Bagmati Province
वाग्मती प्रदेश
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Official seal of Bagmati Province
Location of Bagmati
Location of Bagmati
Map of Bagmati, Nepal
Country   Nepal
Formation20 September 2015
Largest cityKathmandu
 • TypeSelf governing province
 • BodyGovernment of Bagmati
 • GovernorYadav Chandra Sharma
 • Chief MinisterRajendra Prasad Pandey[1](US)
 • LegislatureUnicameral (110 seats)
 • Parliamentary constituencyHouse of Representatives (33)
National Assembly (8)
 • High CourtPatan High Court
 • Total20,300 km2 (7,800 sq mi)
 • Rank5th
Highest elevation7,422 m (24,350 ft)
Lowest elevation
141 m (463 ft)
 • Total6,084,042
 • Rank2nd
 • Density300/km2 (780/sq mi)
  • Rank2nd
Time zoneUTC+5:45 (NST)
Official languageNepali
Other Official language(s)1.Nepal Bhasa
HDIIncrease 0.661 (medium)
HDI rank1st
Sex ratio98.77 /100 (2011)
GDPUS$ 13.5 billion (Rank 1)
GDP Per CapitaUS$ 2218 Edit this at Wikidata

Bagmati Province (Nepali: वाग्मती प्रदेश, Bagmati Pradesh)[2][3] is one of the seven provinces of Nepal established by the constitution of Nepal.[4] The province is Nepal's second-most populous province and fifth largest province by area. Bagmati is bordered by Tibet Autonomous Region of China to the north, Gandaki Province to the west, Province No. 1 to the east, Indian state of Bihar and Madhesh Province to the south. With Hetauda as its provincial headquarters,[5] the province is also the home to the country's capital Kathmandu, is mostly hilly and mountainous, and hosts mountain peaks including Gaurishankar, Langtang, Jugal, and Ganesh.

Being the most populous province of Nepal, it possesses rich cultural diversity with resident communities and castes including Newar, Tamang, Madhesis, Sherpa, Tharu, Chepang, Jirel, Brahmin, Chhetri , Marwari and more.[6] It hosted the highest number of voters in the last election for the House of Representatives and Provincial Assembly, which took place in 2017.


Bagmati is named after the Bagmati River which runs through the Kathmandu valley. The river is considered the source of the Newar civilization and urbanization.[7] The river has been mentioned as Vaggumuda (Nepali: वग्गुमुदा) in Vinaya Pitaka and Nandabagga.[7] It has also been mentioned as Bahumati (Nepali: बाहुमति) in Battha Suttanta of Majjhima Nikaya.[7] An inscription dated 477 A.D. describes the river as Bagvati Parpradeshe (Nepali: वाग्वति पारप्रदेशे) and subsequently in the Gopalraj Vanshavali.[7]

A provincial assembly meeting on 12 January 2020 endorsed the proposal to name the province as Bagmati by a majority vote. Hetauda was declared as the permanent state capital on January 12, 2020.[8][9]


Bagmati Province has an area of 20,300 km2 which is about 13.79% of the total area of Nepal. The elevation of the province ranges from 141 m at Golaghat in Chitwan District to 7,422m at Ganesh Himal. The province has an altitude low enough to support deciduous, coniferous, and alpine forests and woodlands. 27.29% land is covered by forest Temperature varies with altitude. There are 10 sub-basins and 33 major rivers flowing through the province. The longest river is Sunkoshi measuring 160.19 km.

Plains of Chitwan
Plains of Chitwan


Bagmati province has climatic variations, which is associated with the diverse nature of its topography and altitude. Climatic zone of Bagmati province starts from High Himalaya in the north, above 5000 m with tundra and arctic climate to Siwalik region in the south, 500–1000 m with sub-tropical climatic zone. The annual precipitation also varies from 150 to 200 mm in the high Himalayas to 1100–3000 mm in the southern plains. Similarly, average annual temperature of the province varies from 30 °C to -10 °C. Rainfall takes place mainly during the summer.

