Artush
阿图什市 (Chinese)
ئاتۇش شەھىرى (Uyghur)
ارتىش شاارى (Kyrgyz)
Artux, Atush
Tomb of Sultan Satuk Bughra Khan
Artush is located in Southern Xinjiang
Artush
Artush
Location in Xinjiang
Artush is located in Xinjiang
Artush
Artush
Artush (Xinjiang)
Artush is located in China
Artush
Artush
Artush (China)
Coordinates (Artush municipal government): 39°42′58″N 76°10′06″E / 39.7162°N 76.1684°E / 39.7162; 76.1684
CountryChina
Autonomous regionXinjiang
Autonomous prefectureKizilsu
Municipal seatGuangming Road Subdistrict
Area
 • Total15,697.78 km2 (6,060.95 sq mi)
Population
 (2020)[2]
 • Total290,936
 • Density19/km2 (48/sq mi)
Demographics
 • Major ethnic groups
Time zoneUTC+8 (China Standard[a])
Websitewww.xjats.gov.cn (in Chinese)
Artush
Chinese name
Simplified Chinese阿图什
Traditional Chinese阿圖什
Uyghur name
Uyghurئاتۇش
Kyrgyz name
Kyrgyzارتىش
Артыш
Artysh

Artush[3][4] (/ɑːrˈtʊʃ/ ar-TUUSH; also transliterated as Artux[5] or Atush[6]) is a county-level city and the capital of Kizilsu Kyrgyz Autonomous Prefecture in Xinjiang, China. The government seat is in Guangming Road Subdistrict.[7] As of 2018, it has a population of 285,507 people, 81.4 per cent of whom are Uyghurs.[8]

History

[edit]
Shipton's Arch
Artush-man skull, dated 10,000 BP, excavated in Arghu village, Artush

In January 1943, Artush County was established.[1][9]

In June 1986, Artush County became Artush City.[1][9]

In 2018, the dome of Eshtachi Mosque (39°41′33.46″N 76°7′25.88″E / 39.6926278°N 76.1238556°E / 39.6926278; 76.1238556) was removed.[3][4] In recent times other mosques have been taken down too.

At 10:23 pm on January 19, 2020, a 5.2 magnitude earthquake struck in Artush.[5]

Geography and climate

[edit]

It is situated in the northwest part of the Tarim Basin, south of the Tien Shan mountains. Like most of Xinjiang, Artush has a cool arid climate (Köppen BWk) with hot summers, freezing winters and little precipitation and low humidity year-round. The annual mean temperature is 13.1 °C (55.6 °F) and the annual mean precipitation around 95 millimetres or 3.74 inches. Most of this limited precipitation falls from erratic thunderstorms in the summer months, although at this time relative humidity averages less than 35 percent.

