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Ban of Croatia
Hrvatski ban
The heraldic standard of the Croatian ban in the 19th century
Reports toKing of Croatia
Croatian Parliament
SeatBanski dvori, Zagreb, Croatia
Term lengthNo fixed term length
Formationc. 949
First holderPribina
Final holderIvan Šubašić
Abolished10 April 1941 (de facto)
13 June 1943 (de jure)

Ban of Croatia (Croatian: Hrvatski ban) was the title of local rulers or office holders and after 1102, viceroys of Croatia. From the earliest periods of the Croatian state, some provinces were ruled by bans as a ruler's representative (viceroy) and supreme military commander. In the 18th century, Croatian bans eventually became the chief government officials in Croatia.

They were at the head of the Ban's Government, effectively the first prime ministers of Croatia. The institution of ban persisted until the first half of the 20th century, when it was officially superseded in function by that of a parliamentary prime minister.

Origin of title

Main article: Ban (title)

South Slavic ban (Croatian pronunciation: [bâːn], with a long [a]), is directly attested in 10th-century Constantine Porphyrogenitus' book De Administrando Imperio as βο(ε)άνος, in a chapter dedicated to Croats and the organization of their state, describing how their ban "has under his rule Krbava, Lika and Gacka."[1]

Bans during the Trpimirović dynasty

References from the earliest periods are scarce, but history recalls that the first known Croatian ban is Pribina from the 10th century. In the early Middle Ages, the ban was the royal district governor of Lika, Gacka and Krbava. Later, the meaning of the title was elevated to that of provincial governor in the Kingdom of Croatia. King Demetrius Zvonimir was originally a ban serving under King Peter Krešimir IV.

Term start Term end Notes Monarch
c. 949
c. 969
The first historically attested Ban of Croatia. Pribina deposed of King Miroslav during a civil war in the Croatian Kingdom, and replaced him with Michael Krešimir. He ruled over the Gacka, Krbava and Lika counties, according to De Administrando Imperio. He is also possibly referred to in a charter as potens banus, meaning "powerful ban".[2]
c. 969
c. 997
Also called Godimir. He is mentioned to have served kings Michael Krešimir and Stephen Držislav[3] in a charter of King Peter Krešimir IV the Great from 1068.[4]
c. 997
c. 1000
Mentioned in a charter of King Peter Krešimir IV the Great from 1068.
Svetoslav Suronja
c. 1000
c. 1030
Mentioned in a charter of King Peter Krešimir IV the Great from 1068.
Krešimir III
Stephen Praska
c. 1035
c. 1058
According to the chronicle of Archdeacon Goricensis John, he was named as ban by King Stephen I around 1035 (after his military expeditions to the east), thus succeeding Božeteh as Croatian ban.[5][6][7] He eventually attained a Byzantine imperial title of protospatharios somewhere between 1035 and 1042, which governed his influence over the Dalmatian theme.
Stephen I
c. 1059
c. 1069
He was possibly the brother of King Peter Krešimir IV the Great, who was rumored to have murdered his other brother called Gojslav.[8]
Peter Krešimir IV
Demetrius Zvonimir
c. 1070
c. 1075
During the reign of Peter Krešimir IV (Zvonimir's relative), Demetrius Zvonimir ruled in Slavonia, specifically the land between the rivers Drava and Sava, with the title of ban.[9] Croatian charters at the time were issued in the names of both King Peter Krešimir and Ban Zvonimir.[10] In 1074, Normans from southern Italy invaded Croatia and captured a certain Croatian ruler whose name is not known, certainly King Peter Krešimir, who died soon after and was succeeded by Demetrius Zvonimir.[11]
Petar Snačić
c. 1075
c. 1091
Ban of Croatia according to a later addenda to Supetar Cartulary.
Demetrius Zvonimir
Stephen II

Croatian bans after 1102

After the Croats elected King Coloman of Hungary as King of Croatia 1102, the title of ban acquired the meaning of viceroy. Bans were appointed by the Hungarian king as his representatives in Kingdom of Croatia, heads of the parliament (sabor) and also as supreme commander of Croatian Army.