Average temperatures and precipitation for selected communities in Bagmati[10]
Location August







Banepa 23.7 9.9 1930.8
Bharatpur 27.6 14.2 2550.1
Hetauda 26.5 12.9 2069.5
Suryabinayak 21.4 7.7 1821.7
Kathmandu 23 10 1360
Kirtipur 23.5 9.4 2100.9


Further information: Central Development Region, Nepal

During the Lichhavi and Malla period, this region was known as Nepalmandal and was ruled by Newar kings. Historically the area of Bagmati province known as "Kathmandu Kshetra", which was established in 1956. Kathmandu Kshetra was composed by grouping the then five districts. Those five districts are now divided into many districts. Kathmandu Kshetra had a total area of 6,144 square miles (15,910 km2) and total population was 17.93 Lakhs (1.7 million).[11]

The five districts were:

  1. Narayani District (Bara, Parsa, Rautahat)
  2. Rapti District (Chitwan, Ramechap, Makwanpur)
  3. Chautara District (Sindhupalchok, Kavrepalanchowk)
  4. Trishuli District (Nuwakot, Dhading)
  5. Kathmandu District (Kathmandu, Lalitpur, Bhaktapur)

In 1962, administrative system restructured and the "Kshetras" system cancelled and the country restructured into 75 development districts and those districts were grouped into zones.[12] In 1972, the region was named to Central Development Region. It had 3 zones and 19 districts.

Major historical forts of Bagmati

Makwanpurgadhi is located about 17 kilometers northeast of Hetauda, the district headquarters of Makwanpur district. Makwanpur Fort is a place of historical and tourist importance in Makwanpur district.[13]

Sindhuli Fort
Sindhuli Fort

Sindhuli Gadhi is an important place in terms of natural beauty and history. This place is about 150 kilometers east of Kathmandu. Sindhuligadi Nepal is a living document of the British War.

Rasuwa Fort on the Nepal-China border is considered to be an important security fort between Nepal and China. The historical fortress is about a century and a half old.


See also: Tamang people and Newar people

According to the 2011 Nepal Census, Bagmati Province has a population of 5,433,818 comprising 2,761,224 females and 2,672,594 males. The province has the highest population in the country having 20.87% of the population. The population density of the province is 270 people per square kilometre which is the second highest in the country.[14]

Urbanization in Kathmandu
Urbanization in Kathmandu

Ethnic groups

Ethnic groups in Bagmati Province

  Tamang (20.54%)
  Hill Brahman (18.32%)
  Chhetri (17.13%)
  Newar (17.07%)
  Magar (4.87%)
  Kami (2.52%)
  Gurung (2.22%)
  Tharu (1.63%)
  Rai (1.52%)
  Sarki (1.33%)
  Chepang (1.16%)
  Other Janajati (5.27%)
  Other Madheshi (2.27%)
  Other Khas Arya (1.84%)
  Other (2.31%)

Tamang is the largest ethnic group in the province making up around 20.54% of the population. Hill Brahmans are the next largest group making up around 18.32% if the population followed by Chhetris (17.13%) and Newars (17.07%) respectively. Similarly Magar, Kami and Gurung make up 4.87%, 2.52% and 2.22% of the population respectively. Tharu (1.63%), Rai (1.52%), Damai (1.36%), Sarki (1.33%) and Chepang (1.16%) are other smaller ethnic groups in the province.[14]


  Nepali (56.23%)
  Tamang (18.16%)
  Nepal Bhasa (12.23%)
  Magar (1.79%)
  Tharu (1.31%)
  Maithili (1.17%)
  Others (9.11%)

Nepali is the most common mother tongue in the province with 56.23% of the population speaking Nepali as their mother tongues. Tamang language is spoken by 18.16% and Nepal Bhasa is spoken by 12.23% of the population as their mother tongue. Magar (1.79%), Tharu (1.31%), Maithili (1.17%), Gurung (0.92%) and Chepang (0.83%) are other languages spoken in the province.[14]

The Language Commission of Nepal has recommended Nepal Bhasa and Tamang as official language in the province. The commission has also recommended Magar, Tharu and Maithili to be additional official languages, for specific regions and purposes in the province.[15]


Religion in Bagmati

  Hinduism (71.78%)
  Buddhism (23.28%)
  Christianity (2.87%)
  Prakṛti (0.75%)
  Islam (0.67%)
  Kirat Mundhum (0.41%)
  Other or not religious (0.23%)

