Baidu, Inc.
Native name
百度
Company typePublic
Industry
FoundedJanuary 18, 2000; 24 years ago (2000-01-18)
Founder
Headquarters,
China
Area served
Worldwide
Key people
Products
RevenueIncrease CN¥134.6 billion (2023)[2]
Increase CN¥21.86 billion (2023)[2]
Increase CN¥20.32 billion (2023)[2]
Total assetsIncrease CN¥406.8 billion (2023)[2]
Total equityIncrease CN¥243.6 billion (2023)[2]
OwnerRobin Li (18% equity; 59% voting)[2]
Number of employees
39,800 (2023)[2]
Websiteir.baidu.com
Baidu
Chinese百度

Baidu, Inc. (/ˈbd/ BY-doo; Chinese: 百度; pinyin: Bǎidù; lit. 'hundred degrees') is a Chinese multinational technology company specializing in Internet-related services, headquartered in Beijing's Haidian District.[3] It holds a dominant position in China's search engine market, and provides a wide variety of other internet services such as Baidu Baike (an online encyclopedia), iQIYI (a video streaming service), and Baidu Tieba (a keyword-based discussion forum).

The holding company of the group is incorporated in the Cayman Islands.[2] Baidu was incorporated in January 2000 by Robin Li and Eric Xu. Baidu has origins in RankDex, an earlier search engine developed by Robin Li in 1996, before he founded Baidu in 2000.[4]

Baidu Global Business Unit (GBU) is responsible for Baidu's international products and services for markets outside of China. Baidu GBU's product portfolio includes keyboard apps Simeji and Facemoji Keyboard, content recommendation platform popIn, augmented reality network OmniAR, Japanese smart projector popIn Aladdin, and ad platform MediaGo, which is focused on Chinese advertisers looking to reach overseas users. In 2017, Baidu GBU entered into a partnership with Snap Inc. to act as the company's official ad reseller for Snapchat in Greater China, South Korea, Japan and Singapore.[5] The partnership was extended in 2019.[6]

In 2018, Baidu divested the "Global DU business" portion of its overseas business, which developed a series of utility apps including ES File Explorer, DU Caller, Mobojoy, Photo Wonder and DU Recorder, etc.[7] This business now operates independently of Baidu under the name DO Global.[8]

In December 2007, Baidu became the first Chinese company to be included in the NASDAQ-100 index.[9] As of May 2018, Baidu's market cap rose to US$99 billion.[10][11][12] In October 2018, Baidu became the first Chinese firm to join the United States-based computer ethics consortium Partnership on AI.[13] During the 2020s, Baidu has increasingly focused on generative AI related products.[14]

The Chinese government views Baidu as one of its national champion corporations.[15]: 156–157 

History

[edit]

Early development

[edit]
Baidu headquarters building completed in 2009

In 1994, Robin Li (Li Yanhong, 李彦宏) joined IDD Information Services, a New Jersey division of Dow Jones and Company, where he helped develop software for the online edition of The Wall Street Journal.[16] He also worked on developing better algorithms for search engines and remained at IDD Information Services from May 1994 to June 1997.

In 1996, while at IDD, Li developed the RankDex site-scoring algorithm for search engines results page ranking[4][17][18] and received a US patent for the technology.[19] Launched in 1996,[4] RankDex was the first search engine that used hyperlinks to measure the quality of websites it was indexing.[20] Li referred to his search mechanism as "link analysis," which involved ranking the popularity of a web site based on how many other sites had linked to it.[21] It predated the similar PageRank algorithm used by Google two years later in 1998;[22] Google founder Larry Page referenced Li's work as a citation in some of his U.S. patents for PageRank.[4][22][23] Li later used his RankDex technology for the Baidu search engine.

Baidu was incorporated on 18 January 2000 by Robin Li and Eric Xu.[3] In 2001, Baidu allowed advertisers to bid for ad space then pay Baidu every time a customer clicked on an ad, predating Google's approach to advertising.[21] In 2003, Baidu launched a news search engine and picture search engine, adopting a special identification technology capable of identifying and grouping the articles.[24]

Baidu went public on Wall Street through a variable interest entity (VIE) based in the Cayman Islands on 5 August 2005.[25]

On 31 July 2012, Baidu announced that it would team up with Sina to provide mobile search results.[26]

On 18 November 2012, Baidu announced that it would be partnering with Qualcomm to offer free cloud storage to Android users with Snapdragon processors.[27]

On 2 August 2013, Baidu launched its Personal Assistant app, designed to help CEOs, managers and the white-collar workers manage their business relationships.[28]

On 16 May 2014, Baidu appointed Dr. Andrew Ng as chief scientist. Dr. Ng will lead Baidu Research in Silicon Valley and Beijing.[29]

On 18 July 2014, the company launched a Brazilian version of the search engine, Baidu Busca.[30]

On 9 October 2014, Baidu announced acquisition of Brazilian local e-commerce site Peixe Urbano.[31]

In April 2017, Baidu announced the launch of its Apollo project (Apolong), a self-driving vehicle platform, in a bid to help drive the development of autonomous cars including vehicle platform, hardware platform, open-source software platform and cloud data services.[32] Baidu plans to launch this project in July 2017, before gradually introducing fully autonomous driving capabilities on highways and open city roads by 2020.[33] In September 2017, Baidu launched a $1.5 billion autonomous driving fund to invest in as many as 100 autonomous driving projects over the ensuing three years.[34] At the same time, Apollo open-source software version 1.5 was also launched.[35]

In June 2017, Baidu partnered with Continental and Bosch, auto industry suppliers, on automated driving and connected cars.[36]

In September 2017, Baidu rolled out a new portable talking translator that can listen and speak in several different languages. Smaller than a typical smartphone, the 140-gram translation device can also be used as a portable Wi-Fi router and is able to operate on networks in 80 countries. It is still under development. Baidu will also be inserting artificial intelligence (AI) technology into smartphones, through its deep learning platform.[37][38] At the same period, it has also led a joint investment of US$12 billion with Alibaba Group, Tencent, JD.com and Didi Chuxing, acquiring 35% of China Unicom's stakes.[39][40][41]

In October 2017, according to The Wall Street Journal, Baidu would launch self-driving buses in China in 2018.[42][43] In the same month, Baidu announced that its first annual Baidu World technology conference (Bring AI to Life) would be held and live-streamed on 16 November 2017, at China World Summit Wing and Kerry Hotel, bringing together Baidu executives, employees, partners, developers, and media to discuss the company's mission and strategy, technology breakthroughs, new product developments, and its open artificial-intelligence (AI) ecosystem.[44]

China's government designated Baidu as one of its "AI champions" in 2018.[45]: 281 

In August 2021 Baidu revealed a new Robocar concept said to be capable of Level 5 autonomous driving.[46] It also comes with the latest second-generation AI chip that can analyse the internal and external surroundings to provide predictive suggestions to proactively serve the needs of passengers.