Croatia was governed by the viceregal ban as a whole from 1102 until 1225, when it was split into two separate regions of Slavonia and Croatia. Two different bans were occasionally appointed until 1476, when the institution of a single ban was resumed. Most bans were native nobles but some were also of Hungarian ancestry.

Most notable bans from this period were Pavao Šubić and Peter Berislavić.

Bans of Croatia, Slavonia and Dalmatia

Portrait Name
Term start Term end Notes Monarch
Ugra 1102 1105 Coloman

Sergije 1105
Klaudije 1116 1117 Stephen II

Aleksije c. 1130 c. 1141 Béla II

1142 c. 1158 Géza II

Apa 1158
1163 Stephen III

Ampudije 1164 c. 1180
Mauro 1181 Béla III

Denis c. 1180 c. 1183 Ban only in the littoral part
Suban 1183 1185
(c. 1152–1218)
1190 1193
Dominic Miskolc 1194 c. 1195
Andrija 1198 for Duke Andrew Emeric

Nicholas I of Transylvania 1198 (?) 1199 for King Emeric
Benedict Osl 1199 1200 for King Emeric
Nicholas, Palatine of Hungary 1200 1201 (?) for Duke Andrew
Martin Hont-Pázmány 1202 for Duke Andrew
Hipolit 1204 for King Emeric
Mercurius 1205 1206 Ladislaus III

Stephen Mihaljev 1206 1207 Andrew II

Bánk Bár-Kalán 1208 1209
Tomo 1209
Berthold 1209 1211
Michael Kačić 1212
Martin Hont-Pázmány 1213
Julius I Kán 1213
Simon Kačić 1212 1214
Ohuz 1214
Ivan 1215 1216 Ban only in Slavonia
Pontius of Cross 1217
Bánk Bár-Kalán 1217 1218
Julius I Kán 1218 1219
Ernej 1220 1221
Ohuz 1219 1220
Solomon Atyusz c. 1222 c. 1225

Bans of Croatia and Dalmatia

From 1225 to 1476, there were parallel Bans of Croatia and Dalmatia and of "Whole Slavonia". The following is the list of the former, the latter are listed at the article Ban of Slavonia. During the period of separate titles of ban, several persons held both titles, which is indicated in the notes.

After the death of King Louis I of Hungary, his daughter Mary succeeded to the throne, which led to kings Charles III and Ladislaus of Naples claiming the Kingdom of Hungary. A war erupted between forces loyal to Mary, and later to her husband and successor Sigismund of Luxembourg, and those loyal to Ladislaus.

During this time, Sigismund appointed Nicholas II Garai (who was also count palatine) the Ban of Croatia and Dalmatia in 1392, Butko Kurjaković in 1394, and then again Garai in the period from 1394 to 1397. Nicholas II Garai was also at the time the Ban of Slavonia, succeeded by Ladislav Grđevački (1402–1404), Paul Besenyő (1404), Pavao Peć (1404–1406), Hermann II of Celje (1406–1408).

Ladislaus in turn appointed his own bans. In 1409, this dynastic struggle was resolved when Ladislaus sold his rights over Dalmatia to the Republic of Venice.

Portrait Name
Term start Term end Notes Monarch
Vojnić 1225 Andrew II

Valegin 1226
Stephen IV Babonić 1243 1249 Béla IV

Butko of Podgorje 1259
Stephen of Klis 1263 1266
Nicholas of Gacka 1275 Son of Amadeus Aba Ladislaus IV

