Heraldic representation
Heraldic representation
Seal of Bouchard de Marly (1225) with the coat of arms of the lords of Montmorency, or a cross gules, quarterly four alerions azure[1]
Seal of Bouchard de Marly (1225) with the coat of arms of the lords of Montmorency, or a cross gules, quarterly four alerions azure[1]
three alerions on Lorraine's arms
three alerions on Lorraine's arms

Avalerion or alerion is a term for a heraldic bird. Historically, it referred to the regular heraldic eagle. Later[year needed] heralds used the term alerion to refer to "baby eagles" or "eaglets". To differentiate them from mature eagles, alerions were shown as an eagle displayed inverted without a beak or claws (disarmed).[citation needed] To differentiate it from a decapitate (headless) eagle, the alerion has a bulb-shaped head with an eye staring towards the dexter (left-hand side) of the field.[citation needed] This was later simplified in modern heraldry as an abstract winged oval.[citation needed]

An example is the arms of the Duchy of Lorraine (or, on a bend gules, 3 alerions abaisé argent). It supposedly[weasel words] had been inspired by the assumed arms of crusader Geoffrey de Bouillon, who supposedly[weasel words] killed three white eaglets with a bow and arrow when out hunting.[2] It is far more likely to be canting arms that are a pun based on Lorraine / Erne. (alerion is a partial anagram of Lorraine).

Medieval bestiaries use alerion for a mythological bird described as somewhat larger than an eagle of which only a single pair was said to live at any time. A pair of eggs was laid every 60 years; after hatching, the parents drowned themselves. The term avalerion is used on the Hereford Map near the Hydaspes and the Indus, possibly based on a description by Pliny.[3]

The word's ultimate origin is unclear, possibly adapted from the German Adler or Adelar ("eagle"). It is found in 12th-century French as alérion and in medieval Latin as alariōnem (a large eagle-like bird).[4]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ A. Maquet, Les seigneurs de Marly, recherches historiques et archéologiques sur la ville et seigneurie de Marly-le-Roi avec notes, armoiries et sceaux... préface de Victorien Sardou. Paris, Imprimerie et librairie universelle, 1882. fr:Armorial des Montmorency: or à la croix de gueules cantonnée de quatre alérions d'azur, Bouchard II de Marly: d'or à la croix de gueules frettée d'argent cantonnée de quatre alérions d'azur. The seal of Mathieu II does not indicate the fretty variation.
  2. ^ Rothery, Guy Cadogan. Concise Encyclopedia of Heraldry. pp.50
  3. ^ William Latham Bevan; Henry Wright Phillott (1873). Mediæval Geography: An Essay in Illustration of the Hereford Mappa Mundi. London: E. Stanford. pp. 30–31. Avalerion.
  4. ^ "alerion". Oxford English Dictionary (Online ed.). Oxford University Press. (Subscription or participating institution membership required.)

References