Hinduism is the most followed religion in the province, with 71.78% of the population identifying as Hindus. Buddhists are the largest minority population with 23.28% of the population following Buddhism and Christianity is followed by 2.87% of the population in the province.[14]

Administrative subdivisions

See also: Districts of Nepal, List of cities in Nepal, and List of gaunpalikas of Nepal

There are total 119 local administrative units in the province which include 3 metropolitan cities, 1 sub-metropolitan city, 41 urban municipalities and 74 rural municipalities.[16][17]

Bagmati is divided into 13 districts, which are listed below. A district is administrated by the head of the District Coordination Committee and the District Administration Officer. The districts are further divided into municipalities or rural municipalities.


Further information: List of Districts of Bagmati

Districts in Nepal are second level of administrative divisions after provinces. Bagmati Province is divided into 13 districts, which are listed below. A district is administrated by the head of the District Coordination Committee and the District Administration Officer. The districts are further divided to municipalities or rural municipalities.

Districts of Bagmati Province
Districts Headquarters Population (2011)[18]
Sindhuli Kamalamai 296,192
Ramechhap Manthali 202,646
Dolakha Bhimeshwar 186,557
Bhaktapur Bhaktapur 304,651
Dhading Dhading Besi 336,067
Kathmandu Kathmandu 1,744,240
Kavrepalanchok Dhulikhel 381,937
Lalitpur Lalitpur 468,132
Nuwakot Bidur 277,471
Rasuwa Dhunche 43,300
Sindhupalchok Chautara 287,798
Chitwan Bharatpur 579,984
Makwanpur Hetauda 420,477


Cities and villages are governed by municipalities in Nepal. A district may have one or more municipalities. Bagmati has two types of municipalities.

  1. Urban Municipality (Urban Municipality has three levels):
    1. Metropolitan city (Mahanagarpalika)
    2. Sub-metropolitan city (Upa-mahanagarpalika) and
    3. Municipality (Nagarpalika)
  2. Rural Municipality (Gaunpalika)

The government of Nepal has set out a minimum criteria to meet city and towns. These criteria include a certain population, infrastructure and revenues.

Largest cities or towns in Bagmati Province
Central Bureau of Statistics [1]
Rank District Pop. Rank District Pop.


1 Kathmandu Kathmandu 845,767 11 Kageshwori Manohara Kathmandu 133,327


2 Bharatpur Chitwan 369,377 12 Madhyapur Thimi Bhaktapur 119,955
3 Lalitpur Lalitpur 299,843 13 Mahalaxmi Lalitpur 118,710
4 Hetauda Makawanpur 195,951 14 Nagarjun Kathmandu 115,507
5 Budhanilkantha Kathmandu 179,688 15 Godawari Lalitpur 100,972
6 Tarakeshor Kathmandu 151,508 16 Ratnanagar Chitwan 90,978
7 Gokarneshwar Kathmandu 151,200 17 Changunarayan Bhaktapur 88,612
8 Suryabinayak Bhaktapur 137,971 18 Kirtipur Kathmandu 81,782
9 Chandragiri Kathmandu 136,928 19 Bhaktapur Bhaktapur 78,854
10 Tokha Kathmandu 135,741 20 Kamalamai Sindhuli 71,811

Government and administration

Main articles: Provincial governments of Nepal, Provincial Assembly of Bagmati Pradesh, and Cabinet of Bagmati Province

Bagmati provincial assembly is the unicameral legislative assembly consisting of 110 members. Candidates for each constituency are chosen by the political parties or stand as independents. Each constituency elects one member under the first past the post (FPTP) system of election. The current constitution specifies that sixty percent of the members should be elected from the first past the post system and forty percent through the party-list proportional representation (PR) system. Women should account for one-third of total members elected from each party. If one-third percentage are not elected, the party that fails to ensure so shall have to elect one-third of the total number as women through the party-list proportional representation. The Governor acts as the head of the province, while the Chief Minister is the head of the provincial government. The Chief Judge of the Patan High Court is the head of the judiciary.[19]