Pavao I Šubić 1278 1312
Andrew III

Charles I

Mladen II Šubić 1312 1322
Stephen I Lackfi 1350 1352 Louis I

Ivan Ćuz 1356 1358
Nicholas Szécsi 1358 1366
Kónya Szécsényi 1366 1367
Emeric I Lackfi 1368
Simon Mauritius of Pok 1369 1371
Charles of Durazzo 1371 1376
Nicholas Szécsi 1377 1380 Second term
Emeric I Bebek 1380 1383
Stephen II Lackfi 1383 1384 Mary

Thomas of St George 1384 1385
Ivan Paližna 1385 1386 Co-ruled with relative Ivan Anjou Horvat (1385–1387). Also at the time the Ban of Slavonia.
Ladislaus Lackfi 1387
Denis of Lučenec 1387 1389
Ivan Paližna 1389 Second term. Also at the time the Ban of Slavonia.
Butko Kurjaković 1394
Nicholas II Garai 1395 1397 Charles II

Hermann II of Celje 1406 1407 Also at the time the Ban of Slavonia. Sigismund

Karlo Kurjaković 1408 1409
Ivan Kurjaković 1410 1411
Pavao Kurjaković 1410 1411 Co-ruled with Ivan Kurjaković.
Peter Albeni 1412 1413
John Albeni 1414 1419
Ivaniš Nelipić 1419 1419
Albert Nagymihályi 1419 1426
Nikola IV Frankopan 1426 1432 Son of Ban Ivan Frankopan
Ivan VI Frankopan 1434 1436
Stephen III Frankopan 1434 1437 Co-ruled with Ivan Frankopan and later Matko Talovac
Peter Talovac 1438 1453 Co-ruled with Matko Talovac and Franko Talovac Albert I

Vladislaus I

Ladislaus V

Ladislaus Hunyad 1453
Pavao Špirančić 1459 1463
Matthias I

Stephen Frankopan 1463
Nicholas of Ilok 1457 1463 Also at the time the Ban of Slavonia (1457–1463)
Emeric Zápolya 1464 1465 Also at the time the Ban of Slavonia
John Thuz 1466 1467 Also at the time the Ban of Slavonia
Blaise Magyar 1470 1472 Also at the time the Ban of Slavonia
Damjan Horvat 1472 1473 Also at the time the Ban of Slavonia

Bans of Croatia, Slavonia and Dalmatia

From 1476 onwards, the titles of Ban of Dalmatia and Croatia, and Ban of "Whole Slavonia" are again united in the single title of Ban of Croatia, Slavonia and Dalmatia.

Portrait Name
Term start Term end Notes Monarch
Andrew Bánffy 1476 1477 Matthias I

Ladislaus of Egervár 1477 1481
Blaise Magyar 1482
Matthias Gereb 1483 1489 Known for the Battle of Una.
Ladislaus of Egervár 1489 1493
Vladislaus II

John Both 1493
Mirko Derenčin 1493 Known for the Battle of Krbava field.
Ladislaus Kanizsai 1493 1495
John Corvinus 1495 1498
George Kanizsai 1498 1499
John Corvinus 1499 1504
Andrew Both 1505 1507
Marko Mišljenović 1506 1507
John Ernuszt 1508 1509
George Kanizsai 1508 1509
Andrew Both 1510 1511
Emeric Perényi 1512 1513
Peter Berislavić 1513 1520 Known for the Battle of Dubica.
Louis II

Ivan Karlović 1521 1524
John Tahy 1525
Ferenc Batthyány 1525 1527
Christoph I Frankopan
1527 Grandson of Ban Stephen Frankopan

Habsburg-era bans

The title of ban persisted in Croatia after 1527 when the country became part of the Habsburg monarchy, and continued all the way until 1918.

Among the most distinguished bans in Croatian history were the three members of Zrinski family Nikola Šubić Zrinski and his great-grandsons Nikola Zrinski and Petar Zrinski. Also there are two notable Erdődys: Toma Erdődy, great warrior and statesman, and Ivan Erdődy, to whom Croatia owes much for protecting her rights against the Hungarian nobility, his most widely known saying in Latin is Regnum regno non praescribit leges (A kingdom may not proscribe laws to another kingdom.)