Climate data for Artush, elevation 1,268 m (4,160 ft), (1991–2020 normals, extremes 1981–2010)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 19.0
(66.2)
18.6
(65.5)
28.4
(83.1)
34.9
(94.8)
36.0
(96.8)
39.5
(103.1)
41.0
(105.8)
41.8
(107.2)
37.0
(98.6)
30.9
(87.6)
25.1
(77.2)
18.9
(66.0)
41.8
(107.2)
Mean daily maximum °C (°F) 0.0
(32.0)
6.0
(42.8)
15.2
(59.4)
23.3
(73.9)
27.8
(82.0)
31.7
(89.1)
33.5
(92.3)
32.2
(90.0)
27.7
(81.9)
20.5
(68.9)
11.1
(52.0)
2.0
(35.6)
19.2
(66.7)
Daily mean °C (°F) −5.0
(23.0)
0.8
(33.4)
9.7
(49.5)
17.2
(63.0)
21.6
(70.9)
25.3
(77.5)
27.1
(80.8)
25.9
(78.6)
21.3
(70.3)
13.9
(57.0)
5.1
(41.2)
−2.7
(27.1)
13.4
(56.0)
Mean daily minimum °C (°F) −9.0
(15.8)
−3.9
(25.0)
4.4
(39.9)
11.5
(52.7)
15.8
(60.4)
19.3
(66.7)
21.0
(69.8)
19.8
(67.6)
15.3
(59.5)
7.9
(46.2)
0.1
(32.2)
−6.3
(20.7)
8.0
(46.4)
Record low °C (°F) −20.5
(−4.9)
−20.7
(−5.3)
−7.9
(17.8)
−0.1
(31.8)
4.1
(39.4)
8.1
(46.6)
11.4
(52.5)
11.5
(52.7)
6.5
(43.7)
−2.2
(28.0)
−12.6
(9.3)
−19.9
(−3.8)
−20.7
(−5.3)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 3.3
(0.13)
8.2
(0.32)
6.8
(0.27)
6.0
(0.24)
15.8
(0.62)
14.8
(0.58)
14.5
(0.57)
15.5
(0.61)
10.9
(0.43)
5.8
(0.23)
3.1
(0.12)
3.6
(0.14)
108.3
(4.26)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 2.2 2.3 1.9 2.0 4.1 5.5 5.6 4.7 3.9 1.3 0.7 2.2 36.4
Average snowy days 6.2 3.9 1.0 0.1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1.0 5.5 17.7
Average relative humidity (%) 63 51 37 29 31 31 33 37 40 43 52 65 43
Mean monthly sunshine hours 147.7 154.2 175.4 210.1 261.9 293.1 307.3 283.3 240.7 227.9 181.4 135.3 2,618.3
Percent possible sunshine 49 50 47 52 59 66 68 68 66 67 62 47 58
Source: China Meteorological Administration[10][11]

Administrative divisions

[edit]

Artush includes three subdistricts, one town, six townships and one other area:[12][1][13]

Name Simplified Chinese Hanyu Pinyin Uyghur (UEY) Uyghur Latin (ULY) Kyrgyz (Arabic script) Kyrgyz (Cyrillic script) Administrative division code
Subdistricts
Xingfu Road Subdistrict
(Bext Road Subdistrict)
幸福路街道 Xìngfúlù Jiēdào بەخت يولى كوچا باشقارمىسى bext yoli kocha bashqarmisi باقىت جولۇ كۅچۅ باشقارماسى Бакыт жолу көчө башкармасы 653001001
Guangming Road Subdistrict
(Nurluq Road Subdistrict)
光明路街道 Guāngmínglù Jiēdào نۇرلۇق يولى كوچا باشقارمىسى nurluq yoli kocha bashqarmisi نۇرلۇق جولۇ كۅچۅ باشقارماسى Нурлук жолу көчө башкармасы 653001002
Xincheng Subdistrict 新城街道 Xīnchéng Jiēdào يېڭى شەھەر كوچا باشقارمىسى yëngi sheher kocha bashqarmisi جاڭى شاار كۅچۅ باشقارماسى Жаңы шаар көчө башкармасы 653001003
Towns
Ustun Atush Town
(Shang'atushi[14])
上阿图什镇 Shàng'ātúshí Zhèn ئۈستۈن ئاتۇش بازىرى Üstün Atush baziri جوعورقۇ ارتىش شاارچاسى Жогорку Артыш шаарчасы 653001100
Süntag Town[14] 松他克镇 Sōngtākè Zhèn سۇنتاغ بازىرى suntagh baziri سۇنتاق شاارچاسى Сунтак шаарчасы 653001101
Azak Town 阿扎克镇 Āzhākè Zhèn ئازاق بازىرى Azaq baziri 653001102
Townships
Agu Township[14] 阿湖乡 Āhú Xiāng ئاغۇ يېزىسى Aghu yëzisi 653001102
Katyaylak Township[14] 格达良乡 Gédáliáng Xiāng كاتتايلاق يېزىسى kattaylaq yëzisi كەتتئيلئك ايىلى Кеттийлек айылы 653001104
Karajül Township[15]
(Karajol Township[14])
哈拉峻乡[16] Hālājùn Xiāng قاراجول يېزىسى qarajol yëzisi قاراجۉل ايىلى Кара-Жүл айылы 653001105
Tugurmiti Township 吐古买提乡 Tǔgǔmǎití Xiāng تۈگۈرمىتى يېزىسى tügürmiti yëzisi تەگىرمەتى ايىلى Тегирмети айылы 653001106

Other:

Economy

[edit]

Artush's economy is primarily agriculture, the agricultural products are mainly cotton, grapes, and sheep.