In June 2022, Jidu Auto, an intelligent electric vehicle company originally backed by Baidu and Geely unveiled its first concept ROBO-01 in the form of a pre-production vehicle. The ROBO-01 rides on the Sustainable Experience Architecture (SEA) platform, a modular electric vehicle platform developed by Geely Holding.[47]

In August 2023, Baidu unveiled its ChatGPT-equivalent language model Ernie Bot publicly.[48] In October 2023, Baidu released a newer version Ernie 4.0 chatbot.[49]

Domain name redirection attack

[edit]

On 12 January 2010, Baidu.com's DNS records in the United States were altered such that browsers to baidu.com were redirected to a website purporting to be the Iranian Cyber Army, thought to be behind the attack on Twitter during the 2009 Iranian election protests, making the proper site unusable for four hours.[50] Internet users were met with a page saying "This site has been attacked by Iranian Cyber Army".[51] Chinese hackers later responded by attacking Iranian websites and leaving messages.[52] Baidu later launched legal action against Register.com for gross negligence after it was revealed that Register.com's technical support staff changed the email address for Baidu.com on the request of an unnamed individual, despite failing security verification procedures. Once the address had been changed, the individual was able to use the forgotten password feature to have Baidu's domain passwords sent directly to them, allowing them to accomplish the domain hijacking.[53][54] The lawsuit was settled out of court under undisclosed terms after Register.com issued an apology.[55]

Baidu workers arrested

[edit]

On 6 August 2012, the BBC reported that three employees of Baidu were arrested on suspicion that they accepted bribes. The bribes were allegedly paid for deleting posts from the forum service. Four people were fired in connection with these arrests.[56]

91 Wireless acquisition

[edit]

On 16 July 2013, Baidu announced its intention to purchase 91 Wireless from NetDragon. 91 Wireless is best known for its app store, but it has been reported that the app store faces privacy and other legal issues.[57] On 14 August 2013, Baidu announced that its wholly owned subsidiary Baidu (Hong Kong) Limited has signed a definitive merger agreement to acquire 91 Wireless Web-soft Limited from NetDragon Web-soft Inc.[58] for $1.85 billion in what was reported to be the biggest deal ever in China's IT sector.[59]

Name

[edit]

The name Baidu (百度) literally means "a hundred times", or alternatively, "countless times". It is a quote from the last line of Xin Qiji's (辛弃疾) classical poem "Green Jade Table in The Lantern Festival" (青玉案·元夕) saying: "Having searched hundreds of times in the crowd, suddenly turning back, she is there in the dimmest candlelight." (众里寻他千百度, 蓦然回首, 那人却在灯火阑珊处。)[60][61]

Services

[edit]
This section contains content that is written like an advertisement. Please help improve it by removing promotional content and inappropriate external links, and by adding encyclopedic content written from a neutral point of view. (August 2023) (Learn how and when to remove this message)

Baidu offers several services[62] to locate information, products and services using Chinese-language search terms, such as, search by Chinese phonetics, advanced search, snapshots, spell checker, stock quotes, news, knows, postbar, images, video and space information, and weather, train and flight schedules and other local information. The user-agent string of Baidu search engine is Baiduspider.[63][64]

Advertisements

[edit]

Baidu's primary advertising product is called Baidu Tuiguang and is similar to Google Ads and AdSense. It is a pay per click advertising platform that allows advertisers to have their ads shown in Baidu search results pages and on other websites that are part of Baidu Union. However, Baidu's search results are also based on payments by advertisers. This has prompted criticism and skepticism among Chinese users, with People's Daily commenting in 2018 on issues regarding reliability of Baidu results. Often as many as the first two pages of search results tend to be paid advertisers.[89]

Baidu sells its advertising products via a network of resellers.[90] Baidu's web administrative tools are all in Chinese, making it difficult for non-Chinese speakers to use. In 2012, a third-party company developed a tool with an interface in English for advertising on Baidu.[91][92] Advertisers on Baidu must have a registered business address either in China or in specified East Asian countries.[93]

Pay for placement (P4P)

[edit]

Baidu focuses on generating revenues primarily from online marketing services. Baidu's pay for placement (P4P) platform enables its customers to reach users who search for information related to their products or services. Customers use automated online tools to create text-based descriptions of their web pages and bid on keywords that trigger the display of their webpage information and link. Baidu's P4P platform features an automated online sign-up process that customers use to activate their accounts at any time. The P4P platform is an online marketplace that introduces Internet search users to customers who bid for priority placement in the search results. Baidu also uses third-party distributors to sell some of its online marketing services to end customers and offers discounts to these distributors in consideration of their services.

Baidu offers consultative services, such as keyword suggestions, account management and performance reporting. Baidu suggests synonyms and associated phrases to use as keywords or text in search listings. These suggestions can improve clickthrough rates of the customer's listing and increase the likelihood that a user will enter into a transaction with the customer. Baidu also provides online daily reports of the number of clickthroughs, clicked keywords and the total costs incurred, as well as statistical reports organized by geographic region.[citation needed]

ProTheme

[edit]

Baidu offers ProTheme services to some of its Baidu Union members, which enable these members to display on their properties its customers' promotional links that are relevant to the subject and content of such members' properties. Baidu generates revenues from ProTheme services based on the number of clicks on its customers' links and share the revenues with its Baidu Union members in accordance with pre-agreed terms. Baidu's fixed-ranking services allow customers to display query-sensitive text links at a designated location on its search results pages. Its Targetizement services enable customers to reach their targeted Internet users by displaying their advertisements only when their targeted Internet users browse Baidu's certain Web pages.