In the 18th century, Croatian bans eventually became chief government officials in Croatia. They were at the head of Ban's Government, effectively the first prime ministers of Croatia. The most known bans of that era were Josip Jelačić, Ivan Mažuranić and Josip Šokčević.

Bans in the Habsburg Monarchy

The Habsburg dynasty ruled Kingdom of Croatia and Kingdom of Slavonia between 1527 and 1918.

Portrait Name
Term start Term end Notes Monarch
Christoph I Frankopan
1526 1527 Ferdinand I

Ivan Karlović
(c. 1485–1531)
1527 1531
Simon Erdődy
(c. 1489–1543)
1530 1534
Louis Pekry 1532 1537
Thomas Nádasdy
1537 1539
Peter Keglević
(1478–c. 1554)
1537 1542
Nikola Šubić Zrinski
(1508–c. 1566)
1542 1556
Péter Erdődy
(1508–c. 1566)
1557 1567
Franjo Frankopan Slunjski 1567 1572 Maximilian II

Juraj Drašković
1567 1576
Gašpar Alapić
1575 1577
Kristóf Ungnad 1578 1583 Rudolf II

Thomas Erdődy
1583 1595
Gašpar Stankovački
1595 1596
Ivan II Drašković
1595 1607
Thomas Erdődy
1608 1615 Matthias II

Benedict Thuroczy
1615 1616
Nikola IX Frankopan
1617 1622
Juraj V Zrinski
1622 1626 Ferdinand II

Sigismund Erdődy
1627 1639

Ivan III Drašković
1640 1646 Ferdinand III


Nikola Zrinski
1647 1664
Peter Zrinski
1665 1670 Leopold I

Miklós Erdődy
1670 1693
Adam II. Batthyány
1693 1703
János Pálffy
1704 1732 Joseph I

Ivan V Drašković
1732 1733 Charles VI

Josef Esterházy
1733 1741
György Branyng
1741 1742 Maria Theresa

Karl Josef Batthyány
16 March 1743 6 July 1756
Ferenc Nádasdy
1756 1783
Ferenc Eszterházy
1783 1785 Joseph II

Ferenc Balassa
1785 1790
Ivan Erdődy
1790 1806 Leopold II

Ignác Gyulay
1806 1831 Francis II

Franjo Vlašić
10 February 1832 16 May 1840 Ferdinand V

Juraj Haulik
1840 16 June 1842 Acting ban
Franz Haller
16 June 1842 1845
Juraj Haulik
1845 23 March 1848 Acting ban

Bans after the Revolutions of 1848

Croatia was a Habsburg crown territory during the Revolutions of 1848 and remained one up until 1867.[12]

Portrait Name
Term start Term end Notes Monarch
Josip Jelačić
23 March 1848 19 May 1859 Franz Joseph I

Johann Baptist Coronini-Cronberg
28 July 1859 19 June 1860
Josip Šokčević
19 June 1860 27 June 1867

Bans in Austria-Hungary

Croatia was returned to Hungarian control in 1867 when the Habsburg Empire was reconstituted as the dual monarchy of Austria-Hungary. Between then and 1918 the following bans were appointed:

Portrait Name
Term start Term end Notes Monarch
Levin Rauch
27 June 1867 26 January 1871 Member of the Unionist Party that advocated for more integration of Croatia into Hungary. Notable for securing victory of the Unionist Party through changing the election law and terrorising those who were able to vote.[13] Franz Joseph I