The present Governor, Chief Minister and Chief Judge are Yadav Chandra Sharma, Astha Laxmi Sakya and Tek Bahadur Moktan respectively.[20][21] The provincial assembly has 110 members while the province has 33 House of Representative constituencies.[22] The term length of provincial assembly is five years. The Provincial Assembly is currently housed at the Regional Education Directorate in Hetauda.[23]

Province No. 3 Provincial Assembly 2018.svg
Party FPTP PR Total
Votes % Seats Votes % Seats
CPN (Unified Marxist-Leninist) 725,113 35.37 41 677,317 35.81 12 45
CPN (Unified Socialist) 9 4 13
Nepali Congress 748,207 36.50 9 559,249 29.57 14 23
21,552 1.05 23,958 1.27
CPN (Maoist Centre) 355,126 16.32 15 316,876 16.75 8 23
Bibeksheel Sajha Party 74,656 3.64 0 124,442 6.58 3 3
Rastriya Prajatantra Party 27,960 1.36 0 59,268 3.13 1 1
Nepal Mazdoor Kisan Party 40,502 1.98 1 41,610 2.20 1 2
Rastriya Prajatantra Party (Democratic) 1,399 0.07 0 28,855 1.53 1 1
Others 50,791 3.48 0 59,731 3.16 0 0
Independent 4,688 0.23 0 0
Invalid/Blank votes 70,471 226,043
Total 2,120,465 100 66 2,117,314 100 44 110
Registered voters/turnout 3,074,381 68.97 3,074,381 68.87
Source: Election Commission of Nepal


Bagmati Province is the most industrialized province and has maintained the leading position in the economic sector in Nepal. With GDP of NPR 1.43 Trillion (as of 2019),[24] Bagmati alone is the single largest contributor to the national economy with a share of 37.7% in the country's GDP.

Major Business Groups


Health Care

According to the National Demographic Health Survey (NDHS) 2016, the Province's Neonatal Mortality (per 1000 live births) stands at 17 and Infant mortality rate (per 1000 live births) stands at 29, both of which are below the national average of 21 and 32,respectively.

Nepal Medicity Hospital
Nepal Medicity Hospital

According to the Annual report of Department of Health Services (DoHS) 2018/19, Bagmati Province has 35 public hospitals, 41 Primary Health Care Centres (PHCCs), 641 Health posts and 1417 Non-public facilities.[25]


The province has always been an educational hub of the country.

Enrollment rate in primary school in the province is 95.79, whereas adult literacy stands at 74.85%.

Kathmandu University
Kathmandu University

There are various education levels in Bagmati Province. They are: Primary Level (31%), Lower Secondary Level (18%), Secondary Level (11%), SLC (12%), Intermediate Level (11%), Beginner (3%), Non-formal (5%), Graduate (6%), Postgraduate and above (2%).



In Bagmati province, 58.6% have radio access, followed by 54.0% have access to TV, and only 10.0% have access to the internet. Similarly, 16.7% have access to landline telephones, while 76.1% have access to mobile phones. There are a total of 51 radio stations. Some of the radio stations are Radio Chitwan, Radio Upathyaka, and Radio Lalitpur. There are a total of 405 newspaper channels in Bagmati Province with national, Provincial and local outreach. As per the classification, some of the top-ranking newspapers are Gorkhapatra Dainik, Himalayan Times.[26]


Bagmati Province has the second highest level of electrification with 94.44 percent electrification among the provinces. Districts like Kathmandu, Bhaktapur and Nuwakot are fully electrified. Sindhuli district has the lowest electrification rate with the coverage of 69.51% so far.



Ring Road of Kathmandu
Ring Road of Kathmandu

Roads connect all 13 districts of Bagmati Province. However, people living in the high-altitude regions of Rasuwa, Sindhuplachok and Dolakha experience difficulty accessing roadways perennially. Major highways of the province are as follows:

  1. Tribhuvan Highway: Tribhuvan Highway (
    NPL H02.svg
    H02) which is also part of Asian Highway 42 (
    Tabliczka AH42.svg
    AH42) connects the capital city with Birgunj, a major business hub in Province 2 bordered with India.
  2. Araniko Highway: Araniko Highway (
    NPL H03.svg
    H03) which is also part of AH42 connects capital city with Kodari on the Nepal-China border.
  3. Prithivi Highway: Prithivi Highway (
    NPL H04.svg
    H04) connects capital city via Naubise, Dhading with Pokhara in Gandaki Province. This landslide-prone and heavily congested highway passes through five districts: Kathmandu, Dhading, Chitwan, Tanahuand Kaski.
  4. BP Koirala Highway: The BP Highway(
    NPL H06.svg
    H06), also known as the Banepa- Bardibas Highway, links Kathmandu Valley with Province 2 and connects with eastern Nepal.