Baidu TV

[edit]

Baidu operates its advertising service, Baidu TV, in partnership with Ads it! Media Corporation, an online advertising agency and technology company. Baidu TV provides advertisers access to the websites of its Baidu Union members, allowing advertisers to choose Websites on which they post their video advertisements with the aid of its advertisement targeting and matching system. It also offers a brand advertising service, Brand-Link. In June 2008, Baidu launched My Marketing Center, a customized platform integrating industry information, market trends and business, and industry news and reports to assist existing customers in their sales and marketing efforts. Other forms of its online advertising services allow customers to display query sensitive and non-query sensitive advertisements on its websites, including graphical advertisements.

Baidu Union

[edit]

Baidu Union consists of several third-party websites and software applications.[94] Union members incorporate a Baidu search box or toolbar and match its sponsored links with the content on their properties. Their users can conduct search via the Baidu search box or toolbar and can click the sponsored links located on their properties. Baidu has also launched programs through which it displays the online advertising of its customers on Baidu Union websites, and share the fees generated by these advertisements with the owners of these Baidu Union websites. As of May 2011, there were 230,000 partner websites that displayed Baidu Union ads on their websites.[95]

Competition

[edit]

Baidu[96] competes with Sogou, Google Search, 360 Search (www.so.com), Yahoo! China, Microsoft's Bing and MSN Messenger, Sina, NetEase's Youdao and PaiPai, Alibaba's Taobao, TOM Online, DuckDuckGo, and EachNet.

Baidu is the most used search engine in China, controlling 76.05 percent of China's market share. The number of Internet users in China had reached 705 million by the end of 2015, according to a report by the internetlivestats.com.[97]

In an August 2010 Wall Street Journal article,[98] Baidu played down its benefit from Google's having moved its China search service to Hong Kong, but Baidu's share of revenue in China's search-advertising market grew six percentage points in the second quarter to 70%, according to Beijing-based research firm Analysys International.

It is also evident that Baidu is attempting to enter the Internet social network market. As of 2011, it is discussing the possibility of working with Facebook, which would lead to a Chinese version of the international social network, managed by Baidu.[99] This plan, if executed, would face off Baidu with competition from the three popular Chinese social networks Qzone, Renren[100] and Kaixin001[101] as well as induce rivalry with instant-messaging giant, Tencent QQ.[102]

On 22 February 2012, Hudong submitted a complaint to the State Administration for Industry and Commerce asking for a review of the behavior of Baidu, accusing it of being monopolistic.[103]

By August 2014, Baidu's search market share in China dropped to 56.3%, where Qihoo 360, its closest competitor who has rebranded its search engine as so.com, has increased its market share to 29.0%, according to report from CNZZ.com.[104]

In February 2015, Baidu was alleged to have used anticompetitive tactics in Brazil against the Brazilian online security firm PSafe and Qihoo 360 (the largest investor of PSafe).[105][106]

In an ongoing competition in AI natural language processing called General Language Understanding Evaluation, otherwise known as GLUE, Baidu took a lead over Microsoft and Google in December 2019.[107]

Research and patents

[edit]

Baidu has started to invest in deep learning research and is integrating new deep learning technology into some of its apps and products, including Phoenix Nest. Phoenix Nest is Baidu's ad-bidding platform.[108]

In April 2012 Baidu JDC long live applied for a patent for its "DNA copyright recognition" technology. This technology automatically scans files that are uploaded by Internet users, and recognizes and filters out content that may violate copyright law. This allows Baidu to offer an infringement-free platform.[109][110]

Baidu has applied for a utility patent in the UK, for its proprietary site-wise search technology which is currently available in China.[citation needed]

Baidu has more than 7,000 published AI patent applications in China, the highest in the country. The AI open platform Baidu Brain has made available more than 250 core AI capabilities to over 1.9 million developers, while PaddlePaddle, the largest open-source deep learning platform in China, services 84,000 enterprises. Industries throughout China are using the PaddlePaddle platform to create specialized applications for their sectors, from the automotive industry's acceleration of autonomous vehicles to the health-care industry's applications for fighting COVID-19.

In April 2022, Baidu announced they gained permits from China to provide the first driverless taxis. The company aim to provide driverless ride-hailing services to the public and have 10 autonomous cars set to begin offering rides to passengers within a 23-square-mile area in suburban begin beginning 28 April 2022.[111]

In July 2022, Baidu unveiled the Apollo RT6, a driverless vehicle that is planned to join Baidu's driverless fleet in 2023.[112]

Censorship

[edit]

According to the China Digital Times, Baidu has a long history of being the most active and restrictive online censor in the search arena. Documents leaked in April 2009 from an employee in Baidu's internal monitoring and censorship department show a long list of blocked websites and censored topics on Baidu search.[113]

In May 2011, activists sued Baidu in the United States for violating the U.S. Constitution by the censorship it conducts in accord with the demand of the Chinese government.[114] A U.S. judge has ruled[115] that the Chinese search engine Baidu has the right to block works from its query results under freedom of speech rights, dismissing a lawsuit that sought to punish the company.[116][117]

In 2017, Baidu began coordinating with the Chinese Ministry of Public Security as well as 372 Internet police departments to detect information related to "anti-government rumors" and then flooding "Baidu-linked web sites, news sites and devices with alerts dispelling misinformation."[118] This was done using natural language processing, big data and artificial intelligence.[118]

As part of the COVID-19 pandemic, Chinese regulators instructed Baidu, along with other Internet companies, to "conduct special supervision" on news and information related to the disease.[119]

In November 2022, Sustainalytics downgraded Baidu to "non-compliant" with the United Nations Global Compact principles due to complicity with censorship.[120]

Controversies

[edit]

Death of Wei Zexi

[edit]