Koloman Bedeković
26 January 1871 12 February 1872 Bedeković was the leader of the Unionist Party and fought against Croatia's autonomy from Hungary. Dissatisfaction with the obstruction of parliament led to the Rakovica Revolt. Early elections were subsequently called for in 1872. The failure of Bedeković to convene the previous parliament resulted in him being removed from the post of ban and replaced with the first non-noble ban, Ivan Mažuranić.
Antun Vakanović
17 February 1872 20 September 1873 Acting ban
Ivan Mažuranić
20 September 1873 21 February 1880 Mažuranić was the first Croatian ban not to hail from old nobility, as he was born a commoner. He was a member of the People's Party. He accomplished the transition of Croatian lands from a semi-feudal legal and economic system to a modern civil society similar to those emerging in other countries in Central Europe.
Ladislav Pejačević
21 February 1880 4 September 1883 As the reincorporation of the Military Frontier into the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia was proclaimed on 15 July 1881, Pejačević was given the task to follow it through. On 1 August 1881, he took over the administration of the former Frontier. On 24 August 1883, he quit after the Council of Ministers in Vienna concluded that bilingual Hungarian official emblems, installed by Hungarian officials in Croatia-Slavonia, were not allowed to be removed from the official buildings and were to stay along the Croatian ones.
Hermann Ramberg
4 September 1883 1 December 1883 Acting ban
Karoly Khuen-Héderváry
4 December 1883 27 June 1903 Khuen's reign was marked by strong Magyarization. After a series of riots broke out against him in 1903, Khuen was relieved of his duty and appointed prime minister of Hungary.
Teodor Pejačević
1 July 1903 26 June 1907 At the beginning of the 20th century, he was faced with a new direction of Croatian policy marked by political alliance between Croats and Serbs in Austria-Hungary for mutual benefit. A Croat-Serb Coalition was formed in 1905, and it governed the Croatian lands from 1906 until the dissolution of the Dual Monarchy in 1918. As Pejačević supported the ruling Coalition in its resistance towards the Hungarian request in 1907 to make the Hungarian language an official language on railways in Croatia, he was forced to resign.
Aleksandar Rakodczaj
26 June 1907 8 January 1908
Pavao Rauch
8 January 1908 5 February 1910 From the very beginning of Rauch's rule, the Croato-Serbian Coalition announced that it would refuse to co-operate in any manner with the new unionist ban.[14] After the Croatian Parliament had been disbanded on 12 March 1908, because of its refusal to co-operate and the insults it directed at the ban, Pavao Rauch ruled through decrees and civil servants. Despite all opposition predictions, Rauch remained in power for two years. On 5 February 1910, he received the king's letter of dismissal.
Nikola Tomašić
5 February 1910 19 January 1912
Slavko Cuvaj
19 January 1912 21 July 1913 He was appointed in January 1912, when anti-Habsburg sentiments were on the rise in Croatia, often manifesting in sympathies for Serbia and calls for creation of a Yugoslav state. Cuvaj tried to curb those trends by series of decrees directed at curbing the freedom of the press, limiting rights of assembly and local autonomy. This created a backlash in the form of strikes and demonstrations. Some young radicals even engaged in terrorism. Cuvaj himself was target of two assassination attempts in 1912.
Ivan Skerlecz
27 November 1913 29 June 1917 Skerlecz managed to reconvene the Croatian Parliament in Zagreb by 1915. The Croats made further demands for local authority, as well as unification of Croatia-Slavonia with Dalmatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Charles IV

Antun Mihalović
29 June 1917 20 January 1919

Croatian bans in the Kingdom of Yugoslavia

Ban was also the title of the governor of each province (banovina) of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia between 1929 and 1941. The weight of the title was far less than that of a medieval ban's feudal office. Most of Croatian territory was divided between the Sava and Littoral Banovina, but also some parts were outside this provinces.

In 1939 Banovina of Croatia was created with Cvetković-Maček agreement as a unit of limited autonomy. It consisted of the Sava and Littoral Banovinas along with smaller parts of Vrbas, Zeta, Drina and Danube Banovina's. Ivan Šubašić was appointed for the Ban of Banovina of Croatia until the collapse of Kingdom of Yugoslavia in 1941. Šubašić was also the last person who held the position of Croatian Ban.

Bans within the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes

Following a brief period of self-rule at the end of World War I, Croatia was incorporated into the Kingdom of the Serbs, Croats and Slovenes in 1918, under the Karađorđević dynasty.

