'è messa la sinistra fuori dal PD". Il Post (in Italian). 17 June 2017.
  8. ^ "MDP Statute" (PDF). Gazzetta Ufficiale (in Italian). 14 December 2017.
  9. ^ https://articolo1mdp.it/assets/uploads/2019/04/Effettivo-Statuto-votato-in-assemblea-6-7-aprile-2019.pdf[bare URL PDF]
  10. ^ "Nasce Articolo 1- Movimento democratici progressisti. Speranza: "Lavoro e giovani prima di tutto"". la Repubblica (in Italian). 25 February 2017.
  11. ^ a b Stefanoni, Franco (25 February 2017). "Ecco il nome degli ex Pd: Articolo 1 Movimento dei democratici e progressisti". Corriere della Sera (in Italian).
  12. ^ Gagliardi, Andrea (25 February 2017). ""Democratici e progressisti" il nuovo nome degli ex Pd. Speranza: lavoro è nostra priorità". Il Sole 24 Ore (in Italian).
  13. ^ Binelli, Raffaello (25 February 2017). "Nasce il Movimento democratici e progressisti". Il Giornale (in Italian).
  14. ^ "La contro-assemblea di Emiliano, Rossi e Speranza: "Insieme sabato a Roma". La minoranza andrà da Renzi domenica". Huffington Post (in Italian). 15 February 2017.
  15. ^ a b Ciriaco, Tommaso; Casadio, Giovanna; Gagliardi, Giovanni (18 February 2017). "Pd, la minoranza sfida Renzi. Guerini ribatte: "Ultimatum non ricevibili"". la Repubblica (in Italian).
  16. ^ Casalini, Simona; Rubino, Monica (21 February 2017). "Emiliano resta nel Pd e si candida segretario. Renzi: "Addii dolorosi, ma andiamo avanti"". la Repubblica (in Italian).
  17. ^ Corda, Nicola (12 February 2017). "Arturo Scotto lascia Sinistra italiana e pensa ai gruppi parlamentari di Giuliano Pisapia". Huffington Post (in Italian).
  18. ^ "Sinistra Italiana batte ogni record: scissione prima della nascita". neXt Quotidiano (in Italian). 11 February 2017.
  19. ^ "Nasce Articolo 1- Movimento democratici progressisti. Speranza: "Lavoro e giovani prima di tutto"". la Repubblica (in Italian). 25 February 2017.
  20. ^ "Ex Pd, nasce 'Democratici e Progressisti'. Speranza: "Alleati se vince Orlando? Congresso dem solo gioco di figurine"". il Fatto Quotidiano (in Italian). 25 February 2017.
  21. ^ "Mdp Pisapia, l'ora dell'addio – la Repubblica". MassimilianoSmeriglio.it (in Italian). 9 October 2017. Archived from the original on 19 February 2019.
  22. ^ "Vasco Errani spiega l'addio al Pd: "Detesto la deriva di questo partito"". Corriere di Bologna (in Italian). 25 February 2017.
  23. ^ Adriano, Franco (23 February 2017). "Pd, Orlando: mi candido. Violante lo appoggia. Bubbico e Errani via con Bersani". Italia Oggi (in Italian).
  24. ^ "Emiliano resta nel Pd: "Mi candido alla segreteria. Questa è casa mia, nessuno può cacciarmi"". La Stampa (in Italian). 22 February 2017.
  25. ^ Casalini, Simona; Rubino, Monica (21 February 2017). "Emiliano resta nel Pd e si candida segretario. Renzi: "Addii dolorosi, ma andiamo avanti"". la Repubblica (in Italian).
  26. ^ "I Democratici e progressisti nascono in Parlamento: 37 alla Camera e 14 al Senato, capigruppo Laforgia e Guerra". il Fatto Quotidiano (in Italian). 28 February 2017.
  27. ^ "XVII Legislatura - Deputati e Organi Parlamentari - Composizione gruppi Parlamentari". Camera dei deputati (in Italian).
  28. ^ "Composizione del Gruppo Articolo 1 - Movimento democratico e progressista". Senato della Repubblica (in Italian).
  29. ^ "Zanonato-Panzeri-Paolucci, addio al Pd al Parlamento Ue". ANSA Europa (in Italian). 2 March 2017.
  30. ^ "Mdp non vota la relazione al Def, Bubbico si dimette". ANSA (in Italian). 3 October 2017.
  31. ^ "Liberi e uguali, Grasso: 'Ecco la nuova sinistra'". ANSA (in Italian). 3 December 2017.
  32. ^ "Una forza rosso-verde per garantire l'alternativa alla nuova destra". Articolo 1-MDP (in Italian). 10 November 2018.
  33. ^ "MDP si fa rosso-verde, il 16 dicembre a Roma". Il manifesto (in Italian). 11 November 2018.
  34. ^ "Mdp esce da Liberi e Uguali. Le scissioni, la sinistra e la meccanica quantistica". Il Sole 24 Ore (in Italian). 14 November 2018.
  35. ^ ""Da oggi siamo partito. In cammino per costruire l'alternativa", Speranza conclude l'assemblea di Articolo Uno". L'HuffPost (in Italian). 7 April 2019.
  36. ^ Casadio, Giovanna (2 April 2019). "Pd, più vicina l'intesa con Mdp. Speranza: "Mi ha chiamato Timmermans, chiede di stare insieme"". la Repubblica (in Italian).
  37. ^ Horowitz, Jason (20 August 2019). "Italy's Government Collapses, Turning Chaos Into Crisis". The New York Times.
  38. ^ Giuffrida, Angela (20 August 2019). "Italian PM resigns with attack on 'opportunist' Salvini". The Guardian.
  39. ^ "Governo, Zingaretti: "I 5 punti per trattare con il M5S. No accordicchi, governo di svolta"". la Repubblica (in Italian). 21 August 2019.
  40. ^ "Conte wins crucial support for new Italian govt coalition". The Washington Post. 28 August 2019. Archived from the original on 28 August 2019.
  41. ^ "Il Presidente Mattarella ha conferito l'incarico al Prof. Conte di formare il Governo". quirinale.it (in Italian). Retrieved 29 August 2019.
  42. ^ "Grasso, possibile intesa M5s-Pd-Leu - Ultima Ora". Agenzia ANSA (in Italian). 19 August 2019.
  43. ^ "Roberto Speranza nuovo ministro della salute". Adnkronos (in Italian). 4 September 2019.
  44. ^ "D'Alema vuole che Articolo Uno torni dentro il PD". Il Post (in Italian). 2 January 2022. Retrieved 2 January 2022.