In 2016, Baidu's P4P search results reportedly contributed to the death of a student who tried an experimental cancer therapy he found online. The 21-year-old college student was named Wèi Zéxī (魏则西), who studied in Xidian University. Wei was diagnosed with synovial sarcoma, a rare form of cancer. He found the Second Hospital of the Beijing Armed Police Corps (武警北京市总队第二医院) through the search engine Baidu, on which the hospital had been promoting itself.[121] The treatment proved unsuccessful and Wèi died in April 2016.[121]

After Wei's family spent around 200,000 yuan (around US$31,150) for treatment in the hospital, Wei Zexi died on 12 April 2016. The incident triggered massive online discussions after Wei's death.[122] On 2 May 2016, Cyberspace Administration of China (CAC), the top watchdog for China's Internet space, dispatched a team of investigators to Baidu.[123] The case is still ongoing. One report claimed medical advertising makes up for 30% of Baidu's ad revenue, much of which comes from for-profit hospitals that belong to the "Putian Network", a collection of hospitals across the country founded by medical entrepreneurs associated with the Putian region of Fujian province.[124] The investigation led Chinese regulators to impose several restrictions on Baidu, including adding disclaimers to promotional content and establishing channels for complaints about Baidu services.[125] In addition, Baidu's search function now largely directs users to contents published on platforms under Baidu's control, leading Chinese media scholar Fang Kecheng to proclaim that "Search engine Baidu is dead".[126]

Commercialization of Tieba

[edit]

Baidu sold the hemophilia online community, one of the communities of Tieba, to unqualified hospitals. In January 2016, Baidu announced that it will stop selling all of its illness-related Tieba.[127] On 12 January, Baidu officially announced to the public that all Baidu Tieba for all types of diseases will completely stop commercial cooperation and will only be open to authoritative public welfare organizations. In response to Baidu's decision, Lin Jinlong, president of the Hunan Medical and Health Industry Association, said that private hospitals have entered a period of industry transformation and upgrading, and are neither dependent on posting bar ads nor counting on competitive rankings anymore, so Baidu's decision will not have a negative impact on the industry.[128]

DO Global subsidiary ad-fraud in downloaded apps

[edit]

On 20 April 2019, it was reported that several applications for Android devices developed by the subsidiary company, DO Global (formerly DU Group), were surreptitiously running revenue enhancing background programs on user devices since at least 2016.[129] These programs, part of six known applications developed by the company, and downloaded hundreds of millions times, were clicking on internet ads – even when the devices were idle, and unbeknownst to end users, to increase revenue generated by "clicks".[129] Just one of the apps, all of which were available on Google Play Store, had been downloaded 50 million times alone and carried a user rating of 4.5 stars by tens of thousands.[129]

Google banned DO Global and more than 100 of its apps from the Google Play Store on 26 April 2019.[130][131] DO Global was also banned from Google's AdMob Network.[130] Apps from another developer, ES Global, including the ES File Explorer, that were owned by DO Global were banned from the Play Store and the account was suspended.[132][133][134][135][136][137][138]

Block in India

[edit]

In August 2020, following the 2020 China–India skirmishes, Baidu was one of several Chinese websites that were banned or blocked in India for national security reasons.[139][140]

The PR Chief Backlash

[edit]

In May 2024, Baidu's former vice president and head of communications Qu Jing (璩静) sparked major backlashes across the Chinese social media for endorsing toxic workplace culture, where, according to a Douyin video, she has asked a coworker to be on a 50-day business trip during the COVID-19 pandemic.[141] The report has aroused further discussions amongst Chinese netizens regarding Baidu's corporate governance and internal culture. Qu openly apologized after the incident and has allegedly lost her job. Baidu’s stock price fell 2.17% in Hong Kong following the incident.[142][143]

See also

[edit]