Industries in Artush include salt-making, cotton-ginning, food processing and cooking oil processing. Agricultural products include wheat, corn, sorghum, sesame, rice and others, and the local specialty is the common fig. Sheep are the main livestock in Artush.[9]

The Artush City Vocational Skills Education Training Service Center in Artush has served as one of the Xinjiang re-education camps.[17]

Demographics

[edit]
Historical population
YearPop.±% p.a.
2000 200,345—    
2010 240,368+1.84%
2015 269,317+2.30%
2018 285,507+1.96%
Sources:[1][18][8]

As of 1997, 81.5% of the population of Artush was Uyghur.[19]

As of 1999, 79.68 per cent of the population of Artush were Uyghur and 7.21 per cent of the population were Han Chinese.[20]

As of 2015, 216,651 (80.44%) of the 269,317 residents of Artush were Uyghurs, 30,174 (11.20%) were Kyrgyz, 21,754 (8.08%) were Han Chinese and 738 were from other ethnic groups.[18]

As of 2018, the population of Artush was 285,507.

Ethnic composition of Artush City, 2018
Nationality Percentage
Uyghurs
81.4%
Kyrgyz
11.0%
Han
7.3%
Hui
0.1%
Others
0.2%
Source:[8]

Transportation

[edit]

Artush is served by the Southern Xinjiang Railway.[9]

Notable people

[edit]

Historical maps

[edit]

Historical English-language maps including Artush:

Notes

[edit]
  1. ^ Locals in Xinjiang frequently observe UTC+6 (Xinjiang Time), 2 hours behind Beijing.
  2. ^ From map: "DELINEATION OF INTERNATIONAL BOUNDARIES MUST NOT BE CONSIDERED AUTHORITATIVE"
  3. ^ From map: "The representation of international boundaries is not necessarily authoritative."
  4. ^ From map: "The representation of international boundaries is not necessarily authoritative"

