The Banat dialect (subdialectul / graiul bănățean) is one of the dialects of the Romanian language (Daco-Romanian). Its geographic distribution extends over the Romanian Banat and parts of the Serbian Banat, but also in parts of the Timok Valley of Serbia.

The Banat dialect is a member of the northern grouping of Romanian dialects, along with the Moldavian dialect and the group of Transylvanian varieties. Features of the Banat dialect are found in southern dialects of Romanian: Aromanian, Megleno-Romanian, and Istro-Romanian.

The Banat dialect has been long classified separately from the Transylvanian varieties, but in early studies such as those by Mozes Gaster[1] these were sometimes grouped together as a single variety. The Banat dialect was considered separately by Heimann Tiktin, Gustav Weigand, Sextil Pușcariu (in his latter studies), Emil Petrovici, Romulus Todoran, Ion Coteanu, Alexandru Philippide, Iorgu Iordan, and others.

Geographic distribution

The dialect is spoken in southwestern Romania, in the following counties: Caraș-Severin, Timiș, the southern part of Arad, and the southern part of Hunedoara. It is also spoken in the Serbian Banat and in the Timok Valley of Serbia.

Transition areas

A transition area towards the Wallachian dialect is found in the northwestern of Oltenia, in the counties of Gorj and Mehedinți. Mixtures with the southern and central Transylvanian varieties are found in northeastern parts of Banat, where such a transition area is in the Hațeg Country and another one extends towards southern Crișana.

Particularities

Phonetic features

The Banat dialect differs from the others by the following phonetic particularities:

Morphological features

Lexical particularities

Sample

Banat dialect: [ɨntɨmˈplare̯a o fost aˈʃa luˈvat d͡ʒʲe lant͡s jel mo pus ˈkapũ spiˈnare ʃo pleˈkat ku ˈminʲe d͡ʒʲm pəˈrjɛt͡ʃʲem pəˈrʲɛt͡ʃʲe jam pus ˈmɨnantruŋ kʷorn ˈʃajlaltənˈtralt kʷorn ʃɨ mo trɨnˈt͡ʃʲit ʒos]

Standard Romanian: Întâmplarea a fost așa: l-am luat de lanț. El mi-a pus capu-n spinare și-a plecat cu mine din perete în perete. I-am pus mâna într-un corn și cealaltă într-alt corn și m-a trântit jos.

English translation: "It happened like this: I took (the bull) by the chain. It pushed its head into my back and drove me from a wall to another. I grabbed its horn with one hand and its other horn with another, and it knocked me down."

Subdivisions

The Banat dialect is further divided into several areas, based on finer distinctions in linguistic facts:

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Mozes Gaster, Chrestomație română, vol. I, Leipzig – București, 1891, pp. XC–CVIII, cited by Vasile Ursan, Despre configurația dialectală a dacoromânei actuale
  2. ^ Caragiu Marioțeanu, Matilda (1975). Compendiu de dialectologie română (in Romanian). p. 172.

Bibliography