References

[edit]
  1. ^ "Baidu – Investors – Management". Archived from the original on 6 June 2017. Retrieved 29 August 2016.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h "Baidu 2023 Annual Report (Form 20-F)". US Securities and Exchange Commission. 15 March 2024. Archived from the original on 16 March 2024. Retrieved 16 March 2024.
  3. ^ a b Kenton, Will (6 June 2018). "Baidu". Investopedia. Archived from the original on 27 April 2019. Retrieved 27 April 2019.
  4. ^ a b c d "About: RankDex" Archived 20 January 2012 at the Wayback Machine, rankdex.com
  5. ^ Flynn, Kerry (31 July 2019). "How China's Baidu works with Snap, Pinterest and Reddit on ad sales". Digiday. Archived from the original on 1 August 2019. Retrieved 22 August 2019.
  6. ^ "Snap turns to search giant Baidu to court Chinese advertisers". TechCrunch. 16 July 2019. Retrieved 22 August 2019.[permanent dead link]
  7. ^ "Baidu spins out its global ad business to sharpen its focus on artificial intelligence". TechCrunch. 22 May 2018. Retrieved 22 August 2019.[permanent dead link]
  8. ^ "Baidu english". baiduenglish.com. Archived from the original on 5 August 2018. Retrieved 22 August 2019.
  9. ^ Chmielewski, Dawn C. (10 December 2007). "Search site moves at the speed of China". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on 22 January 2012. Retrieved 26 November 2011.
  10. ^ "Baidu offers rosy outlook after Google threat | IOL Business Report". Archived from the original on 4 September 2017. Retrieved 4 September 2017.
  11. ^ "Baidu Market Cap (BIDU)". ycharts.com. Archived from the original on 8 August 2017. Retrieved 8 August 2017.
  12. ^ Cheng, Evelyn (7 August 2017). "These Chinese tech stocks are even hotter than FANG". Archived from the original on 8 August 2017. Retrieved 8 August 2017.
  13. ^ Taylor, Chloe (17 October 2018). "Baidu becomes the first Chinese firm to join US-led A.I. body". CNBC. Archived from the original on 3 November 2018. Retrieved 17 October 2018.
  14. ^ "Baidu closes Wikipedia-like app as focus shifts to generative AI". South China Morning Post. 24 April 2024. Archived from the original on 25 April 2024. Retrieved 25 April 2024.
  15. ^ Curtis, Simon; Klaus, Ian (2024). The Belt and Road City: Geopolitics, Urbanization, and China's Search for a New International Order. New Haven and London: Yale University Press. doi:10.2307/jj.11589102. ISBN 9780300266900. JSTOR jj.11589102.
  16. ^ "Robin Li's vision powers Baidu's Internet search dominance". Taipei Times. 17 September 2006. Archived from the original on 3 February 2011.
  17. ^ Greenberg, Andy, "The Man Who's Beating Google" Archived 19 September 2018 at the Wayback Machine, Forbes magazine, 5 October 2009
  18. ^ Yanhong Li, "Toward a Qualitative Search Engine," IEEE Internet Computing, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 24–29, July/Aug. 1998, doi:10.1109/4236.707687
  19. ^ USPTO, "Hypertext Document Retrieval System and Method" Archived 5 December 2011 at the Wayback Machine, US Patent number: 5920859, Inventor: Yanhong Li, Filing date: 5 February 1997, Issue date: 6 July 1999
  20. ^ "Baidu Vs Google: The Twins Of Search Compared". FourWeekMBA. 18 September 2018. Archived from the original on 16 June 2019. Retrieved 16 June 2019.
  21. ^ a b "The Rise of Baidu (That's Chinese for Google)". The New York Times. 17 September 2006. Archived from the original on 27 June 2019. Retrieved 16 June 2019.
  22. ^ a b Altucher, James (18 March 2011). "10 Unusual Things About Google (also: the worst VC decision I ever made)". Forbes. Archived from the original on 16 June 2019. Retrieved 16 June 2019.
  23. ^ "Method for node ranking in a linked database". Google Patents. Archived from the original on 15 October 2015. Retrieved 19 October 2015.
  24. ^ "Baidu Launched News Search Engine and Pictures Search Engine". Archived from the original on 10 November 2013.
  25. ^ "The Untold Story of the Baidu IPO". Seeking Alpha. 23 August 2009. Archived from the original on 24 October 2016. Retrieved 8 September 2019.
  26. ^ "Sina and Baidu team up in China to focus on mobile". BBC News. 31 July 2012. Archived from the original on 23 February 2019. Retrieved 21 July 2018.
  27. ^ "Baidu and Qualcomm partner to offer free cloud storage". Geeks Hut. 19 November 2012. Archived from the original on 16 January 2013. Retrieved 22 April 2013.
  28. ^ Baidu Launch Personal Assistant App for Android Phones Archived 18 September 2013 at the Wayback Machine,CHINA INTERNET WATCH, 6 August 2013
  29. ^ "Baidu Opens Silicon Valley Lab, Appoints Andrew Ng as Head of Baidu Research" (Press release). Baidu, Inc. Archived from the original on 5 March 2017. Retrieved 3 June 2017 – via PRNewswire.
  30. ^ Bischoff, Paul (18 July 2014). "China web giant Baidu launches search engine in Brazil". Tech in Asia. Archived from the original on 8 August 2014. Retrieved 4 August 2014.
  31. ^ "China's Baidu buys control of Brazil's Peixe Urbano in expansion push". Reuters. 4 December 2014. Archived from the original on 13 October 2015. Retrieved 30 June 2017.
  32. ^ Russell, Jon (18 April 2017). "Baidu is making its self-driving car platform freely available to the automotive industry". TechCrunch. Archived from the original on 19 April 2017. Retrieved 19 April 2017.
  33. ^ Sangameswaran S (19 April 2017). "Baidu to launch self-driving car technology in July". Reuters. Archived from the original on 24 June 2017. Retrieved 19 April 2017.
  34. ^ "China's Baidu launches $1.5 billion autonomous driving fund". Reuters. 21 September 2017. Archived from the original on 7 January 2022. Retrieved 7 January 2022.
  35. ^ "China's Apollo Plan Explained". EETimes. 21 June 2018. Archived from the original on 6 February 2022. Retrieved 1 March 2022.
  36. ^ Etherington, Darrell (1 June 2017). "Baidu teams up with Bosch and Continental on self-driving tech". TechCrunch. Archived from the original on 1 June 2017. Retrieved 1 June 2017.