References

[edit]
  1. ^ a b c d e 阿图什市历史沿革 [Artux City Historical Development] (in Simplified Chinese). XZQH.org. 29 January 2015. Retrieved 6 August 2020. 2000年第五次人口普查,阿图什市常住总人口200345人,{...}2003年,全市总面积15697.78平方千米,{...}2010年第六次人口普查,阿图什市常住总人口240368人,其中:幸福路街道21786人,光明路街道36316人,松他克乡36849人,阿扎克乡38574人,阿湖乡16189人,上阿图什乡45847人,格达良乡16248人,哈拉峻乡15931人,吐古买提乡9009人,兵团农三师红旗农场3619人。
  2. ^ Xinjiang: Prefectures, Cities, Districts and Counties
  3. ^ a b Fred Hiatt (3 November 2019). "In China, every day is Kristallnacht". The Washington Post. Retrieved 10 August 2020. The dome of a Uighur mosque in Artush, Xinjiang, was removed in 2018.
  4. ^ a b Asim Kashgarian (1 December 2019). "US: China Targets Uighur Mosques to Eradicate Minority's Faith". Voice of America. Retrieved 11 August 2020. Artush Eshtachi Grand Mosque is seen in Artush, in China's northwest Xinjiang province.
    10/8/2016 9/8/2018
    39°41′33.46″N 76°7′25.88″E
    Satellite imagery with a comparative analysis of Artush Eshtachi Mosque.
  5. ^ a b Mu Xuequan, ed. (19 January 2020). "5.2-magnitude quake hits Xinjiang: CENC". Xinhua News Agency. Archived from the original on September 29, 2021. Retrieved 6 August 2020. the city of Artux in Kizilsu Kirgiz Autonomous Prefecture in northwest China's Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region
  6. ^ "Atush Roads Fenced Off, Residents Confined to Homes, as Xinjiang Stares Down Virus Advance". Radio Free Asia. Retrieved 2023-09-17.
  7. ^ 阿图什市概况. xzqh.org. 2015-01-29. Retrieved 2019-09-30.
  8. ^ a b c 3-7 各地、州、市、县(市)分民族人口数 [3-7 Population by Nationality by Prefecture, State, City and County (City)]. tjj.xinjiang.gov.cn (in Chinese). Statistical Bureau of Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region. 2020-06-10. Archived from the original on 2020-11-01. Retrieved 2021-06-11.
  9. ^ a b c d Xia Zhengyi 夏征农; Chen Zhili 陈至立, eds. (September 2009). 辞海:第六版彩图本 [Cihai (Sixth Edition in Color)] (in Chinese). Shanghai: Shanghai Lexicographical Publishing House. p. 0017. ISBN 9787532628599.
  10. ^ 中国气象数据网 – WeatherBk Data (in Simplified Chinese). China Meteorological Administration. Retrieved 10 October 2023.
  11. ^ "Experience Template" 中国气象数据网 (in Simplified Chinese). China Meteorological Administration. Retrieved 10 October 2023.
  12. ^ 2019年统计用区划代码和城乡划分代码:阿图什市 [2019 Statistical Area Numbers and Rural-Urban Area Numbers: Artux City] (in Simplified Chinese). National Bureau of Statistics of the People's Republic of China. 2019. Retrieved 5 August 2020. 统计用区划代码 名称 653001001000 幸福路街道 653001002000 光明路街道 653001003000 新城街道 653001100000 上阿图什镇 653001200000 松他克乡 653001201000 阿扎克乡 653001202000 阿湖乡 653001204000 格达良乡 653001205000 哈拉峻乡 653001206000 吐古买提乡 653001500000 兵团农三师红旗农场
  13. ^ 阿图什市行政区划 (in Simplified Chinese). Artux People's Government. 12 June 2019. Archived from the original on 24 November 2021. Retrieved 6 August 2020. 阿图什市于1986年经国务院批准撤县设市,辖7乡、3场、2个街道办事处
  14. ^ a b c d e Xie Yuzhong 解玉忠 (2003). 地名中的新疆 (in Simplified Chinese). Ürümqi: 新疆人民出版社. pp. 189–190. ISBN 7-228-08004-1.
  15. ^ Karajül (Approved - N) at GEOnet Names Server, United States National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency
  16. ^ 生物景观类 (in Simplified Chinese). Artush People's Government. 12 June 2019. Archived from the original on 24 November 2021. Retrieved 6 August 2020. 柳树林距哈拉峻乡政府驻地约26千米,占地数十亩。
  17. ^ Hannah Knowles; Kim Bellware; Lateshia Beachum (25 November 2019). "Secret documents detail inner workings of China's mass detention camps for minorities". The Washington Post. Retrieved 11 August 2020. A guard tower and barbed wire fences are seen around a section of the Artux City Vocational Skills Education Training Service Center in Artux in western China's Xinjiang region in December. This is one of a growing number of internment camps in the Xinjiang region.
  18. ^ a b 3-7 各地、州、市、县(市)分民族人口数 (in Simplified Chinese). شىنجاڭ ئۇيغۇر ئاپتونوم رايونى 新疆维吾尔自治区统计局 Statistic Bureau of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region. Archived from the original on 2017-10-11. Retrieved 2017-09-03.
  19. ^ 1997年阿图什市行政区划 [1997 Artush City Administrative Divisions] (in Simplified Chinese). XZQH.org. 31 December 2010. Retrieved 7 August 2020. 克孜勒苏柯尔克孜自治州辖市,州府驻地。位于自治州西南部,与吉尔吉斯斯坦接壤。面积1.5万平方千米,人口18.4万,有柯尔克孜、维吾尔、汉、回、哈萨克、塔吉克等16个民族,其中维吾尔族占81.5%,辖2街道7乡。(本页根据《中国政区大典》整理,1997年左右资料)
  20. ^ Morris Rossabi, ed. (2004). Governing China's Multiethnic Frontiers (PDF). University of Washington Press. p. 179. ISBN 0-295-98390-6.