Portrait Name
Term start Term end Notes Monarch
Ivan Paleček
20 January 1919 24 November 1919 Peter I

Tomislav Tomljenović
24 November 1919 22 February 1920
Matko Laginja
22 February 1920 11 December 1920
Teodor Bošnjak
23 December 1920 3 July 1921
Tomislav Tomljenović
2 March 1921 2 March 1921

Bans of the Sava Banovina

In 1929, the new Constitution of the Kingdom renamed it Kingdom of Yugoslavia and split up the country into banovinas.

Portrait Name
Term start Term end Notes Monarch
Josip Šilović
3 October 1929 1931 Alexander I

Ivo Perović
1931 1935
Marko Kostrenčić
1935 1936 Peter II

Viktor Ružić
1936 1938
Stanoje Mihaldžić
1938 26 August 1939

Bans of the Littoral Banovina

Portrait Name
Term start Term end Notes Monarch
Ivo Tartaglia
1929 1932 Alexander I

Josip Jablanović
1932 1935
Mirko Buić
1935 26 August 1939 Peter II


Bans of the Banovina of Croatia

In 1939, the Banovina of Croatia was created with Cvetković-Maček agreement as a unit of limited autonomy within Kingdom of Yugoslavia. It consisted of the Sava and Littoral Banovinas along with smaller parts of Vrbas, Zeta, Drina and Danube Banovinas.

Portrait Name
Term start Term end Notes Monarch
Ivan Šubašić
(1892 –1955)
26 August 1939 10 April 1941 Last person to hold the title of ban. Peter II


See also


  1. ^ De Administrando Imperio 30/90-117[permanent dead link], "καὶ ὁ βοάνος αὐτῶν κρατεῖ τὴν Κρίβασαν, τὴν Λίτζαν καὶ τὴν Γουτζησκά"
  2. ^ "Pribina | Proleksis enciklopedija". Retrieved Dec 4, 2022.
  3. ^ hr:s:Povijest Hrvatske I. (R. Horvat)/Nasljednici kralja Tomislava
  4. ^ Comperimus namque in gestis proaui nosti Cresimiri maioris... Stipišić, J. i M. Šamšalović, ur. Codex Diplomaticus Regni Croatiae, Dalmatiae et Slavoniae, sv. 1. Zagreb: Izdavački zavod JAZU, 1967., pp. 105.
  5. ^ Rački, Documenta, 472.
  6. ^ Comperimus namque in gestis proaui nosti Cresimiri maioris... Stipišić, J. i M. Šamšalović, ur. Codex Diplomaticus Regni Croatiae, Dalmatiae et Slavoniae, sv. 1. Zagreb: Izdavački zavod JAZU, 1967, pp. 105.
  7. ^ R. Horvat - Povijest Hrvatske I.
  8. ^ Tomislav Raukar, Hrvatsko srednjovjekovlje, Školska Knjiga, Zagreb, 1997 pp. 47-48
  9. ^ "Monumenta antiquissima". Archived from the original on 2016-03-03. Retrieved 2016-03-16.
  10. ^ John Van Antwerp Fine: The Early Medieval Balkans: A Critical Survey from the Sixth to the Late Twelfth Century, 1991, p. 279
  11. ^ Neven Budak: Prva stoljeća Hrvatske, Hrvatska sveučilišna naklada, Zagreb 1994, p. 31-33
  12. ^ [1][permanent dead link]
  13. ^ Sirotković, Hodimir; Margetić, Lujo (1988). Povijest država i prava naroda SFR Jugoslavije (in Croatian). Školska knjiga. p. 148. ISBN 9788603991802.
  14. ^ Kolar, Mira (Dec 15, 2005). "The Activities of Vice-Roy Pavao Rauch In Croatia". Review of Croatian History. I (1): 133–158. Retrieved Dec 4, 2022 – via