  37. ^ "Baidu's talking translator gives tourists a hand". Nikkei Asian Review. Archived from the original on 23 September 2017. Retrieved 23 September 2017.
  38. ^ "Baidu puts open-source deep learning into smartphones". The Register. 26 September 2017. Archived from the original on 26 September 2017. Retrieved 26 September 2017.
  39. ^ Russell, Jon (17 August 2017). "Alibaba, Tencent, Didi and other tech firms pour $12B into mobile operator China Unicom". TechCrunch. Archived from the original on 28 August 2017. Retrieved 28 August 2017.
  40. ^ Zhu, Julie (21 July 2017). "Exclusive: Baidu, JD.com to join others investing $12 billion in state-owned China Unicom – sources". Reuters. Archived from the original on 29 August 2017. Retrieved 28 August 2017.
  41. ^ "Unicom to Sell 35% of Shanghai Unit to 14 Investors". Caixin Global. 16 August 2018. Archived from the original on 16 August 2018.
  42. ^ Nicas, Jack (17 October 2017). "Baidu aims to launch self-driving bus in China next year". MarketWatch. Archived from the original on 25 October 2017. Retrieved 25 October 2017.
  43. ^ Nicas, Jack (18 October 2017). "Baidu Plans Fully Self-Driving Bus in China Next Year". The Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on 25 October 2017. Retrieved 25 October 2017.
  44. ^ "Baidu Announces the 2017 "Baidu World" Technology Conference" (Press release). Baidu, Inc. 20 October 2017. Archived from the original on 31 October 2017. Retrieved 31 October 2017 – via GlobeNewswire.
  45. ^ Zhang, Angela Huyue (2024). High Wire: How China Regulates Big Tech and Governs Its Economy. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780197682258.
  46. ^ Lye, Gerard (19 August 2021). "Baidu unveils robocar concept capable of Level 5 autonomous driving and second-generation AI chip". Paul Tan's Automotive News. Shah Alam, Malaysia. Archived from the original on 19 August 2021. Retrieved 19 August 2021.
  47. ^ "JIDU unveils first concept production robocar". prnewswire.com. 8 June 2022. Archived from the original on 4 February 2023. Retrieved 4 February 2023 – via GlobeNewswire.
  48. ^ "China's Baidu makes AI chatbot Ernie Bot publicly available". AP News. 31 August 2023. Archived from the original on 31 August 2023. Retrieved 17 October 2013.
  49. ^ "Baidu Claims Its AI Tech Matches ChatGPT. Alibaba Has Some Catching Up to Do". Barron's. 16 July 2013. Archived from the original on 17 October 2023. Retrieved 17 October 2023.
  50. ^ "Baidu hacked by 'Iranian cyber army'". BBC News. 12 January 2010. Archived from the original on 13 January 2010. Retrieved 12 January 2010.
  51. ^ "China's top search engine Baidu hacked". People's Daily. 12 January 2010. Archived from the original on 15 January 2010. Retrieved 12 January 2010.
  52. ^ Branigan, Tania (12 January 2010). "'Iranian' hackers paralyse Chinese search engine Baidu". The Guardian. London. Archived from the original on 22 December 2016. Retrieved 14 December 2016.
  53. ^ Back, Aaron. "Baidu Sues Register.com, Alleges Negligence in Hacking Attack". Archived from the original on 27 April 2016. Retrieved 29 August 2016.
  54. ^ "Baidu: Registrar 'incredibly' changed our e-mail for hacker," Computer World, February 24, 2010. Archived 27 November 2011 at the Wayback Machine Accessed 13 December 2010.
  55. ^ "Baidu and Register.com Announce Settlement of Litigation Over Cyber-Attack". yahoo! finance. Retrieved 29 August 2020.
  56. ^ "BBC News – Baidu workers arrested for 'deleting posts for money'". Bbc.co.uk. 6 August 2012. Archived from the original on 3 October 2018. Retrieved 22 April 2013.
  57. ^ Hsu, Alex (16 July 2013). "91 Wireless' App Store Has Piracy and Other Legal Issues". BrightWire News. Archived from the original on 5 November 2013. Retrieved 16 July 2013.
  58. ^ Baidu Signs Definitive Agreement to Acquire NetDragon's Subsidiary 91 Wireless Archived 10 January 2016 at the Wayback Machine,Baidu Press Releases, 14 August 2013
  59. ^ Paul Carsten (14 August 2013). "Baidu says agrees to buy Netdragon's 91 Wireless for $1.85 billion". Reuters. Archived from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 30 June 2017.
  60. ^ "The Baidu Story". Baidu. Archived from the original on 30 October 2006. Retrieved 12 January 2010.
  61. ^ "Company Overview | Baidu Inc". ir.baidu.com. Archived from the original on 6 March 2021. Retrieved 6 March 2021.
  62. ^ "Baidu – Investors – Products". Archived from the original on 18 March 2015. Retrieved 29 August 2016.
  63. ^ "关于baiduspider". baidu.com. 18 March 2009. Archived from the original on 8 September 2013. Retrieved 30 May 2015.
  64. ^ "Baiduspider User-Agent String". www.httpuseragent.org. 17 March 2009. Archived from the original on 3 April 2009. Retrieved 18 March 2009.
  65. ^ Baidu Yun Archived 31 October 2013 at the Wayback Machine official website. Retrieved 23 April 2014.(in Chinese)
  66. ^ "Baidu Japan". Archived from the original on 23 August 2016. Retrieved 29 August 2016.
  67. ^ "China's Google in Japan". Infoniac.com. 23 March 2007. Archived from the original on 28 March 2007. Retrieved 23 March 2007.
  68. ^ "After 8 years of failing, Baidu shuts Japan search engine". Tech IN Asia. 17 April 2015. Archived from the original on 23 June 2015. Retrieved 17 April 2015.
  69. ^ "Google's Lookalike is Expanding in China". Gadget4boys.com. 23 January 2007. Archived from the original on 29 September 2007. Retrieved 23 January 2007.
  70. ^ "百度Hi官网". Archived from the original on 13 July 2006. Retrieved 29 August 2016.
  71. ^ "Baidu Translate 8.0.0". Apkhere.com. Archived from the original on 19 December 2020. Retrieved 28 August 2020.
  72. ^ @BaiduResearch (9 April 2020). "@Baidu_Inc Translate is now..." (Tweet) – via Twitter.
  73. ^ "xiangcun.baidu.com". Archived from the original on 14 October 2009. Retrieved 29 August 2016.
  74. ^ "Baidu will compile the rural digital Encyclopedia – BIC". Archived from the original on 8 May 2011. Retrieved 29 August 2016.