See also


  1. ^ "Ashta Laxmi Shakya appointed Bagmati CM". Setopati.
  2. ^ "प्रदेश ३ को नाम वाग्मती" [Province No. 3 named as Bagmati]. (in Nepali). Retrieved 12 January 2020.
  3. ^ "प्रदेश ३ को नाम वाग्मती, स्थायी राजधानी हेटौंडा तोकियो" [Province No. 3 named as Bagmati, permanent capital Hetauda]. Online Khabar (in Nepali). Retrieved 12 January 2020.
  4. ^ "Nepal Provinces". Retrieved 21 March 2016.
  5. ^ "Finally, Provincial Assembly renames Province 3 as Bagmati, picks Hetaunda as capital". Retrieved 19 January 2020.
  6. ^ "Highest number of voters in province no. 3". Retrieved 15 April 2018.
  7. ^ a b c d Article: नेपाली वास्तु र वास्तुग्रन्थको संक्षिप्त परिचय, Author: Tarananda Mishra
  8. ^ "PA decides to call Province 3 Bagmati, with Hetauda as its permanent HQ". The Himalayan Times. 13 January 2020. Retrieved 2 February 2020.
  9. ^ "Province 3 assembly meet endorses Bagmati as the name of the province by majority votes". Kantipur Media Group. 12 January 2020. Retrieved 12 January 2020.
  10. ^ "Nepal Travel Weather Averages (Weatherbase)". Weatherbase. Retrieved 28 April 2018.
  11. ^ नेपालको जिल्ला प्रशासन पुनर्गठनको रिपोर्ट, २०१३ (PDF). Nepal: Nepal Govt. pp. 35, 36, 37.
  12. ^ "Memorial Step of King Mahendra in 1st Poush 2017 BS". 13 December 2017. Retrieved 6 February 2018.
  13. ^ "यस्तो छ मकवानपुर गढीको इतिहास". Highlights Tourism. Retrieved 22 July 2021.
  14. ^ a b c d "National Data Portal-Nepal". Retrieved 26 December 2020.
  15. ^ "सरकारी कामकाजको भाषाका आधारहरूको निर्धारण तथा भाषासम्बन्धी सिफारिसहरू (पञ्चवर्षीय प्रतिवेदन- साराांश) २०७८" (PDF). Language Commission. Language Commission. Retrieved 28 October 2021.
  16. ^ "स्थानिय तह". 31 August 2018. Archived from the original on 31 August 2018. Retrieved 15 May 2021.
  17. ^ "स्थानिय तह". Archived from the original on 31 August 2018. Retrieved 27 April 2018.
  18. ^ 2011 Census District Level Detail Report Archived 2018-09-02 at the Wayback Machine, Central Bureau of Statistics.
  19. ^ "High Courts get their chief judges". Retrieved 27 April 2018.
  20. ^ "UML PP leader Dor Mani Paudel appointed CM of Province 3". The Himalayan Times. 11 February 2018. Retrieved 27 April 2018.
  21. ^ "President of Nepal administers oath to Chiefs of seven provinces | DD News". Retrieved 27 April 2018.
  22. ^ "CDC creates 495 constituencies". The Himalayan Times. 31 August 2017. Retrieved 27 April 2018.
  23. ^ "Preparations under way for assembly meeting". The Himalayan Times. 31 January 2018. Retrieved 27 April 2018.
  24. ^ "PROVINCE WISE GDP OF NEPAL 2019". Retrieved 15 May 2021.
  25. ^ "WHO Nepal COVID-19 Profile 2020: Bagmati Province - Nepal". ReliefWeb. Retrieved 17 August 2021.
  26. ^ "WHO Nepal COVID-19 Profile 2020: Bagmati Province - Nepal". ReliefWeb. Retrieved 17 August 2021.