In mathematics, the Banach fixed-point theorem (also known as the contraction mapping theorem or contractive mapping theorem or Banach–Caccioppoli theorem) is an important tool in the theory of metric spaces; it guarantees the existence and uniqueness of fixed points of certain self-maps of metric spaces, and provides a constructive method to find those fixed points. It can be understood as an abstract formulation of Picard's method of successive approximations.[1] The theorem is named after Stefan Banach (1892–1945) who first stated it in 1922.[2][3]


Definition. Let be a metric space. Then a map is called a contraction mapping on X if there exists such that

for all

Banach fixed-point theorem. Let be a non-empty complete metric space with a contraction mapping Then T admits a unique fixed-point in X (i.e. ). Furthermore, can be found as follows: start with an arbitrary element and define a sequence by for Then .

Remark 1. The following inequalities are equivalent and describe the speed of convergence:

Any such value of q is called a Lipschitz constant for , and the smallest one is sometimes called "the best Lipschitz constant" of .

Remark 2. for all is in general not enough to ensure the existence of a fixed point, as is shown by the map

which lacks a fixed point. However, if is compact, then this weaker assumption does imply the existence and uniqueness of a fixed point, that can be easily found as a minimizer of , indeed, a minimizer exists by compactness, and has to be a fixed point of It then easily follows that the fixed point is the limit of any sequence of iterations of

Remark 3. When using the theorem in practice, the most difficult part is typically to define properly so that


Let be arbitrary and define a sequence by setting . We first note that for all we have the inequality

This follows by induction on n, using the fact that T is a contraction mapping. Then we can show that is a Cauchy sequence. In particular, let such that :

Let ε > 0 be arbitrary. Since , we can find a large so that

Therefore, by choosing and greater than we may write:

This proves that the sequence is Cauchy. By completeness of (X,d), the sequence has a limit Furthermore, must be a fixed point of T:

As a contraction mapping, T is continuous, so bringing the limit inside T was justified. Lastly, T cannot have more than one fixed point in (X,d), since any pair of distinct fixed points p1 and p2 would contradict the contraction of T:


  1. Ω′ := (I + g)(Ω) is an open subset of E: precisely, for any x in Ω such that B(x, r) ⊂ Ω one has B((I + g)(x), r(1 − k)) ⊂ Ω′;
  2. I + g : Ω → Ω′ is a bi-Lipschitz homeomorphism;
precisely, (I + g)−1 is still of the form I + h : Ω → Ω′ with h a Lipschitz map of constant k/(1 − k). A direct consequence of this result yields the proof of the inverse function theorem.


Several converses of the Banach contraction principle exist. The following is due to Czesław Bessaga, from 1959:

Let f : XX be a map of an abstract set such that each iterate fn has a unique fixed point. Let then there exists a complete metric on X such that f is contractive, and q is the contraction constant.

Indeed, very weak assumptions suffice to obtain such a kind of converse. For example if is a map on a T1 topological space with a unique fixed point a, such that for each we have fn(x) → a, then there already exists a metric on X with respect to which f satisfies the conditions of the Banach contraction principle with contraction constant 1/2.[8] In this case the metric is in fact an ultrametric.


There are a number of generalizations (some of which are immediate corollaries).[9]

Let T : XX be a map on a complete non-empty metric space. Then, for example, some generalizations of the Banach fixed-point theorem are:

Then T has a unique fixed point.

In applications, the existence and uniqueness of a fixed point often can be shown directly with the standard Banach fixed point theorem, by a suitable choice of the metric that makes the map T a contraction. Indeed, the above result by Bessaga strongly suggests to look for such a metric. See also the article on fixed point theorems in infinite-dimensional spaces for generalizations.

A different class of generalizations arise from suitable generalizations of the notion of metric space, e.g. by weakening the defining axioms for the notion of metric.[10] Some of these have applications, e.g., in the theory of programming semantics in theoretical computer science.[11]


Banach theorem allows for example fast and accurate calculation of the π number using the trigonometric functions which numerically are the power Taylor series.

Because and the π is the fixed point of for example the function


and also the function is around π the contraction mapping from the obvious reasons because its derivative in π vanishes therefore π can be obtained from the infinite superposition for example for the argument value 3:

Already the triple superposition of this function at gives π with accuracy to 33 digits:

See also


  1. ^ Kinderlehrer, David; Stampacchia, Guido (1980). "Variational Inequalities in RN". An Introduction to Variational Inequalities and Their Applications. New York: Academic Press. pp. 7–22. ISBN 0-12-407350-6.
  2. ^ Banach, Stefan (1922). "Sur les opérations dans les ensembles abstraits et leur application aux équations intégrales" (PDF). Fundamenta Mathematicae. 3: 133–181. doi:10.4064/fm-3-1-133-181. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2011-06-07.
  3. ^ Ciesielski, Krzysztof (2007). "On Stefan Banach and some of his results" (PDF). Banach J. Math. Anal. 1 (1): 1–10. doi:10.15352/bjma/1240321550. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2009-05-30.
  4. ^ Günther, Matthias (1989). "Zum Einbettungssatz von J. Nash" [On the embedding theorem of J. Nash]. Mathematische Nachrichten (in German). 144: 165–187. doi:10.1002/mana.19891440113. MR 1037168.
  5. ^ Lewis, Frank L.; Vrabie, Draguna; Syrmos, Vassilis L. (2012). "Reinforcement Learning and Optimal Adaptive Control". Optimal Control. New York: John Wiley & Sons. pp. 461–517 [p. 474]. ISBN 978-1-118-12272-3.
  6. ^ Long, Ngo Van; Soubeyran, Antoine (2000). "Existence and Uniqueness of Cournot Equilibrium: A Contraction Mapping Approach" (PDF). Economics Letters. 67 (3): 345–348. doi:10.1016/S0165-1765(00)00211-1. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2004-12-30.
  7. ^ Stokey, Nancy L.; Lucas, Robert E. Jr. (1989). Recursive Methods in Economic Dynamics. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. pp. 508–516. ISBN 0-674-75096-9.
  8. ^ Hitzler, Pascal; Seda, Anthony K. (2001). "A 'Converse' of the Banach Contraction Mapping Theorem". Journal of Electrical Engineering. 52 (10/s): 3–6.
  9. ^ Latif, Abdul (2014). "Banach Contraction Principle and its Generalizations". Topics in Fixed Point Theory. Springer. pp. 33–64. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-01586-6_2. ISBN 978-3-319-01585-9.
  10. ^ Hitzler, Pascal; Seda, Anthony (2010). Mathematical Aspects of Logic Programming Semantics. Chapman and Hall/CRC. ISBN 978-1-4398-2961-5.
  11. ^ Seda, Anthony K.; Hitzler, Pascal (2010). "Generalized Distance Functions in the Theory of Computation". The Computer Journal. 53 (4): 443–464. doi:10.1093/comjnl/bxm108.


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