  75. ^ "百度新闻搜索——全球最大的中文新闻平台". Archived from the original on 26 October 2016. Retrieved 29 August 2016.
  76. ^ Lawton, Tait. "A Thorough Guide to Baidu Analytics (Baidu Tongji)". Archived from the original on 28 April 2014. Retrieved 22 April 2014.
  77. ^ "Youa.com". Archived from the original on 6 December 2000. Retrieved 29 August 2016.
  78. ^ "Discovery探索频道中文网". Archived from the original on 12 October 2010. Retrieved 29 August 2016.
  79. ^ "百度浏览器". Liulanqi.baidu.com. Archived from the original on 22 April 2013. Retrieved 22 April 2013.
  80. ^ China's Baidu Joins Browser Battle Archived 23 February 2019 at the Wayback Machine, The Wall Street Journal, 20 July 2011
  81. ^ Baidu's New Browser Looks Strikingly Familiar Archived 6 May 2018 at the Wayback Machine, China Real Time Report – WSJ, 19 July 2011
  82. ^ "Baidu Looks To Leapfrog Google With Cloud-Based Mobile OS (Update)". TechCrunch. 2 September 2011. Archived from the original on 6 September 2011. Retrieved 7 September 2011.
  83. ^ Fox Hu and Belinda Cao. Published 2 November 2013. Baidu's Qunar Rises After $167 Million IPO Exceeds Target Archived 9 January 2015 at the Wayback Machine. Bloomberg L.P. Retrieved 25 September 2014
  84. ^ Qunar Cayman Islands Ltd Archived 9 April 2017 at the Wayback Machine Bloomberg L.P. Retrieved 25 September 2014
  85. ^ Namra Khurshid (23 August 2015). "Baidu's Duer:Another addition to the family of Digital Assistants". Codexify. Archived from the original on 8 October 2015. Retrieved 13 September 2015.
  86. ^ "百度站长平台_让网站更具价值". zhanzhang.baidu.com. Archived from the original on 27 March 2015. Retrieved 21 September 2015.
  87. ^ "Baidu 101: An Overview of Baidu Webmaster Tools". Archived from the original on 25 September 2015. Retrieved 21 September 2015.
  88. ^ Chong, Zoey. "PayPal taps into China's 100M Baidu Wallet users". PayPal taps into China's 100M Baidu Wallet users – CNET. CNET. Archived from the original on 15 December 2018. Retrieved 12 December 2018.
  89. ^ "Baidu should stop using paid listings". China Daily. 2 May 2018. Archived from the original on 2 May 2018. Retrieved 2 May 2018.
  90. ^ Lawton, Tait (6 November 2012). "Baidu Pay Per Click: 7 Tips for a Successful Campaign". SearchEngineJournal.com. Archived from the original on 11 November 2012. Retrieved 12 November 2012.
  91. ^ "Glogou Launches New Tools To Help Businesses Build Their Online Presence (And Ad Campaigns) In China". TechCrunch. 6 November 2012. Archived from the original on 2 May 2018. Retrieved 22 April 2013.
  92. ^ 作者:清辰 (7 November 2012). "不懂中文没关系 Glogou帮助外企进军中国_互联网_科技时代_新浪网". Tech.sina.com.cn. Archived from the original on 11 November 2012. Retrieved 22 April 2013.
  93. ^ "Manage Baidu Ppc Registration". 27 April 2012. Archived from the original on 15 April 2014. Retrieved 15 July 2013.
  94. ^ "百度联盟-让合作伙伴更强". Archived from the original on 15 April 2014. Retrieved 29 August 2016.
  95. ^ Lin, Susan. "Baidu's Content Network – Baidu Union". NanjingMarketingGroup.com. Archived from the original on 6 April 2014. Retrieved 22 April 2014.
  96. ^ Statistics on Baidu's Annual Revenue Archived 24 April 2013 at the Wayback Machine, Baidu. March 2013.
  97. ^ "China Internet Users". Archived from the original on 30 April 2016. Retrieved 1 May 2016.
  98. ^ Fletcher, Owen (3 August 2010). "Baidu's CEO Pursues Long-Term Growth". The Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on 25 December 2017. Retrieved 3 August 2017.
  99. ^ 传百度与Facebook签合作协议 – Baidu signed a cooperation agreement with Facebook Archived 23 March 2012 at the Wayback Machine, ThinkingChinese Archived 26 April 2011 at the Wayback Machine, 14 April 2011
  100. ^ "人人网,中国领先的实名制SNS社交网络。加入人人网,找到老同学,结识新朋友。". Archived from the original on 7 November 2019. Retrieved 6 December 2019.
  101. ^ "开心网". www.kaixin001.com. Archived from the original on 16 March 2010. Retrieved 7 January 2022.
  102. ^ Baidu and QQ aren't willing to remain outside the Chinese Social Network market Archived 23 March 2012 at the Wayback Machine, ThinkingChinese Archived 26 April 2011 at the Wayback Machine, April 2011
  103. ^ Yang, Yang (杨阳 Yáng Yáng). Translated by Guo Wei. "China's "Wikipedia" Submits Complaint about Baidu Archived 16 January 2013 at the Wayback Machine." () The Economic Observer. 4 March 2011. Issue 508, Corporation, Page 28. Retrieved on 26 October 2012. Original article: "百度:我是大哥 我不叫度娘 Archived January 16, 2013, at the Wayback Machine." Febinframe.php Archive]
  104. ^ Research, China Stock (1 September 2014). "China Search Engine Market Share – August 2014". Archived from the original on 3 December 2016. Retrieved 29 August 2016.
  105. ^ Ruvolo, Julie (March 2015). "Brazil Becomes A New Front In The Battle Between Baidu And Qihoo". Archived from the original on 24 September 2016. Retrieved 29 August 2016.
  106. ^ "Baidu's Alleged Anticompetitive Tactics in Brazil". 14 April 2015. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 29 August 2016.
  107. ^ "Baidu has a new trick for teaching AI the meaning of language". MIT Technology Review. Archived from the original on 22 September 2023. Retrieved 23 September 2023.
  108. ^ Hsu, Alex (15 July 2013). "Baidu Using Deep-Learning Technology to Boost Phoenix Nest Revenue". BrightWire News. Archived from the original on 5 November 2013. Retrieved 15 July 2013.
  109. ^ "Marvel Contest of Champions Hack Tool". hack4mobile.com. Archived from the original on 18 February 2015.
  110. ^ "Baidu Applies for DNA Copyright Recognition Technology Patent". BrightWire. Archived from the original on 19 June 2012. Retrieved 30 April 2012.
  111. ^ "China Grants First Driverless Taxi Permits to Baidu, Pony.ai". U.S. News. 28 April 2022. Archived from the original on 28 April 2022. Retrieved 28 April 2022.
  112. ^ "Baidu unveils new self-driving taxi in China". BBC News. 21 July 2022. Archived from the original on 21 July 2022. Retrieved 21 July 2022.
