In Judaism, a ba'al teshuvah (Hebrew: בעל תשובה; for a woman, בעלת תשובה, baalat teshuva or baalas teshuva; plural, בעלי תשובה, baalei teshuva, 'master of return [to God]') is a Jew who adopts some form of traditional religious observance after having previously followed a secular lifestyle or a less stringent form of Judaism.[1]

Originally, the term referred to a Jew who transgressed the halakhah (Jewish law) knowingly or unknowingly and completed a process of introspection to "return" to the full observance of God's mitzvot.[1] According to the Mishneh Torah of Maimonides, the Talmud says that a true ba'al teshuvah stands higher in shamayim (lit. 'heaven') than a "frum from birth", even higher than a tzadik:[2]

The sages said: "The place whereon the penitent stand the wholly righteous could not stand;" as if saying: "their degree is above the degree of those who ever did not sin, because it is more difficult for them to subdue their passion than for the others.[3]

In modern times, the phrase is primarily used to refer to a Jew from a non-Orthodox background who becomes religiously observant in an Orthodox fashion. However, there is no strict definition of a ba'al teshuva and so the concept can also encompass Orthodox-leaning Jews who become stricter in their observance, such as those who go from keeping kosher only at home to also avoiding non-kosher restaurants.[4] The alternative term, chozer b'teshuvah (חוזר בתשובה), plural chozrim b’teshuvah, is more commonly used in Israel.[5] In Hebrew, chozer b'teshuvah translates to 'returning to return' or 'returning to repentance'.[6]

According to the teachings of the Torah, "whoever judges himself will not be judged"; however, in the described history of Talmudic times and early Hasidism, many tzadikim were able to "see" the transgressions of others.[citation needed]

Mar b. R. Ashi said: I am disqualified to judge in a scholar’s lawsuit. What is the reason? Because I love him as much as I love myself, and a person is unable to find fault with himself.[7]

For the most part, the stature and the preparation of these Tzadikim presuppose a balance that allows a peaceful coexistence even with those who have committed serious transgressions because otherwise, the intent to rage against them and, worse, to obtain advantages from them would certainly prevail.

See also

References

  1. ^ a b "What Is A Ba'al Teshuvah?". My Jewish Learning.
  2. ^ Rabbi Aaron L. Raskin. "Tzaddik — The Baal Teshuvah". Chabad.org.
  3. ^ "Laws of Repentance 7:4, citing Berakot, 34b. C. G." Mishneh Torah.
  4. ^ Levin, Sala. "Jewish Word: Baal Teshuvah". Moment Magazine.
  5. ^ Dana Kessler (11 December 2018). "'Baal Teshuvah': The Next Generation". Tablet.
  6. ^ Levin, Sala. "Jewish Word: Baal Teshuvah". Moment Magazine.
  7. ^ Finkel, Avraham Yaakov. Ein Yaakov Jason Aronson, Inc (p. 116)