  113. ^ Baidu's Internal Monitoring and Censorship Document Leaked (1) Archived 14 February 2012 at the Wayback Machine, Xiao Qiang, China Digital Times, 30 April 2009
    Baidu's Internal Monitoring and Censorship Document Leaked (2) Archived 23 February 2012 at the Wayback Machine
    Baidu's Internal Monitoring and Censorship Document Leaked (3) Archived 22 February 2012 at the Wayback Machine
  114. ^ Jonathan Stempel, "China, Baidu Sued In U.S. For Internet Censorship Archived May 22, 2011, at the Wayback Machine", Reuters, 19 May 2011.
  115. ^ "Zhang et al v. Baidu.Com Inc. et al". Archived from the original on 6 June 2016. Retrieved 29 August 2016.
  116. ^ "Can China's Baidu search engine censor results in America? Sure, says a US court". The World from PRX. Archived from the original on 26 July 2020. Retrieved 7 October 2020.
  117. ^ Kan, Michael (28 March 2014). "US judge rules Baidu's censorship is protected as free speech". Network World. Archived from the original on 25 January 2021. Retrieved 7 October 2020.
  118. ^ a b "China's Provinces at Forefront of Online Censorship Enforcement | Voice of America - English". www.voanews.com. May 2020. Archived from the original on 9 October 2020. Retrieved 7 October 2020.
  119. ^ "Critics Say China Has Suppressed And Censored Information In Coronavirus Outbreak". NPR.org. Archived from the original on 9 April 2020. Retrieved 7 October 2020.
  120. ^ "Tencent, Baidu, Weibo downgraded by Morningstar ESG unit over censorship". Reuters. 7 November 2022. Archived from the original on 17 November 2022. Retrieved 17 November 2022.
  121. ^ a b Huang, Zheping (2 May 2016). "Baidu, China's version of Google, is "evil," a growing number of users say". Quartz. Archived from the original on 10 October 2020. Retrieved 7 October 2020.
  122. ^ "Commentary: Death of college student raises questions on Baidu's ethics". People's Daily. 2016. Archived from the original on 3 May 2016. Retrieved 2 May 2016.
  123. ^ "China Focus: Investigation into Baidu after student death". Xinhua News Agency. 2016. Archived from the original on 4 May 2016. Retrieved 2 May 2016.
  124. ^ "Baidu, China's version of Google, is 'evil,' a growing number of users say". Quartz. 2016. Archived from the original on 3 May 2016. Retrieved 3 May 2016.
  125. ^ "China Orders Baidu to Revamp Advertising Results in Online Searches". The Wall Street Journal. 10 May 2016. Archived from the original on 23 June 2017. Retrieved 5 March 2017.
  126. ^ Huang, Echo (24 January 2019). "An obituary for Baidu argues China's vast internet has no search engine". Quartz. Archived from the original on 5 October 2020. Retrieved 7 October 2020.
  127. ^ Meng, Jing (12 January 2016). "Baidu to halt commercialization of Tieba health forums". chinadaily.com.cn. Archived from the original on 14 January 2016. Retrieved 28 February 2019.
  128. ^ 刘巍; 傅明. "百度迷途:藏在财报里的卖贴吧真相" [Baidu Lost Its Way: The Fact of Selling Tieba Hidden in Financial Statements]. www.time-weekly.com. Archived from the original on 29 November 2021. Retrieved 29 November 2021.
  129. ^ a b c Google Play Store Ad Fraud DU Group[sic] at Baidu Archived 20 April 2019 at the Wayback Machine; Kothe, Ben; 20 April 2019; Article @ BuzzFeed News; text= Following a BuzzFeed News investigation, Google removed six apps from the Play store that belonged to a major Chinese developer.; by-line date: 17 April 2019; by-line reporters: Silverman, Craig– & –Singer-Vine, Jeremy; Retrieved 20 April 2019
  130. ^ a b Dellinger, AJ (26 April 2019). "Google bans developer with half a billion app downloads from Play Store". Engadget. Archived from the original on 27 April 2019. Retrieved 27 April 2019.
  131. ^ "Google Play Store Bans Baidu Subsidiary For Ad Fraud, Abuse of Permissions". Beebom. 29 April 2019. Archived from the original on 30 April 2019. Retrieved 30 April 2019.
  132. ^ Brett (30 April 2019). "ES File Explorer Removed From Google Play Store". Do It Yourself Tech Projects for Home & Small Business. Archived from the original on 3 May 2019. Retrieved 3 May 2019.
  133. ^ "ES File Explorer Removed From Google Play Store". 6 June 2024.
  134. ^ "QuickPic is back on Google Play Store while ES File Explorer disappears". xda-developers. 29 April 2019. Archived from the original on 3 May 2019. Retrieved 3 May 2019.
  135. ^ WIRED (29 April 2019). "Monday briefing: England and Wales police demand phones from rape victims". Wired UK. ISSN 1357-0978. Archived from the original on 3 May 2019. Retrieved 3 May 2019.
  136. ^ McKay, Tom (28 April 2019). "Google Is Giving the Boot to a Major Play Store Developer With More Than 600 Million Installs". Gizmodo. Archived from the original on 3 May 2019. Retrieved 3 May 2019.
  137. ^ "Exclusive: Google Is Banning A Play Store Developer With More Than Half A Billion App Installs". BuzzFeed News. 26 April 2019. Archived from the original on 28 April 2019. Retrieved 3 May 2019.
  138. ^ "Popular Android Apps From A Major Chinese Developer Were Caught Committing Ad Fraud". BuzzFeed News. 17 April 2019. Archived from the original on 20 April 2019. Retrieved 3 May 2019.
  139. ^ Billman, Savannah (5 August 2020). "India widens China app ban to Baidu and Weibo". TechNode. Archived from the original on 5 August 2020. Retrieved 5 August 2020.
  140. ^ Murphy, John (29 June 2021). "India Bans Chinese Websites And 118 Mobile Apps". Strong IPTV. Archived from the original on 29 June 2021. Retrieved 29 June 2021.
  141. ^ Gan, Nectar (9 May 2024). "Chinese tech exec's fiery endorsement of toxic workplace culture sparks backlash — and costs her job | CNN Business". CNN. Retrieved 10 May 2024.
  142. ^ Sheffield, Hazel (9 May 2024). "Chinese PR boss says sorry after glorifying work-till-you-drop culture". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 10 May 2024.
  143. ^ "PR executive at Chinese tech firm Baidu apologizes for comments seen as glorifying overwork". AP News. 9 May 2024. Retrieved 10 May 2024.

Further reading

[edit]
[edit]